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  • 1. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y‡h©vM I Szwu K ‡gvKv‡ejvq MYgva¨‡gi mswk-óZv ‡gvnv¤§` Avãyj gvbvb 1
  • 2. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y‡h©vM I Szwu K ‡gvKv‡ejvq MYgva¨‡gi mswk-óZv ‡jLK: †gvnv¤§` Avãyj gvbvb cÖKvk Kvj: b‡f¤^i 2008 cÖKvkbv ¯^Ë: ¡ cÖ”Q`: gy`ªY: g~j¨: ISBN: 2
  • 3. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete DrmM© cÖjqKix mvB‡K¬vY wmWi Gi AvNv‡Z ÿwZMÖ¯Í mKj bvix I wkï‡`i cÖwZ| 3
  • 4. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete m~PxcÎ cUf~wg--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y‡h©vM e„w× welqK †g wjK avibv------------------------------------ Rjevqy cwieZ©b I KwZcq ev¯—eZv------------------------------------------------------ evsjv‡`‡k Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfve I †¶Îmg~n------------------------------------------ Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Suwy K cÖkg‡b Awf‡hvRb †K kj------------------------------------- Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y‡h©vM welqK Z_¨ m¤cÖmviY cÖwµqv-------------------------------- Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cwiw¯’wZ‡Z †hvMv‡hvM Kvh©µ‡g e¨eüZ Uzjmmg~n-------------------- Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y‡h©vM I Suwy K †gvKv‡ejvq MYgva¨g--------------------------------- Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y‡h©vM I Suwy K †gvKv‡ejvq ‡jvKRgva¨g----------------------------- Z_¨cywÄ-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
  • 5. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete gyLeÜ: 5
  • 6. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete jLK cwiwPwZ: MÖn ’wUi †jLK †gvnv¤§` Avãyj gvbvb eZ©gv‡b Av —R©vwZK Dbqb ms¯’v †mf `¨ wPj‡Wªb- BDGmG KZ©„K ev¯—evqbvaxb gv I wkï ¯^v¯’¨ welqK GK‡mm cÖK‡íi †WcywU ‡cÖvMÖvg g¨v‡bRvi-WKz‡g‡›Ukb c‡` wm‡j‡U Kg©iZ Av‡Qb| B‡Zvc~‡e© wZwb Rvbyqvix 2004 †_‡K b‡f¤^i 2006 mvj ch© — Av —R©vwZK Dbqb ms¯’v †Kqvi evsjv‡`k Gi Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ SuywK cÖkgb µK‡íi cÖKí Dbqb Kg©KZ©v (wgwWqv GÛ KwgDwb‡Kkb) c‡` Lyjbv‡Z Ges GKB ms¯’vi †m nv`©¨ cÖMv‡gi WKz‡g‡›Ukb †¯úkvwj÷ c‡` XvKv `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i‡Qb| Ö wZwb 2001 mvj †_‡K Rvbyqvix 2004 ch© — MYgva¨g welqK Dbqb ms¯’v g¨vm-jvBb wgwWqv †m›Uvi (GgGgwm) Gi M‡elYv mn‡hvMx wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i‡Qb| G mgq wZwb ms¯’vwUi c‡¶ MYgva¨g I Dbqb welqK †ek K‡qKwU M‡elYv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv K‡ib| hvi g‡a¨ D‡j-L‡hvM¨ ÓDcK’jxq grm¨Rxwe‡`i wbivcËvq evsjv‡`k †eZv‡ii f~wgKvÓ †fvUvwaKvi cÖ‡qv‡M bvixi f~wgKvÓ ÓMÖvgxb `vwi`ª¨ `~wiKi‡Y ¶z`ª F‡bi f~wgKvÓ Ó Avgv‡`i MÖvg G Kvj †mKvjÓ ÓK…wl Dbq‡b MYgva¨‡gi f’wgKvÓ Ó¸RivU cwiw¯’wZ I Avgv‡`i MYgva¨gÓ Ges ÓgvbZv m¤cÖ`v‡qi Rweb RxweKvi gvb Dbq‡b Kvh©Ki c vÓ cÖfw„ Z| †jL‡Ki K…Z mKj ’ M‡elYv cÖwZ‡e`bB GgGgwm eB AvKv‡i cÖKvk K‡i‡Q| GQvovI wZwb evsjv‡`k †cÖm Bbw÷wUDU KZ©„K cÖKvwkZ bxwi¶v cwµKvq MYgva¨g I Dbqb welqK A‡bK¸‡jv cÖeÜ I wbeÜ wj‡L‡Qb| MYgva¨g I †hvMv‡hvM welqK cov‡jLv Avi ¯’vbxq I RvZxq cÎcwÎKvq wewfb Dbqb welqK †jLv‡jwL Zuvi ‰`bw›`b Af¨v‡mi Ask| 15 †m‡Þ¤^i 1977 mv‡j ivRevox †Rjvi evwjqvKvw›` Dc‡Rjvi cvUwKqvevox‡Z Rb¥MÖnYKvix GB †jLK 1992 mv‡j XvKv wkÿv †ev‡W© Aax‡b wjqvKZ Avjx ¯§„wZ D”P we`¨vjq n‡Z GGmwm Ges 1994 mv‡j miKvix iv‡R›`ª wek¦we`¨vjq K‡jR, dwi`cyi ‡_‡K GBPGmwm Dfq cix¶vq ÷vigvK©m AR©bmn cÖ_g wefv‡M DËxY© nb| c‡i wZwb XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi MY‡hvMv‡hvM I mvsevw`KZv wefvM †_‡K K…wZ‡Z¡ mv‡_ weG (m¤§vb) wWMªx Ges GgG †kªYx‡Z cÖ_g †kªYx AR©b K‡ib| †m bvbvfv‡e Dbqb ms¯’v GgGgwm Gi GKRb k~fvKvsLx wn‡m‡e Gi Kg©Kv‡Û mv‡_ wbweofv‡e `xN©¨ w`b hveZ RwoZ †_‡K mn‡hvMxi f~wgKv cvjb K‡i Avm‡Qb| wbe©vnx cwiPvjK GgGgwm, XvKv 6
  • 7. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -1 cUf~wg fqven cÖvK…wZK `~‡h©v‡M me mgqB cÖPzi Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZ n‡q _v‡K| `~‡h©v‡Mi1 Kvi‡Y we‡k¦i bvbv †`‡k cÖvK…wZK I cwi‡ekMZ wech©q N‡U _v‡K| cÖvK…wZK `~‡h©v‡M Avµv Í †`k¸‡jvi †UKmB Dbq‡bi MwZ‡K me mgqB AZ¨ Í †bwZevPKfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i| we‡kl K‡i `w¶Y c~e© Gwkqvi wewfb †`‡k G ai‡Yi NUbvi bwRi ‡ekx ‡`Lv hvq| KviY †h †Kvb ai‡bi `~‡h©v‡M A‡c¶vK…Z `ye©j, m¶gZvnxb I Afvwe †jvKRbB ‡ekx gvÎvq Avµv Í n‡q _v‡Kb| †mB mv‡_ AeKvVv‡gvMZ m¤ú`vw` I cvwicvwk¦©K cwi‡ek wech©¯Í n‡q c‡o| ZvB †h †Kvb ai‡bi `~‡h©v‡Mi SuywK Gwo‡q Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZi cwigvY Kwg‡q ivLvi cÖ‡Póv Pvwj‡q hvIqvi †Kvb weKí bvB| G‡¶‡Î NywY©So, mvB‡K¬vb, eb¨v, Lov, cÖ`vn, f~wga m, f~wgK¤ú Ges mybvgxi gZ SzuwKc~Y© `y‡h©v‡Mi fqvenZv ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i Kvh©Ki D‡`¨vM †bqv †h‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î `~‡h©v‡Mi SzuwK n«vm Ki‡Z I `~‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbvq mK‡ji Av ÍwiK I mwµq AskMÖnY cÖ‡qvRb| miKv‡ii wewfb wefvMmg~n, weÁvbwfwËK ms¯’v, M‡elYv cÖwZôvb, GbwRI, Av ÍR©vwZK wewfb `vZv ms¯’v, cªvB‡fU mKj cÖwZôvb‡K G wel‡q GwM‡q Avmv cÖ‡qvRb| `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv I SuywK cÖkgb cÖwµqvi mv‡_ SuywKc~Y© KwgDwbwU¸‡jvi m¤ú„³Zv †ek ¸i“Z¡c~Y© I Kvh©Ki| Avi G KvR¸‡jv mnRZi Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRb Kvh©Ki I eûgvwÎK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi| G KvRwU Kivi Rb¨ Aby‡NvU‡Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i wewfb ch©v‡qi MYgva¨gmg~n| `~‡h©v‡Mi SuywK n«vmKiY cÖwµqvq †h welq¸‡jv Rvbv Ri“ix e‡j g‡b Kiv nq Zvi g‡a¨ SuywKc~Y© Rb‡Mvwôi wec‡`i gvÎv, SuywKi aib wbi cb, SuywKi gvÎv I cÖfve we‡k-lY, ch©vqµwgK SuywK wbimb Kvh©µg wPwýZKiY, mgvav‡bi Dcvq ev c_ †eo Kiv Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg ev¯Íevqb| †Kvb SuywK wbimb Kvh©µg ev¯Íevq‡bi †¶‡Î wewfb †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i fvebv-wP Ív I Av`k©MZ wfbZv _vK‡Z cv‡i, †m Rb¨ †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i bvbv D‡`¨vMmg~‡ni g‡a¨ †K kjMZ ecwiZ¨| ZvB M„wnZ D‡`¨vMmg~n ev¯Íevq‡bi †¶‡Î wfbZv _vKvq A‡bK mgq wec`MÖ¯Í KwgDwbwUi gvby‡li Zv eyS‡Z I ‡mev MÖnY Ki‡Z A_ev ev¯Íevqb cÖwµqvq AskMÖn‡b AwbðqZvi m„wó n‡q _v‡K| G iKg †¶‡Î KwgDwbwU, †÷K‡nvìvi mK‡ji g‡a¨ GKB ai‡bi wP Ív I †evSvi †¶Î Zix Ki‡Z cª‡qvRb nq kw³kvjx †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvq Z_¨ m¤cÖmviY e¨e¯’vi| hv‡Z K‡i G‡K Ac‡ii m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z 1 AvKw¯§K cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM – eb¨v, f’wgK¤ú, U‡Y©‡Wv, NywY©So, mvB‡K¬vY| `xN©¯v’ qx cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM – Liv, gnvgvwi,| gvbem„ó `y‡h©vM – hy×, M„nhy×| `yNUbvRwbZ `y‡h©vM – hvbevnb `yNUbv, wk‡í `yNUbv| © © © source: United Nation institute for training & research. 7
  • 8. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete cv‡i, eyS‡Z cv‡ib Ges †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i M„wnZ Kvh©µg mK‡ji wbKU MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡q DV‡Z cv‡i| ZvQvov `~‡h©v‡Mi SuywK n«vmKiY Kvh©µg ev¯Íevq‡bi †¶‡Î SuywKc~Y© KwgDwbwUi GB Kvh©µ‡gi c×wZi g‡a¨ AwaKgvÎvq AskMÖnY Ges Zv‡`i mwµq f~wgKv cvj‡bi my‡hvM _vK‡j Zv BwZevPK I dj`vqK nq| Gi evB‡i KwgDwbwUi AskMÖnY e¨wZ‡i‡K hw` †Kvb Kvh©µg ev¯ÍevwqZ nq Zv‡Z SuywKc~Y© mgv‡Ri Pvwn`v gvwdK, †UKmB I `xN©‡gqvw` mgvavb Kiv m¤¢e nq bv| Gwkqvi `~‡h©vMcÖeb ‡`k¸‡jvi ev¯Íe AwfÁZvq †`Lv hvq †h, `y‡h©vM cÖeb I Avµv Í †jvKR‡bi wb‡R‡`iB A‡bK kw³ I AwfÁZv I mvg_© i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv Kv‡R jvwM‡q Zviv `y‡h©v‡Mi mv‡_ jovB K‡i wU‡K _v‡K| †m‡¶‡Î Zv‡`i Rxeb Nwbó AwfÁZv I Ávb¸‡jv‡K Av‡iv Kvh©Kifv‡e e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i, hv‡Z ¯’vbxqfv‡eB `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejv Kiv m¤¢e nq Ges fqven †h †Kvb `y‡h©v‡Mi nvZ †_‡K ¶q¶wZi cwigvY A‡bK Kwg‡q ivLv hvq| Avi GLv‡bB Aby‡NvUK wn‡m‡e MYgva¨‡gi eûgvwÎK f~wgKvi cÖvmw½KZv I ¸i“‡Z¡i RvqMvwU wPwýZ Kiv m¤¢e| `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK n«vmKiY, Rxeb I m¤ú` i¶vq MYgva¨g †ek BwZevPK f’wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| †m mnvq‡Ki f~wgKv cvjb K‡i wewfb †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU mvaviY I kw³kvjx †hvMv‡hvM ‡bUIqvK© †hgb M‡o Zzj‡Z cv‡i †Zgwb cv‡i SuywKc~Y© KwgDwbwUi gvby‡li gv‡S Kvh©Ki m‡PZbZv M‡o Zzj‡Z| HwZnvwmK we‡k-l‡Y †`Lv hvq †h, hy‡M hy‡M ‡hvMv‡hvM gva¨gmg~n `y‡h©v‡Mi mgq, `~‡h©v‡Mi Av‡M I `y‡h©v‡Mi c‡i ¸i“Z¡c~Y© I AwaKZi Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Q| hLbB GKwU `y‡h©vM AvNvZ nv‡b ZLbB MYgva¨gmg~n H `y‡h©v‡Mi ¶q¶wZi wPÎ Zz‡j a‡i RvZxq miKvi I Av ÍR©vwZK ch©v‡q mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZvi Av‡e`b Rvwb‡q| ZvQvov MYgva¨‡g A‡bK mgq `y‡h©v‡Mi c~‡e©B c~e©vfvm w`‡q miKvi‡K, miKv‡ii mswk-ó wefvM GgbwK RbMY‡KI mZK© K‡i †`Iqvi KvR K‡i _v‡K| eZ©gvb wek¦e¨e¯’vi †cÖ¶vc‡U `y‡h©v‡Mi gvÎv I ¶q¶wZi cwigvY e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_ MYgva¨‡gi cÖwZ gvby‡li wbf©iZv †hgb †e‡o‡Q †Zgwb `y‡h©v‡Mi †Kvej †_‡K Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZ Kwg‡q ivL‡Z MYgva¨‡gi ivóªxq I mvgvwRK `vqe×ZvI ‡e‡o‡Q| eZ©gv‡b miKvimg~n, `vZvms¯’vmg~n, Dbqbms¯’v, GbwRI, gvbevwaKvi cÖwZôvbmn mK‡jB GK ev‡K¨ ¯^xKvi K‡ib Ges wek¦vm K‡ib †h, MYgva¨g mwZ¨Kvi A‡_©B `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK n«vmKiY I `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbvq Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i - `y‡h©v‡Mi wel‡q Av‡jvPbv K‡i, e¨vL¨v we‡k-lY K‡i, SuywKi gvÎv wbi cb K‡i, wewfb †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i gv‡S †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv Ki‡Z mnvqZv K‡i, SuywK wbim‡b `xN©¨‡gqv`x Kvh©µg ev¯Íevq‡bi c‡¶ cÖPvibv Pvwj‡q, Suwy Kc~Y© KwgDwbwU¸‡jv‡Z emevmiZ gvby‡li gv‡S `y‡h©vM wel‡q m‡PZbZv Zix K‡i| MYgva¨‡gi GmKj Kvh©µ‡gi welq¸‡jv 2005 mv‡j Rvcv‡bi †Kv‡e‡Z AbywôZ `y‡h©vM n«vmKiY wek¦ m‡¤§jb (WCDR) G †ek cÖksmv Kiv nq| †mB mv‡_ `w¶Y c~e© Gwkqvi †`k K‡¤^vwWqv, c~e© wZgyi, B‡›`v‡bwkqv Ges wf‡qZbv‡g `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK n«vmKi‡Y MYgva¨‡gi 8
  • 9. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete mswk-óZv I Kvh©µg‡K †Rvo`vi Kivi wm×v Í M„wnZ nq| g~jZ: `y‡h©vM cÖeY mKj GjvKv‡ZB wgwWqv¸‡jv hv‡Z Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv Kvh©µg‡K mnRZi K‡i †m wel‡q ïay †hvMv‡hvM †ev×vMYB `„wó wbe× K‡ibwb, Dbqb we‡klÁ, mgvR we‡k-lKMYmn mswk-ó mKj gnj welqwU ¸i“Z¡mnKv‡i we‡ePbv Ki‡Qb| `y‡h©vM cÖeY GjvKvi K_v ej‡Z †M‡jB evsjv‡`k‡K ev` w`‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv hvq bv| HwZnvwmKfv‡e evsjv‡`k NywY©So cÖeY A‡ji AvIZvf~³| weMZ 200 eQ‡i G‡`‡k cÖvq 180wUi †ekx †QvU eo N~wYSo AvNvZ nvbvi Ges wecyj msL¨K Rxeb I e¨vcK m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZi cwimsL¨vb cvIqv hvq| f~-cÖK…wZ I AvenvIqv G‡`‡ki cÖZ¨q Í A‡ji Awaevwm‡`i Dci Mfxi cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i _v‡K| eb¨v, Liv, So- SÄv, R‡jv”Q¡vm mn bvbv ai‡bi cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi mv‡_ jovB K‡i G‡`i †eu‡P _vK‡Z nq| †f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y G‡`‡ki DcK’jxq A‡j Kvj‰ekvLx, NywY©So, mvB‡K¬vb I R‡jv”Q¡vm cÖvqB cÖjqsKix c avib K‡i| ZvB evsjv‡`‡ki †f ‡MvwjK cwigÛ‡j cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM GKwU wbˉbwgwËK NUbv| g„Zy¨i fqven Dcje×xi gv‡S †_‡KB G A‡ji gvbyl Zv‡`i †ckvMZ `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i, jovB msMÖv‡gi gva¨‡g wb‡R‡`i wUwK‡q iv‡L| evsjv‡`‡ki ‡f ‡MvwjK wefvRb¸‡jv we‡k-lY Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h, ¯^í cwim‡ii G †`‡k hZ †ekx msL¨K b`-b`x I Lvj - we‡ji mgv‡ek i‡q‡Q Zv c„w_exi Avi †Kv_vqI †`Lv hvq bv| Kwe wecÖ`v‡mi iPbvq cvIqv hvq, ÓM½v Avi ¯^i¯^wZ, hgybv wekvj AwZÓ| Kwe Aveyj dR‡ji eY©bvq,Ó evsjv‡`k †Rvqvi fvUvi †`k, el©vKv‡j eb¨v Avi So GLvbKvi cÖvK…wZK GKwU ewkó¨|Ó Be‡b eZ©yZv †`kwU‡K †`vRL-B-cyi wbqvgZÓ e‡j D‡j-L K‡i‡Qb| AvBbB AvKeix‡Z D‡j-L i‡q‡Q,Ó A great storm in 1584 which affected the district Barisal . NywY©S‡oi fqvenZvi BwZnv‡m †`Lv hvq †h, A great storm in October 1876 which affected three coastal districts of Barisal, Noakhali and Chittagong, about 200000 people died during this storm . evsjv‡`k AvenvIqv Awa`߇ii GK Z_¨ g‡Z, MZ 200 eQ‡i G‡`‡k cÖvq 97wU N~wY©So wewfb mgq AvNvZ †n‡b‡Q hvi g‡a¨ 64 wU fqvenfv‡e e¨vcK ¶q¶wZ mvab K‡i| 3 Ryb 1795 mv‡j cÖPÛ mvB‡K¬vb PUªMÖv‡gi mgy`ª e›`i GjvKvq AvNvZ nv‡b| BwZnv‡mi fqvenZg NywY©So wQj 1797 mv‡ji †g gv‡m PUªMÖv‡gi Dci w`‡q e‡q hvIqv NywY©SowU| G S‡o `ywU mgy`ª RvnvR Wywei NUbv N‡UwQj| Gi c 1822, 1869, 1876, mv‡ji fqven NywY©S‡oi AvNv‡Zi wPý e½ Rbc‡` AvRI BwZnvm n‡q Av‡Q| 1919 mv‡j `ywU NywY©S‡oi D‡j-L cvIqv hvq wVK Gfv‡e, ÓTwo great cyclone of 1919 also deserves mention if 9
  • 10. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete originated in two pacific about 6000 km away and it took 20 days to reach to the coast of Bangladesh . 1941, 1942 Ges 1960 mv‡jI fqven N~wY©S‡oi ZvÛe gvby‡li ü`q‡K cÖPÛfv‡e bvov †`q| Gi ci †_‡K 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1991 Ges 1997 mv‡ji NywY©S‡oi fqvenZv GLbI A‡b‡KB ¯§„wZPviY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| me©‡kl 2004 mv‡ji fqven eb¨v, 2006 mv‡ji †m‡Þ¤^i gv‡m DcK~jxq mvgyw`ªK R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi wbg©g ZvÛ‡ei wPÎ meviB ‡hgb Rvbv i‡q‡Q †Zgwb 2007 mv‡ji †`ke¨vcx fqven eb¨vi ¶q¶wZ I †fvMvw —i wPý KvwU‡q DV‡Z bv DV‡ZB GKB eQ‡i wmW‡ii gZ cÖjqsKix mvB‡K¬v‡Yi AvNv‡Z me©k¦ LyB‡q‡Q G †`‡ki cÖv R‡biv| — Kv‡RB B‡›`v‡bwkqv, c~e-wZgyi, K‡¤^vwWqv ev wf‡qZbv‡gi gZ †`k¸‡jv‡Z cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡M © ¶q¶wZi gvÎv Kgv‡Z wgwWqvi msw&k-óZvi Dci Av ÍR©vwZKfv‡e ¸i“Z¡ cÖ`v‡bi welqwU evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi BwZnvm we‡k-l‡Y cÖvß wPÎ †_‡K wew”Qb K‡i fvevi my‡hvM G‡Kev‡iB _v‡Kbv| eZ©gvb ewk¦K ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y, Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi †¶‡Î bZzb bZzb Szwu K I fqvenZvi gvÎv e„w× †c‡q‡Q Ges †h mKj AÂj Gi Øviv Avµv Í n‡”Q Zvi g‡a¨ evsjv‡`k Ab¨Zg SuywKc~Y© Ae¯’v‡b i‡q‡Q| ZvQvov G‡`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’v, NbemwZc~Y© RbmsL¨v Ges AbybZ AeKvVv‡gvMZ Ae¯’vi Kvi‡Y SuywKi gvÎv Av‡iv evwo‡q Zz‡j‡Q| G‡¶‡Î cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi nvZ †_‡K G‡`‡ki SuywKc~Y© Rb‡Mvwô I m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZi gvÎv Kwg‡q wKfv‡e cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZi mv‡_ Lvc LvB‡q gvbyl †eu‡P _vK‡Z cv‡i †m wel‡q mwVK mg‡q w`K wb‡Ï©kbv cÖ`vb, m‡PZbZv Zix I c~e© cÖ¯‘wZ‡Z RbMY‡K mnvqZv cÖ`vb Kiv G‡`‡ki MYgva¨‡gi mvgvwRK I ivóªxq `vwq‡Z¡i g‡a¨ c‡o| Avi †m Rb¨B Avgv‡`i MYgva¨g I MYgva¨g mswk-ó e¨w³ I cÖwZôvbmgyn `y‡h©vM c~e©, `y‡h©vMKvjxY Ges `y‡h©v‡MvËi mg‡q KwgDwbwUi gvby‡li Rb¨ wewfbfv‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| 10
  • 11. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -2 Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y h©vM ew× welqK KwZcq wjK aviYv we‡k¦i Rjevqy AZx‡Z cwieZwZ©Z n‡q‡Q, eZ©gv‡b n‡”Q Ges fwel¨‡ZI n‡e| g~jZ: Rjevq~ wbqZ cwieZ©bkxj| Z‡e Av‡M Rjevqy cwieZ©b NU‡Zv GKv ÍB cªvK…wZKfv‡e| wK ‘ eZ©gv‡b cÖK…wZi cvkvcvwk †hvM n‡q‡Q gvby‡li cwi‡ek ‰eix Kvh©µg| Rjevqyi Dcv`vb¸wj †hgb ci¯úi A½vw½fv‡e RwoZ, †Zgwb G¸wj AZ¨ — AwbwðZ| evqygÛ‡j Aew¯’Z wewfb Dcv`vb Ges cÖK…wZi bvbvgyLx wµqvKjvc gvby‡li emev‡mi Rb¨ mnvqK eZ©gvb Rjevqy‡Z GK myMfxi cwieZ©b †W‡K Avb‡Q| G wel‡q mvaviY gvby‡li Ávb I Z‡_¨i mxgveäZv _vK‡jI Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ welqwU `xN©w`b hveZ Av —R©vwZK wbix¶v I Avjvc Av‡jvPbvi welq wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ n‡q D‡V‡Q| welqwUi fqvenZv m¤ú‡K© cÖL¨vZ weÁvbx, bxwZ wba©viK, cwi‡ek we‡k-lK, A_©bxwZwe` I we‡klÁ‡`i w`b w`b fvwe‡q Zzj‡Q| wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbtmiY Ges Gi gvÎv e„w×i cÖwZwµqvi avivevwnKZvB Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi MwZ Z¡ivw ^Z Ki‡Q| Avi ZvB Rjevqy cwieZ©b wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbtmiY I ewk¦K cÖwZwµqvi g‡Zv we¯—Z welq¸wj ci¯úi wbweo fv‡e m¤úwK©Z| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y D™¢Z cwiw¯’wZ … ~ gvbe cÖRvwZi R‡b¨ me‡P‡q cÖwZK‚j Ae¯’vi m„w÷ K‡i‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖavb av°v G‡m co‡Q K…wl, cvwbm¤ú` I ¯^v¯’¨ Lv‡Zi g‡Zv cÖavb †¶Î¸wj‡Z| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwµqvq mgy`ª c„‡ói D”PZv e„w× cv‡”Q, K…wli Ae¶q NU‡Q, cvwb cÖevn n«vm cv‡”Q, ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨v e„w× cv‡”Q, AvenvIqvi Lvg‡Lqvwj AvPiY Ges mvgvwRK Aw¯’iZv e„w× cv‡”Q| Z…Zxq we‡k¦i †`k¸wji RbMY †h me mgm¨v wb‡q GLbI w`bvwZcvZ Ki‡Qb, Rjevqy cwieZ©b †mB me mgm¨v¸wji †¶Î‡K AviI cÖmvwiZ Ki‡Q| d‡j Zv wek¦Rbxb mgm¨vq cwiYZ n‡”Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©b AvaywbK h ¿mf¨Zvq DbZ †`k¸wji mvaviY Kg©dj| Avi ZvB Ab¨ †`k¸wji Zzjbvq wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbtmi‡Y evsjv‡`k A‡bK wcwQ‡q _vK‡jI G †`k‡K Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi eûgyLx cÖwZwµqvi2 gy‡L c‡o mxgvnxb `y`©kv †fvM Ki‡Z n‡”Q| ZvB G msµv Í †g wjK aviYv¸‡jv ‡hgb Av‡jvPbv Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †Zgwb avibv¸‡jv Rbgvb‡mi g‡a¨ fvMvfvwM K‡i †bqvi h_vm¤¢e cÖ‡Póv Pvjv‡bvi `iKvi| AvenvIqv : AvenvIqv n‡”Q GKwU wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b wbw`©ó mg‡q (m‡ev©”P mvZ w`‡bi) evqygÛ‡ji weivRgvb Ae¯’vi cÖKvwkZ ev mnR‡eva¨ i“c| hv mvaviYZ Mig ev VvÛv, †fRv A_ev ﮋ, kv — A_ev we¶z× Ae¯’v, †gNnxb ev †gNv”Qb BZ¨vw` w`‡q mn‡RB ‡evSv hvq| D`vniY 2 bvbv ai‡bi cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM (eb¨v, Liv, NywY©So, mvB‡K¬vb) †ivMe¨vwai msµvgb, Rjve×Zv, Rxe ewPΨ n«vm, b`xfvOb, cÖfw„ Z| 11
  • 12. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete wn‡m‡e ejv hvq- AvenvIqvi c~e©vfvm cÖwZw`b cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq Ges †Uwjwfkb I †iwWIÕi msev‡`I Zv cÖPvwiZ nq| wbqwgZ AvenvIqv ey‡jwU‡b w`‡bi Mo ZvcgvÎv, m‡e©v”P I me©wbg ZvcgvÎv, †gNv”QbZv, †Kvb we‡kl ¯’v‡b e„wócvZ ev S‡oi m¤¢vebvi K_v D‡j-L Kivi cvkvcvwk m~‡h©v`q I m~h©v‡¯—i mgq BZ¨vw` A‡bK wel‡qi D‡j-L _v‡K| AvenvIqvi cÖavb cÖavb Dcv`vb¸wji g‡a¨ c‡o evqyi ZvcgvÎv, evqyi Pvc, evqyi cÖevn Ges MwZ‡eM, †g‡Ni NbZ¡ Ges †g‡Ni cÖK…wZ Ges e„wócvZ| †Kvb GK RvqMvq evqygÛ‡ji cÖavb cÖavb Dcv`vb¸wji msw¶ß i“c ev †NvwlZ Ae¯’v‡KB AvenvIqv ejv nq| GUv evqygÛ‡ji `bw›`b Ae¯’v‡K cÖKvk K‡i| AvenvIqv ¯’vb I mgq Abymv‡i cwiewZ©Z nq| Rjevqy : Rjevqy n‡”Q †Kvb A‡ji ev ¯’v‡bi AvenvIqvi Mo Ae¯’v| †Kvb ¯’vb ev A‡ji wewfb FZz‡f‡` Kgc‡¶ 30 eQ‡ii Mo Ae¯’v‡K Rjevqy ejv n‡q _v‡K| †Kvb we‡kl ¯’v‡bi AvenvIqvi wewfb Ae¯’v‡K cwimsL¨v‡bi wfwˇZ cÖKvkB Rjevqy| mvaviYZ †Kvb ¯’v‡bi 30 eQ‡ii AvenvIqvi wbqvgK¸wji Mo Ae¯’v‡K Rjevqy wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ Kiv nq| GUv mvaviYZ AvenvIqvi cÖavb cÖavb wbqvgK †hgb-ZvcgvÎv, e„wócvZ, Av`ª©Zv, w`‡bi `N©¨ I evZv‡mi MwZ‡eM cÖf„wZi Mo wnmv‡ei wfwˇZ AbywgZ n‡q _v‡K| Rjevqy ¯’vb‡f‡` wfb wfb n‡q _v‡K| GUv wbf©i K‡i A¶vs‡ki Dci, mgy`ª †_‡K `~iZ¡, e„¶ivRxi Ae¯’vb, cvnv‡oi Dcw¯’wZ ev Abycw¯’wZ cÖfw„ Zi Dci| Rjevqy cwieZ©b ej‡Z †Kvb GKwU wbw`©ó A‡ji A_ev mvgwMÖK A‡_© mviv we‡k¦i MocoZv AvenvIqvi `xN©‡gqvw` ¯’vqx cwieZ©b‡K eySvq| AvenvIqv m¤úwK©Z Dcv`vbmg~n †hgb-ZvcgvÎv, e„wócvZ, evqycÖevn cÖf„wZ ai‡bi cwieZ©b Øviv GB Rjevqy cwieZ©b cwigvc Kiv nq| Rievqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖZ¨¶ cÖfv‡e3 mgy`ªcÖ‡ôi D”PZv e„w×, jeYv³Zv, Liv, eb¨v, NywY©So, f~wgi Aebgb, f~wgK¤ú, cÖwZ‡ek, b`-b`x e¨e¯’vq cÖfve †d‡j `y‡h©vM I SzuwKi m„wó K‡i| Avi c‡iv¶ cÖfv‡e Lv‡`¨i AwbðqZv, gvby‡li ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’v, Rjve×Zv cÖf„wZ mgm¨v Zix K‡i| wMÖbnvDm M¨vm : evqygÛ‡j Dcw¯’Z †h me M¨vm Zvc †kvlY K‡i c„w_exi DòZv evwo‡q †Zv‡j Zv‡`i‡K wMÖbnvDm M¨vm ejv nq| wKQy wMÖbnvDm M¨vm cÖvK…wZKfv‡eB weivRgvb ev cÖvK…wZK fv‡e m„ó; †hgb-Rjxq ev®ú, I‡Rvb, Kve©b WvB A·vBW, wg‡_b, bvBUªvm A·vBW 3 wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqv : wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqvi d‡jB c„w_exi DòZv evo‡Q| c„w_exi evqygÛ‡j Ggb wKQy M¨v‡mi Dcw¯’wZ i‡q‡Q hviv m~hiwk¥ †kvl‡Yi gva¨‡g c„w_exi DËvc evwo‡q †Zv‡j| GB M¨vm¸wj © wMÖbnvDm M¨vm bv‡g cwiwPZ| evqygÛ‡j wMÖbnvDm M¨vm m¤ú~Y© Abycw¯’Z _vK‡j eZ©gv‡b c„w_exi Mo ZvcgvÎv 150 †mjwmqv‡mi cwie‡Z© gvBbvm 180 †mjwmqvm nZ| d‡j AwZwi³ VvÛvq c„w_exi RxeK‚‡ji †eu‡P _vKv m¤¢e nZ bv| 12
  • 13. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete n‡jvKve©b (wmGdwm) BZ¨vw`| G¸‡jv evqy gÛ‡j MÖxYnvDm cÖwZwµqv NUv‡bvi me‡P‡q †ekx f~wgKv iv‡L| kxZ cÖavb †`k¸wj‡Z m&ewR Pv‡li Rb¨ Kuv‡Pi Ni Zix K‡i †hfv‡e evB‡i †_‡K Avmv Zvc‡K AvU‡K ivLv nq wVK †mfv‡eB evqygÛ‡ji wMÖbnvDm M¨vm¸wj m~‡h©i Zvc‡K AvU‡K iv‡L| evqygÛ‡ji wMÖbnvDm M¨vmmg~n I †gN, f~c„ô †_‡K wewKwiZ Ae‡jvwnZ iwk¥ Lye mn‡RB †kvlY K‡i †bq| Gi d‡j evqygÛj DËß n‡q I‡V Ges evqygÛj †_‡K Zvc Pvwiw`‡K Qwo‡q c‡o| wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqvi d‡j evqygÛ‡ji ZvcgvÎv †e‡o hvq| Kve©b WvB-A·vBW: wMÖbnvDm M¨vm mg~‡ni g‡a¨ Kve©b WvB-A·vBW me†P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© I Kvh©Kvix †Uªm M¨vm| MZ K‡qK kZK Ges mv¤cÖwZK `kK¸wj Ry‡o evqygÛ‡j GB Kve©b WvB-A·vB‡Wi cwigvY Avk¼vRbK gvÎvq e„w× cv‡”Q| 1958 mv‡j evqygÛ‡j †hLv‡b Kve©b WvB-A·vB‡Wi cwigvY wQj cÖwZ `k jvL (wgwjqb) fv‡Mi g‡a¨ gvÎ 315 fvM (ppmv), †mLv‡b 1990 mvj bvMv` GB cwigvY `uvovq cÖwZ `k jvL (wgwjqb) fv‡Mi 350 fv‡M (ppmv)| MZ `k‡Ki cÖwZ eQ‡i k~b¨ `kwgK cuvP kZvsk nv‡i e„w× †c‡q 1993 mv‡j CO2 Gi cwigvY `uvovq cÖwZ `k jvL (wgwjqb) fv‡Mi 358 fv‡M| AZx‡Zi evqygÛ‡j CO2 Gi cwigvY †Kgb wQj Zv Rvb‡Z M‡el‡Kiv c‡iv¶ c×wZ †e‡Q †bb| G c×wZ‡Z 1750 mv‡ji c~‡e© evqygÛ‡j CO2 Gi cwigvY cÖwZ `k jvL (wgwjqb) fv‡M 280 fvM (ppmv) wQj e‡j Rvbv hvq| MZ `yB kZvãx‡Z evqygÛ‡j CO2 mn Ab¨vb¨ M¨v‡mi cwigvY cÖvq 28kZvsk e„w× †c‡q‡Q| e¨vcK wkívq‡bi Kvi‡Y MZ `yB kZvãx‡Z Kqjv-†Zj-M¨vm Ges R¡vjvwb Kv‡Vi e¨envi eû¸Y e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Gi d‡j evqygÛ‡j CO2 Gi cwigvYI e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Kve©b Pµ †_‡K Kve©‡bi wZbwU cÖavb Drm †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq; G¸‡jv nj mgy`ª, f~-c„‡ôi cÖvYxRMr Ges evqygÛj| mgy`ª Ges evqygÛ‡ji g‡a¨ Kve©b wewbg‡qi nvi eQ‡i cÖvq 90 wMMvU‡bi mgvb| c„w_exi cÖvYxRM‡Zi †gvU Kve©b gRy‡`i GK eo Ask i‡q‡Q MÖx®§gÛjxq I bvwZkx‡Zvò ebv‡ji cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vi wfZ‡i| gvby‡li †h `ywU Kvh©Kjv‡ci d‡j evqygÛ‡j CO2 Ges mxmvi cwigvY e„w× cvq †m `ywU nj-LwbR ev Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwbi D‡Ëvjb I e¨envi e„w× Ges f~wg e¨env‡i cwieZ©b| MZ kZ‡Ki †kl `yB `kK a‡i Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb †_‡K Kve©b wbtmi‡Yi cwigvY eQ‡i cÖvq GK `kwgK bq kZvsk nv‡i e„w× †c‡q‡Q| G †¶‡Î D‡j-L Kiv hvq †h, Dbqbkxj †`k¸wj‡Z we‡k¦i †gvU RbmsL¨vi cÖvq wZb-PZz_©vsk emevm K‡i| wK ‘ wecyj RbmsL¨v _vK‡jI Gme †`k we‡k¦i †gvU Kve©b wbtmi‡Yi gvÎ GK PZz_vs‡ki Rb¨ `vqx| Ab¨w`‡K DbZ †`k¸wj‡Z © wek¦ RbmsL¨vi gvÎ c‡bi kZvsk emevm Ki‡jI Zviv we‡k¦i ‡gvU Kve©b wbtmi‡Yi cÖvq 44 kZvsk NwU‡q _v‡K| GKKfv‡e gvwK©b hy³ivóªB we‡k¦i †gvU Kve©b wbtmi‡Yi cÖvq 23 kZvs‡ki Rb¨ `vqx| we‡k¦i †gvU Kve©b wbtmi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki Ae`vb AwZ mvgvb¨, gvÎ ïb¨ 13
  • 14. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete `kwgK ïb¨ Qq fvM4 | f~wg e¨env‡i cwieZ©b ev eb DRvo, we‡kl K‡i ga¨ A¶vsk I MÖx®§gÛjxq GjvKvq ebvÂj a s‡mi mv¤cÖwZK cÖeYZv evqygÛ‡j CO2 Gi cwigvY e„w× K‡i‡Q| wg _b : wkí wec-e Gi Av‡Mi Zzjbvq eZ©gv‡b evqygÛ‡j wg‡_b M¨v‡mi cwigvY cÖvq wØ-¸Y e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Gi †ewkifvMB N‡U‡Q 1900 mv‡ji ci †_‡K| MZ 1960 ci †_‡K GB e„w×i cwigvY wQj cÖvq wÎk kZvsk| Aek¨ eZ©gvb eQi¸wj‡Z GB e„w×i cwigvY cÖwZ GK‡kv †KvwU fv‡M (wewjq‡b) 10-13 fvM (ppbv) K‡g hvIqvi cÖgvY †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| wg‡_b cÖKw… ZMZfv‡e Rjvf~wg, cÖvYx‡`i gi‡`‡ni cPb, KxU-cZ½, mgy`ª Ges †Lvjv cvwb †_‡K Drcb n‡q _v‡K| eZ©gvb mg‡q wg‡_b M¨v‡mi gvÎv e„w×i KviY¸wji †fZ‡i gvby‡li cÖPwjZ K…wlKvR, cï cvjb, Rjvkq I bxPzRwg fivUKiY BZ¨vw` Kvh©Kjv‡ci f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| GQvovI Zz›`ªv A‡ji Zzlvi M‡j hvIqv, MvQcvjv-jZvcvZv ev Re `ªe¨ cyov‡bv, cÖvK…wZK M¨v‡mi cvBcjvB‡bi wQ`ª w`‡q M¨vm wbM©Z nIqv Ges cïi Rvei KvUv BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g wg‡_b M¨v‡mi wbtmiY N‡U _v‡K| mv¤cÖwZK M‡elYvq †`Lv †M‡Q †h, Dbqbkxj †`k¸wj e¨vcKfv‡e K…wl wbf©i nIqvq Gme‡`k wg‡_b wbtmi‡Yi eo Drm| evsjv‡`‡k we‡k¦i †gvU wg‡_b wbtmi‡Yi 1 †_‡K 2 kZvsk N‡U _v‡K| wg‡_b M¨v‡mi Avqy®‹vj CO2 Gi †P‡q Kg Ges Zv Ab¨vb¨ M¨v‡mi ms‡k-‡li Ici wbf©i K‡i| wg‡_‡bi Avqy¯‹vj Kg nIqvq (Avqy gvÎ 8 †_‡K 12 eQi) we‡k¦ eZ©gv‡b †h cwigv‡Y wg‡_b M¨vm Drcb n‡”Q †mB gvÎv‡K gvÎ 15 kZvsk Kwg‡q Avb‡Z cvi‡j AvMvgx kZvãxi Rb¨ wg‡_‡bi e„wׇK mwVK gvÎvq w¯’i ivLv m¤¢e n‡e| bvBUªvm A·vBW: Ab¨vb¨ wMÖbnvDm M¨vm¸wji g‡ZvB evqygÛ‡j bvBUªvm A·vB‡Wi cwigvYI µgvMZ e„w× cv‡”Q| AvBwcwmwm5 wi‡cvU© Abyhvqx 1990 mvj bvMv` evqygÛ‡j NO2 Gi cwigvY wQj cÖwZ 100 †KvwU fv‡Mi (wewjq‡b) 310 (ppbv) fvM| A_P wkí wec-e c~e©eZx© mg‡q GB cwigvY wQj cÖwZ 100 ‡KvwU (wewjqb) fv‡Mi g‡a¨ gvÎ 288 fvM| MZ `yB kZ‡K evqygÛ‡j NO2 Gi cwigvY 8 †_‡K 19 kZvsk e„w× †c‡q‡Q| evqygÛ‡j NO2 M¨v‡mi RxebKvj GK‡kv cÂvk eQi| NO2 Drcv`‡b gvby‡li †Kvb †Kvb Kvh©Kjvc `vqx Zv wb‡q `xN© weZK© i‡q‡Q| mgy`ª, gvwU, jeY, K…wl‡Z e¨eüZ G¨v‡gvwbqv mvi BZ¨vw` n‡”Q cÖvK…wZK I gvbexq Kvh©Kjv‡ci Kvi‡Y Drcb bvBUªvm A·vB‡Wi Drm| 4 (WRI-1990 Gi wfwË Z) 5 IPCC (IqvUmb et.al 1992) 14
  • 15. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete jvKve©b: gvby‡li wewfb Kvh©Kjv‡ci Kvi‡Y evqygÛ‡j n¨v‡jvKve©b6 wbM©gb n‡”Q| wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqvq ‡n‡jvKveb©mg~‡ni g‡a¨ †K¬v‡ivd¬‡iv Kve©b me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡cY© f~wgKv z ~ cvjb K‡i _v‡K| GB wmGdwm M¨vm mvaviYZt †iwd«Rv‡iUi Zix I e¨envi, ‡dvg cwiï×KiY cÖf„wZ Kv‡R e¨vcKfv‡e e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K| c„w_ex‡Z Drcvw`Z †gvU wmGdwm M¨vmmg~‡ni 90 kZvs‡kiI †ewk DbZ wkívwqZ †`k¸wj‡Z Drcb n‡q _v‡K| evsjv‡`k evqygÛ‡j LyeB mvgvb¨ cwigvY wmGdwm M¨vm wbtmiY K‡i _v‡K| 1990 mvj bvMv` evqygÛ‡j wmGdwm M¨v‡mi Dcw¯’wZ wQj cÖwZ GK nvRvi fv‡Mi g‡a¨ 484 fvM| wmGdwm Gi wbtmiY cÖwZ eQi e„w× cv‡”Q Ges evqygÛ‡j GB M¨v‡mi Dcw¯’wZi eZ©gvb nvi eRvq ivL‡Z n‡j GB M¨vm`ywUi wbtmiY h_vµ‡g 70 kZvsk I 80 kZvsk nv‡i Kgv‡Z n‡e| GLv‡b D‡j-L¨ †h, gw›Uªj ‡cÖv‡UvK‡j IRb ¯—i ¶‡qi Rb¨ `vqx wmGdwm M¨vm¸wji wbtmiY 1998 mvj bvMv` Kwg‡q 1986 mv‡j Drcvw`Z gvÎvi A‡a©‡K G‡b `uvo Kiv‡bvi j‡¶¨ GB M¨v‡mi Drcv`b wbq ¿Y Kiv nq| gw›Uªj cÖ‡UvK‡ji j¶¨ ev¯—evq‡bi Rb¨ 1990 mv‡ji jÛb Pzw³‡Z 2001 mvj bvMv` wmGdwmÔi Drcv`b 1990 mv‡ji Drcv`‡bi h_vµ‡g GK- Z…Zxqvsk Ges A‡a©K cwigvY Kwg‡q Avbvi wm×v — †bqv nq| Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb : Dw™¢` I cÖvYx‡`‡ni GKwU cÖavb Dcv`vb nj Kve©b, we‡klZ nvB‡WªvKve©b| Avi GB Kve©b mg„× Dw™¢` I cÖvYxi Rxevk¥ ev †`nve‡kl †_‡K Drcb Kqjv, †Zj I cÖvK„wZK M¨vm‡K Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb ejv nq| cÖvYx ev Dw™¢‡`i †`nve‡kl Zjvwb AvKv‡i f~-M‡f© ¯—‡i ¯—‡i mwÂZ nq| jvL jvL eQi a‡i Gfv‡e mwÂZ Zjvwb f~-Mf©¯’ Zvc I Pv‡c ax‡i ax‡i Ggb GK i“c aviY K‡i hv‡K R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e mn‡RB e¨envi Kiv hvq| gvbyl Gme Rxevk¥ Zjvwb‡K hvw K c×wZ‡Z AvniY K‡i Ges R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡i _v‡K| Gme Rxevk¥ ¿ Zjvwb‡K BÜb kw³ wn‡m‡e e¨envi Ki‡Z G¸‡jv‡K cyov‡bv nq Ges Gi d‡j G¸wji †`n- mwÂZ Kve©b WvB-A·vBW †ei n‡q evZv‡m Qwo‡q c‡o, hv evqygÛ‡ji wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqvq eo ai‡bi f~wgKv iv‡L| ewk¦K Dòvqb : gvbyl eûhyM a‡i ¯’vbxq cwi‡ek‡K cªfvweZ K‡i Avm‡Q| wK ‘ gvÎ MZ kZ‡KB gvby‡li Kvh©Kjvc mgMÖ wek¦e¨e¯’v‡K cÖfvweZ Kivi gZ Ae¯’vq DbxZ n‡q‡Q| gvby‡li Aeva Kvh©Kjv‡ci d‡j B‡Zvg‡a¨B wek¦ cwi‡e‡ki MVb web¨vm e`‡j †M‡Q| e¨vcK wkívqb,eb DRvo I Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwbi e¨envi eû¸Y e„w×i Kvi‡Y evqygÛ‡j wMÖbnvDm M¨vm¸wji cwigvY eû¸Y e„w× cvIqvq wek¦ AenvIqvgÛ‡j DËvc e„w× cv‡”Q| kxZ cÖavb †`k¸wj‡Z m&ewR Pv‡li Rb¨ Kuv‡Pi Ni Zix K‡i †hfv‡e evB‡i †_‡K Avmv Zvc‡K AvU‡K ivLv nq, wVK †mfv‡eB evqygÛ‡ji wMÖbnvDm M¨vm¸wj m~‡h©i Zvc‡K AvU‡K iv‡L| evqygÛ‡j 6 G¨v‡ivmj, †iwd«Rv‡iUi, †dvg e¨envi 15
  • 16. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete wMÖbnvDm M¨v‡mi cwigvY hZ e„w× cv‡e m~h© ZvcI evqygÛ‡j ZZ‡ewk K‡i AvU‡K _vK‡e| Gi d‡j Ab¨ me Ae¯’v AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡jI evqygÛ‡ji Mo ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡q f~-gÛj‡K DËß— K‡i Zzj‡e| f~-gÛ‡ji GB DËß nIqvi cÖwµqv‡KB ejv n‡”Q ewk¦K Dòvqb| gvby li Kg©KvÛ Ges wMÖbnvDm M¨vm: gvby‡li bvbvgyLx Kvh©Kjv‡ci Kvi‡Y wek¦e¨vcx wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbM©gb e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Av‡V‡iv kZ‡K wkí wec-‡ei c‡i KjKviLvbvi msL¨v e¨vcKfv‡e e„w× cvIqv Ges f~wg e¨env‡i cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y wMÖbnvDm M¨v‡mi wbM©gb eû¸Y e„w× †c‡q‡Q| wMÖbnvDm M¨vm e„w×i R‡b¨ †h me KviY `vqx (†hgb-Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb e¨envi) †m¸‡jv GLb AvaywbK mf¨Zv I A_©‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ûi mv‡_ A½v½xfv‡e Rwo‡q i‡q‡Q| G¸wj Qvov AvaywbK Rxebhvcb AvR Avi KíbvI Kiv hvq bv| wK ‘ Gme Kg©Kv‡Ûi Rb¨ Avevi wMÖbnvDm M¨v‡mi cwigvY e„w× cv‡”Q| †hgb- Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb `n‡bi Kvi‡Y, eb DRvo Kivi d‡j, K…wl Drcv`b Gi Øviv Ges wkí KviLvbv I Ab¨vb¨ M¨v‡mi e¨envi Kivq| I‡Rvb ¯—i s‡mi Rb¨ `vqx wmGdwm M¨v‡mi cwie‡Z© Ab¨vb¨ I‡Rvb-wbivc` nvB‡WªvKve©b ‡hgb, nvB‡Wªvd¬z‡ivKve©b Ges cvi-d¬z‡ivKve©b e¨eüZ n‡”Q| GB CFC-Gi Drcv`b‡K 1997 mv‡ji wK‡q‡Uv Pzw³‡Z wbq ¿Y Kivi D‡`¨vM †bqv nq| H Pzw³‡Z e`y¨wZK Bbmy‡jUi, Zvc cwievnx Ges kxZjxKi‡Y e¨eüZ mvjdvi †n·v †d¬vivBW Gi Drcv`b wbq ¿‡Yi cÖ¯—veI ivLv nq| GB mvjdvi †n·v †d¬vivBW we‡k¦i ZvcgvÎv e„w×i mvg‡_¨©i †¶‡Î Kve©b WvB-A·vBW AYyi †P‡q 23900 ¸Y †ewk kw³kvjx| 16
  • 17. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -3 Rjevqy cwieZ©b I KwZcq ev¯eZv Rjevqy cwieZ©b ej‡Z †Kvb GKwU wbw`©ó A‡ji, A_ev mviv we‡k¦i Mo AvenvIqvi `xN©‡gqvw` ¯’vqx cwieZ©b Ges AvenvIqvi ¯^vfvweK Ae¯’vi cwie‡Z© Pigfvevcb AvenvIqvi we¯—vi‡K eySvq| AvenvIqvi Dcv`vbmg~n †hgb, ZvcgvÎv, e„wócvZ, evqycÖevn cÖf„wZi ai‡bi cwieZ©b Øviv GB Rjevqy cwieZ©b cwigvc Kiv nq| Rjevqy cwieZ©b msµv — Av —tivóªxq cwil` (AvBwcwmwm)Õi Z…Zxq mgx¶v wi‡cvU© †_‡K Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi wek¦e¨vcx cÖfve7 wK iKg Zv bx‡P Av‡jvPbv Kiv nj:- K) ewk¦K Dòvqb: Rjevqy g‡Wjmg~n Abyhvqx AZ¨waK RbmsL¨vi Pvc Ges KvwiMwi cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y 1990 mvj †_‡K 2100 mv‡ji g‡a¨ we‡k¦i ZvcgvÎv 1.40 †mjwmqvm †_‡K 5.80 †mjwmqvm ch© — e„w× †c‡Z cv‡i| GB wnmv‡ei g‡a¨ wmGdwmÕi ¶wZKviK cÖfve I mgy‡`ªi axij‡qi cwieZ©b‡KI A —f©~³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| GQvovI AÂj I FZz‡f‡` ZvcgvÎv KZUv e„w× cv‡e Zv AviI †ewk AwbwðZ| kxZj DËivÂjxq GjvKvq kxZKv‡j ZvcgvÎv †ewk e„w× cv‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q| G‡¶‡Î m¤¢ve¨ Abygvb n‡”Q †h-2100 mvj bvMv` we‡k¦i ZvcgvÎvi 4 wWwMÖ ‡_‡K 7 wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm cwigvY e„w× NU‡Z cv‡i| wK ‘ GKB mg‡q DËiv‡ji KvbvWv, wMÖbj¨vÛ I DËi Gwkqvi kxZKvjxb ZvcgvÎv 40 kZvs†kiI †ewk e„w× cv‡e| mgy`ª †_‡K `~‡i Aew¯’Z ev gnv‡`‡ki Af¨ ifv‡M `ª“Z ZvcgvÎv e„w× cv‡e| †mB — Zzjbvq DcK‚jeZx© A‡j ZvcgvÎv †`wi‡Z ev axi MwZ‡Z e„w× cv‡e| gvwU ev f~-Z¡‡Ki Zzjbvq mgy`ªc„ô ev mgy‡`ªi cvwb axi MwZ‡Z Dò nq| Zvc ev m~h©v‡jvK mgy‡`ªi cvwbi KZUv Mfx‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cvi‡Q Zvi Ici wbf©i K‡i mgy‡`ªi cvwbi Dò n‡q IVvi MwZ| G Kvi‡Y wMÖbj¨v‡Ûi `w¶‡Y Aew¯’Z AvUjvw›UK gnvmvMi Ges G›UvwU©Kvi cv‡k Aew¯’Z `w¶Y mvMi †`wi‡Z Dò n‡e| †Kbbv, f~-Dcwifv‡Mi ZvcgvÎvi mgch©v‡q †h‡Z Gme mvM‡i AviI †ewk cwigvY cvwb‡K Dò n‡Z n‡e| L) mgy`ª c ôi D PZv ew× : Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wj‡Z 2100 mvj bvMv` mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv M‡o 9 †mt wgt †_‡K 88 †mt wgt ch© — evo‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡q‡Q| mgy‡`ªi DcwiZ‡ji ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡q cvwbi cÖmvi‡Yi Rb¨ Ges wngev‡ni eidMjv cvwb mgy‡`ª G‡m wg‡k mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× Ki‡e| wek¦ MVb cÖwµqvq GLb cÖPi AwP bxq NUbv NU‡Q, †hgb- †mªv‡Zi z — ¯^fve e`jv‡”Q, ¯’vbxq f~-Av‡jvob I Ab¨vb¨ Kvi‡Y ¯’vbxq I AvÂwjK mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv 7 ‰ewk¦K Eòvqb, mgy`ª cÖ‡ôi D”PZv e„w×, f~wgi A‡avMgb, e„wócvZ I f~-Z¡‡Ki Ae¯’v, Pigfvevcb AvenvIqvi we¯Ívi Ges `y‡h©vM, Gj wb‡bv-`wLbv Av‡jvob| 17
  • 18. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete ¯^vfvweK nv‡ii PvB‡Z †ewk cwigvY e„w× cv‡”Q ev K‡g hv‡”Q| wMÖbj¨vÛ I G›UvwU©Kvi ZzlvicvZ †ewk nIqvi cÖwZwµqvq ev wecix‡Z Zzlvi Ave„Z GB `yB A‡j eo eo eid UzK‡iv M‡j hvIqvi nvi wKQyUv †e‡o‡Q| hw` m~hv‡jvK mgy‡`ªi cvwbi AviI wb‡Pi ¯—‡i cÖ‡ek © K‡i mgy‡`ªi cvwb‡K Dò K‡i †Zv‡j Ges eid M‡j hvIqvi nvi hw` eRvq _v‡K Zvn‡j f~- Z¡‡Ki ZvcgvÎv AcwieZ©bxq _vK‡jI mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× cv‡e| M) f~wgi A avMgb : f~cô nVvr a ‡m ‡M‡j ev ax‡i ax‡i Lvov ev cÖvq Lvovfv‡e e‡m †M‡j „ Zv‡K f~wgi A‡avMgb ejv nq| f~wgi A‡avMg‡bi R‡b¨ f~wgK¤ú, f~-¯—‡ii ¯’vb cwieZ©b, f~- Mf© †_‡K cvwb D‡Ëvjb Ges Kv`vgvwU I Rxev‡k¥i wgkªb cÖf„wZ‡K `vqx Kiv hvq| mgy`ª c„ô †_‡K †Kvb ¯’v‡bi D”PZv K‡g hvIqv ev †ewk nIqvi †cQ‡b H ¯’v‡b cwj Ae‡¶cY I f~wg A‡avMg‡bi wgwjZ wµqvi nvi KvR K‡i _v‡K| cwj Ae‡¶c‡Yi Kvi‡Y †Kvb GjvKvi mgybwZ (mgy`ª c„ô †_‡K D”PZv) e„w× †c‡q _v‡K| N) ewócvZ Ges f~-Z¡ Ki Ae¯v : Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wj†Z wek¦e¨vcx †gvU e„wócvZ e„w× cv‡e e‡j aviYv Kiv n‡”Q; wK ‘ ‡mB m‡½ ¯’vbxq ch©v‡q e„wócvZ K‡g hvIqvi cÖej m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| GKzk kZ‡Ki wØZxqv‡a© DËi ga¨vÂj †_‡K D”P A¶vs‡ki †`k¸wjI G›UvwU©Kv‡Z kxZKvjxb e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY e„w× cv‡e| Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wj †_‡K †`Lv hvq †h, wKQy GjvKvq e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY e„w× cv‡e, Avi wKQy GjKvq e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY K‡g hv‡e| A‡÷ªwjqv, ga¨ Av‡gwiKv I `w¶Y Avwd«Kvq kxZKvjxb e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY K‡g hv‡e| †ewk e„wó I Zzlvicv‡Zi Kvi‡Y D”P A¶vsk, A_©vr DËi †Mvjv‡a©i †`k¸wj‡Z kxZKv‡j †fRv AvenvIqv _vK‡e| wK ‘ ZvcgvÎv e„w× cvIqvi Kvi‡Y MÖx®§Kv‡j gvwU ïK‡bv n‡q hv‡e| ¯’vbxq f~wgi ‡ci †¶‡Î gvwUi Av`ªZv ev Rjxqev®ú aviY ¶gZv K…wli Rb¨ AZ¨ — cÖ‡qvRbxq GKwU welq| wK ‘ GL‡bv © ch© — Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wji mvnv‡h¨ gvwUi GB Av`ª©Zv‡K mwVKfv‡e cwigvc Kiv k³| G Kvi‡Y GL‡bv ch© — mwVK K‡i ejv hv‡”Q bv †h, Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j gvwUi MÖx®§Kvjxb Av`ª©Zv evo‡e bvwK Kg‡e| O) Pigfvevcb AvenvIqvi we¯vi Ges `y h©vM : Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j AvenvIqvi Pigfvevcb cÖeYZv¸wji we¯—vi NU‡e| we‡k¦i ZvcgvÎv e„w×i d‡j Mig w`‡bi cwiwa I Zvc cÖevn evo‡e| Av`ª© w`‡bi msL¨v Kg‡e, K‡g hv‡e kxZKv‡ji cwiwa| Rjevqy g‡Wjmg~n Abyhvqx †ek wKQy A‡j Nb Nb AwZel©Y †`L‡Z cvIqv hv‡e| Avi Ab¨w`‡K Av —tgnv‡`kxq A‡j MÖx®§Kv‡j Livi cÖ‡Kvc e„w× cv‡e| GQvovI Ggb wKQy Z_¨ cÖgvY cvIqv †M‡Q hv †_‡K Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q †h, wKQy GjvKvq cªej So-SvcUv I fvix e„wócv‡Zi m‡½ m‡½ mvB‡K¬vb ev N~wY©S‡oi cÖ‡Kvc Av‡iv e„w× cv‡e| 18
  • 19. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete P) Kwl e¨e¯v I Lv`¨ wbivcËv: we‡k¦i me RvqMvq Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwµqv GKB iKg n‡e bv| D”P A¶vsk A‡j kxZ FZzi cwiwa K‡g Avmv, K…wl Drcv`‡bi mgqmxgv e„w× Ges km¨ Drcv`b e„w×i g‡Zv BwZevPK cÖwZwµqv †`L‡Z cvIqv †h‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨w`‡K †ewki fvM K…wl AÂjmg~‡n mxwgZ Lv`¨km¨ Drcv`b eRvq ivLvi †¶‡Î bvbvwea cÖwZK‚j cÖwZwµqvi Kvi‡Y Lv`¨ mieiv‡n NvUwZ †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| K…wl †¶‡Î Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m¤¢ve¨ cÖwZwµqvi wPÎ wb‡P Zz‡j aiv nj- 1. myweavcÖvß Ges Avk¼vRbK Kwl AÂj: MÖx®§gÛj Ges Gi cvk¦eZx© A‡j ZvccÖevn e„w×, †g mygx evqyi aiY cwieZ©b Ges Abve„wó ev Livi Kvi‡Y K…wl Drcv`b K‡g †h‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨w`‡K DËi KvbvWv I BD‡iv‡ci gZ kxZcÖavb A‡j MÖx®§ FZzi `xN©¯’vwqZ¡ G A‡ji K…wl Drcv`b evwo‡q w`‡Z cv‡i| D”P A¶vs‡ki Rjevqy AÂj¸wj‡Z cwieZ©b †ewk n‡Z cv‡i| †Kbbv DËi I `w¶Y †gi“i wbKUeZx© AÂj¸wji Mo ZvcgvÎv wbi¶‡iLvi KvQvKvwQ AÂj¸wji †P‡q †ewk n‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q| ga¨8 A¶vs‡ki Rjevqy AÂj KZK¸wj we‡kl dmj Drcv`‡bi AbyKzj| ZvB G A‡ji Rjevqy cv‡ë †M‡j Zv K…wl I Mevw` cïi Drcv`b‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— Ki‡e| 2. ewócvZ I ZvcgvÎvi ai b cwieZ©b : AvenvIqv g‡Wj Abyhvqx cieZx© GK‡kv eQ‡ii g‡a¨ wek¦ DòZv cÖvq 3 `kwgK 50 †mt e„w×i m‡½ m‡½ ev®úxfeb Ges evwife‡b cwieZ©b NU‡e| B‡Zvg‡a¨B Liv cÖeY wKQy GjvKvq cÖPÛ ï®‹Zvi `xN© cvjv ïi“ n‡q †M‡Q| wKQy GjvKv nq‡Zv Avevi Rjve×Zvq Avµv — n‡e, wKQy GjvKv gvwUi Av`ªZv nviv‡e| FZz © cwieZ©‡bi d‡j ga¨ A¶vs‡ki gnv‡`kxq A‡j MÖx‡®§ gvwUi Av`ª©Zv K‡g hv‡e, Avevi D”P A¶vsk A‡j kx‡Z †ewk K‡i e„wó Ges Zzlvi co‡e| Zv‡ci AvwaK¨ K…wl Drcv`‡b Mfxi cÖfve †dj‡e| †hgb kxZKv‡ji `N¨© K‡g hvIqvq wKQy dmj DcK…Z n‡e, Avevi wKQy dmj cvwb ¯^íZvi Kvi‡Y D”P Zv‡c ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| GQvovI KxU cZ½ Ges †iv‡Mi we¯—v‡ii Kvi‡Y km¨nvbxi Avk¼v e„w× cv‡e| 3. Gkxq Kwl ewk ó¨ cÖwZwµqv: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y †bcvj, Pxb Ges f~Uv‡bi DPzu gvjf~wg GjvKvi gZ Zzlviv”Qb GjvKvq MÖx®§ FZyi ¯’vwqZ¡ e„w× K…lK‡`i Rb¨ Avk©xev` e‡q Avb‡e| wVK GB mg‡q km¨ Drcv`‡b ‰ewP‡Î¨i Afve Aí wKQy dm‡ji Dci †ewk Pvc Zix Ki‡e| we‡klK‡i †hme AÂj GKwU gvÎ dm‡ji wbweo Pv‡li Ici †ewk wbf©ikxj †mme A‡j SzwK †ewk e„w× cv‡e| ZvcgvÎvq cwieZ©b, cvwbP‡µ cwieZ©b, wngcv‡Zi ïi“ I †k‡li mg‡q cwieZ©b cÖfw„ Z Kvi‡Y ‡ivM msµgY I KxU cZ‡½i we¯—vi NU‡e| 8 450 †_‡K 600 A¶vsk 19
  • 20. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete mgy`-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i d‡j evsjv‡`k, wgki, B‡›`v‡bwkqv Ges gvjØx‡ci gZ wbPz A‡ji ª †`k¸wj‡Z DcK‚jxq c-veb, jeY cvwbi AbycÖ‡ek Ges cvwb wb®‹vkb e¨e¯’vq RwUjZv e„w× cv‡e| 4. Kve©b WvB-A·vBW M¨v mi wbtmiY ew× Ges ewa©Z Drcv`b: Kve©b WvB A·vB‡Wi D”PgvÎv C3 type Dw™¢‡`i mv‡jvKms‡k-lY evwo‡q †`q Ges cÖ‡k¦`b NUvq| we‡k¦i †ewkifvM `vbvkm¨ cÖRvwZ GB †kªYxi A f³| GB C3 type Dw™¢` †kªYx wek¦e¨vcx we‡kl — ~ K‡i Av`ª© Ges kxZj cwi‡e‡ki we‡kl Dc‡hvMx| †ewkifvM dmj †hgb-Mg, avb, he, K¨vkfv9 Ges Avjy‡K G †kªYxi ZvwjKvf~³ Kiv hvq| M‡elYv Øviv cÖgvwYZ †h Kve©b WvB- A·vB‡Wi NbZ¡ wظY n‡j wm-3 UvBc dm‡ji djb 30 kZvsk ch© — e„w× †c‡Z cv‡i| Aek¨ ZvcgvÎv, e„wócvZ, gnvgvix, KxUcZ½ Ges cywói †hvMvb BZ¨vw`‡Z cwieZ©b GB djb e„w×i nvi‡K Kgv‡Z ev evov‡Z cv‡i| fyÆv, AvL, †Rvqvi Ges eRivi gZ dmj‡K wm-4 UvB‡ci (C4 type) ‡kªYxf~³ Kiv nq, hv A‡bK Dbqbkxj †`‡ki AwZ cÖ‡qvRbxq Lv`¨ Drcv`‡b Ges cï cvj‡bi Rb¨ LyeB ¸i“Z¡cY| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y PviYf~wgi ~ © Drcv`b K‡g hvIqvi d‡j Mevw` cïi `vg †e‡o hv‡e Ges G‡jv‡g‡jv K…wl e¨e¯’vi my‡hv‡M k‡m¨i `vgI †e‡o hv‡e| 5. `wi`ª-f~wgnxb `i Lv`¨ wbivcËvi Ici cÖej Pvc: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m‡½ LvcLvB‡q †bqvi D‡`¨vM MÖnY Kivi ciI A‡bK †`k NvUwZ Drcv`b AwfÁZvi gy‡LvgywL n‡Z cv‡i| Liv cÖeYZv e„w× ev ﮋ eQ‡ii we¯—vi ¯’vbxq `wi`ª I wew”Qb f~wgnxb‡`i Lv`¨ wbivcËv‡K bvbvfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— Ki‡e| evwYR¨ †¶‡Î wcwQ‡q _vKv, `~e©j AeKvVv‡gv, Z_¨ I cÖhyw³ ewÂZ Ges ¯^k¯¿ msNvZ KewjZ `wi`ª Rb‡Mvôxi c‡¶ Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j K…wl‡Z m„ó cÖwZwµqvi m‡½ Gu‡U DV‡Z cviv m¤¢e n‡&”Q bv| we‡k¦i `wi`ªZg GjvKv¸wj K…wl e¨e¯’vi Ici wbf©ikxj _vKvi Kvi‡Y Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi gvivZ¥K Suwy Ki gy‡L i‡q‡Q| Q) mgy`ªmgZj, gnvmvMi Ges DcKjxq GjvKv: DcK‚j †iLvi ewkó¨, mgy`ª †mªv‡Zi cwieZ©b, †Rvqv‡ii cwieZ©b I f~wgi D”PZvi iKg‡d‡ii Kvi‡Y Ges ¯’vbxq I AvÂwjK ewk‡ó¨i Ici mgy`ª c„‡ôi cwieZ©‡bi gvÎv, we¯—…wZ I MwZc_ wbf©i Ki‡e| G‡¶‡Î gvby‡li Kvh©KjvcI ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡e| DcK‚jxq A‡j iv¯—vNvU, evwo-Ni, euva I Ab¨vb¨ AeKvVv‡gv wbg©vY mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i gy‡L DcK‚jxq A‡ji cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’vi ¯^vfvweK mvov`v‡bi ¶gZv‡K mxgve× ev cÖfvweZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| 9 MÖx®§ cÖavb †`‡ki we‡kl ai‡Yi Dw™¢` 20
  • 21. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete 1. mgy`-c ôi D PZv ew×: MZ GK‡kv eQ‡i wek¦e¨vcx mgy`-c„‡ôi D”PZv M‡o 10 †_‡K 25 ª ª †mw›UwgUvi e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Rjevqy g‡Wjmg~‡n Abygvb Kiv n‡q‡Q 2001 mvj bvMv` mgy`ª- c„‡ôi D”PZv Av‡iv 15 †_‡K 95 †mw›UwgUvi ch© — e„w× cv‡e| mgy‡`ªi cvwbùxwZi Rb¨ mgy‡`ªi cvwbi Zvcxq cÖmviY Ges wngevn I eidMjv cvwbi AwZ AvMgbB `vqx| MZ GK‡kv eQ‡ii Zzjbvq mgy‡`ªi cvwbi `yB †_‡K cuvP¸Y †ewk e„w× NU‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q| hv AvMvgx cÖvq GK‡kv eQi a‡i mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„wׇK cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i †cQ‡b ZvcgvÎv e„w×, cvwbi Zvcxq cÖmviY,mgy`ª †mªv‡Zi cwieZ©b, cwj Ae‡¶cY BZ¨vw` A‡bK¸wj cÖvK…wZK kw³i f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| DcK‚jxq A‡j MwZkxj e¨e¯’v weivRgvb| eb¨v, Pigfvevcb AvenvIqv, cwj fivU cÖwµqv, KvVv‡gvMZ I cÖvYxR cÖwZi¶v e¨e¯’v Ges Ab¨vb¨ ¯’vbxq cÖvK…wZK e¨e¯’vi m‡½ mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i wg_w¯ qv NU‡e| 2. DcKjxq AÂj I Øxcmg~ ni Ici cÖej Pvc: eZ©gvb mg‡q DcK‚jxq A‡j wbweo Dbqb Kg©KvÛ MÖnY Kiv n‡jI mgy`ùxwZi Kvi‡Y DcK‚jxq AÂj I †QvU †QvU Øxc¸wj ª gvivZ¥K SuywKi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q| mgy`ªùxwZi Kvi‡Y `~e©j A_©bxwZ I cwiKvVv‡gv m¤úb Dbqbkxj †`k¸wj †hgb myMfxi SzwKi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q, †Zgwb DbZ †`k¸wji DcK‚jeZx© wbPz GjvKv¸wjI GB mgy`ª ùxwZi Kvi‡Y gvivZ¥K SzwKi g‡a¨ Av‡Q| mgy`ª-c„‡ôi eZ©gvb D”PZvi gvÎ GK wgUvi cwigvY e„w× NU‡jB Di“¸‡qi cÖvq ïb¨ `kwgK cvuP kZvsk, †b`vij¨v‡Ûi cÖvq 6 kZvsk, evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvq 17 `kwgK cvuP kZvsk Ges cÖevj MwVZ gvk©vj Øx‡ci cÖvq 80 kZvsk mgy‡`ª Wy‡e hv‡e| GQvov jeY cvwbi AvMÖvm‡b wgwó cvwbi ¸Y I gvb nvwi‡q hv‡e| D”PgvÎvi mgy`ªùxwZ-R‡jv”Q¡vm, f~-K¤úb, N~wY©So cÖf„wZ Pigfvevcb cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi gvÎv e„w× Ki‡e| mvgyw`ªK R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi Ke‡j B‡Zvg‡a¨B cÖvq 4 †KvwU 60 jvL †jvK ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡q‡Q, hv‡`i AwaKvskB Avevi Dbqbkxj †`‡ki Awaevmx| M‡elYvq cÖvß Z_¨ †_‡K Rvbv †M‡Q, mgy‡`ªi cvwbi ¯—i gvÎ 50 †mtwgt evo‡j AviI cÖvq 9 †KvwU 20 jvL gvbyl ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e, Avi GK wgUvi mgy`ªùxwZ NU‡j cÖvq GK‡kv AvVv‡iv ‡KvwU gvbyl ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| DcK‚jxq A‡j we‡k¦i cwieZ©bkxj I ewPΨgq cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’v †hgb,g¨vb‡MÖvf ebvÂj,cÖevj cÖvPxi cÖfw„ Z i‡q‡Q| DcK‚jxq A‡ji ms‡e`bkxj wbPz e-Øxc mgf~wg, cÖevj Øxc I cÖevj cÖvPximg~n e„wócvZ I So-SÅvi gvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y ¶wZMÖ¯— nIqvi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i m‡½ Zvjwgwj‡q cÖevj mÂq `ª“ZZi n‡jI ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y cÖev‡ji e„w× I mÂq ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡Z cv‡i| 3. cÖavb A_© bwZK ¶Îmg~ n bwZevPK cÖwZwµqv : cÖavb cÖavb A_©‰bwZK †¶Îmg~n mgy`ªùxwZi d‡j ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| DcK‚jxq AÂj K…wl,grm¨, RjR Rxe I Lv`¨ k‡m¨i GK eo Avavi hv mgy`ªùxwZi d‡j SuywKi m¤§yLxb| GQvov Ab¨vb¨ †¶Î †hgb-ch©Ub, gvbe emwZ Ges exgv e¨e¯’v ¶wZi Ke‡j co‡e| Avmb GB mgy`ª ùxwZ we‡k¦i wbgf~wg I c-veb mgf~wgmg~n‡K c-vweZ Kivi cvkvcvwk Avwaevmx‡`i‡K DcK‚jxq AÂj I Øxcmg~‡ni emwZ 21
  • 22. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete †_‡K m‡i †h‡Z eva¨ Ki‡e| Awfevmx‡`i ¯’vbv —‡ii d‡j mxwgZ m¤ú‡`i AwaKvix †`k¸wj‡Z Lv`¨-evm¯’vb-Kg©ms¯’vbmn AeKvV‡gvMZ Ges gvbweK I ¯^v¯’¨MZ bvbv m¼‡Ui m‡½ eû bZzb ai‡bi m¼‡Ui Rb¥ †`‡e| 4. mgy`ª Ges Gi B Kvwm ÷g: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j mvM‡ii cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’vI (B‡Kvwm‡÷g) cÖfvweZ n‡e| ZvQvov Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y ‡h‡Z mvM‡i R‡g _vKv eid AveiY ¶‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| MZ wek eQ‡ii g‡a¨ AvK©wU‡K 14 kZvsk Ges 1950 †_‡K 1970 mv‡ji g‡a¨ G›UvK©wUKvi 25 kZvsk eid AveiY ¶q cÖvß n‡q‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y mgy`ª‡mªv‡Zi aib, cvwbi Dj¤^ wgkªY Ges Zi‡½i aibI cwiewZ©Z n‡Z cv‡i| GB cwieZ©‡bi d‡j Re Drcv`bkxjZv, cÖwZ‡ek KvVv‡gvq cywói ch©vß †hvMvb I mvgyw`&ªK cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vi Kvh©KvixZvI cÖfvweZ n‡e e‡j g‡b nq| ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y †Kvb A‡ji cÖPwjZ Rxe-‰ewPΨ †f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’vb cv‡ë Ab¨ †Kv_vI ¯’vbv —i n‡Z cv‡i| we‡kl K‡i D”P-A¶vsk GjvKv¸wj †hLv‡b cÖRvwZ¸wji †e‡o IVvi mgq e„w× cv‡e (Av‡jv I cywói †RvMvb AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡e a‡i wb‡q) e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q †mLv‡b Rxe cÖRvwZi ‡f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’vb cwieZ©b nIqvi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| mgy‡`ªi cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vq c-v¼U‡bi ¸i“Z¡ Acwimxg| mgy‡`ª mwÂZ Kve©b‡K mgy‡`ªi Dcwifv‡Mi cvwbi mv‡jvK-ms‡k-lx c-v¼Ub I Ab¨vb¨ cÖvYx †L‡q †d‡j| ZvB ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y mvgyw`ªK c-v¼U‡bi Kv‡R †Kvb cwieZ©b NU‡j Zv Kve©b we‡kvab I m‡q cÖwZwµqv Zix Ki‡e| Gi cÖfve Rjevqy e¨e¯’vq cybt cÖZ¨veZ©b Ki‡Z cv‡i hv Rjevqy cwieZ©b‡K cÖkwgZ ev MwZkxj †h †KvbwU Ki‡Z cv‡i| wgwó cvwbi A —tcÖevn I cvwbi Avav‡ii AvKv‡ii Ici wbf©ikxj DcK‚jxq A‡ji wgwó cvwb mieivn Kg-†ewk SuywKi gy‡L co‡e| cwj Ae‡¶c‡Yi nvi ¯’vbxq mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i †P‡q Kg n‡e, bv †ewk n‡e Zvi Ici wbf©i Ki‡Q †jvbv Rjvf~wg I g¨vb‡MÖvf ebv‡ji wU‡K _vKv| †Kv_vI †Kv_vI cwj mÂqb mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i nv‡ii †P‡q †ewk n‡e| cwj mg„× AÂj¸wj‡Z †hgb-A‡÷ªwjqvq, GgbwU NU‡e| Avi †Kv_vI kw³kvjx mvgyw`ªK †mªvZ Ae‡¶wcZ cwj‡K Qwo‡q wQwU‡q †`‡e| d‡j Gme A‡j kw³kvjx mvgyw`ªK †mªv‡Zi Kvi‡Y cwj mÂq Kg n‡e| K¨vwiweq A‡j GgbwU †`Lv †h‡Z cv‡i| R) Rb¯^v¯¨ I RbemwZ: Rjevqy cwieZ©b gvbe ¯^v¯’¨ I RbemwZmg~‡ni Ici `xN©‡gqv`x cÖfve †djvi Avk¼v i‡q‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨v e„w× cv‡e| Rb¯^v¯’¨ g~jZ wbf©i K‡i chv©ß Lv`¨, wbivc` cvwb, wbivc` evm¯’vb, fvj mvgvwRK Ae¯’v, h‡_vchy³ cwi‡ek Ges msµvgK †ivM wbq ¿‡Y DbZ mvgvwRK web¨vm ev m‡PZbZvi Ici| ZvB Pigfvevcb AvenvIqvi ZxeªZv e„w× ev `xN© ¯’vwqZ¡ gvbe ¯^v‡¯’¨i cÖwZ eo ai‡bi ûgwK Zix Ki‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqv, †hgb-ZvccÖevn, eb¨v, So I Livi g‡Zv `y‡h©vM¸wji Kvi‡Y g„Zz¨, Amy¯’Zv, `~wf©¶, †`kv —imn †iv‡Mi e¨vcK cÖv`yf©ve I mvgvwRK Aw¯’iZv Zix n‡Z cv‡i| weÁvbxiv Abygvb Ki‡Qb †h, wKQy wKQy GjvKv AwZ eb¨v ev Livq 22
  • 23. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Avµv — n‡Z cv‡i| GQvov DcK‚jxq GjvKvi myi¶v e¨e¯’vi h_vh_ Dbqb Kiv bv n‡j mgy`ª mgZ‡ji D”PZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y mvgyw`ªK c-veb gvivZ¥K ch©v‡q †c Q‡e| u y 1. iv Mi cÖv`~fve: Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqv, †hgb-Zvc cÖevn, eb¨v, So Ges Livi © g‡Zv cÖvK…wZK `y‡hv©M¸wji Kvi‡Y g„Zz¨, Amy¯’Zv, `ywf©¶, †`kv —ix nIqvi m‡½ m‡½ wewfb †iv‡Mi cÖv`yf©ve Ges mvgvwRK Aw¯’iZv ‰Zwi n‡Z cv‡i| weÁvbxiv Abygvb Ki‡Qb †h, wKQy wKQy GjvKv AwZeb¨v ev AwZ Livi Ke‡j co‡e| KxUcZ½ Ges wewfb †iv‡Mi evnK bZzb bZzb GjvKvq Qwo‡q co‡e| GQvov KxUcZ½ I Ab¨vb¨ gva¨‡g evwnZ n‡q bZzb bZzb GjvKvq †iv‡Mi we¯—vi NU‡Z cv‡i| 2. cvwb m¤ú` I cqtwb® vkb e¨e¯vi Dci cvwb mieiv n NvUwZi cÖfve: cqtwb®‹vkb,†mPmn wewfb Kv‡R cÖ‡qvRbxq I cv‡bvc‡hvMx cvwbi mieivn evavMÖ¯— n‡e-hv AvÂwjK cvwb e¨e¯’vcbvi m¶gZv Kwg‡q w`‡Z cv‡i| Avevi mivmwi D‡ËvwjZ I mieivnK…Z cvwb‡Z e¨vK‡Uwiqv Ges Ab¨vb¨ gvB‡µv-AM©vwbRg Gi cwigvY e„w× ‡c‡Z cv‡i| weï× cvwbi NvUwZ gvbyl‡K b`xi cvwbi gZ `~wlZ cvwb e¨envi Ki‡Z eva¨ K‡i _v‡K| hvi d‡j Wvqwiqv RvZxq cvwbevwnZ †iv‡Mi e¨vcKZv e„w× cv‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y Liv cÖeYZv e„w×, cvwb NvUwZ I cqtwb®‹vkb e¨e¯’vi Av‡iv AebwZ NU‡e| GQvov Lv`¨ NvUwZi d‡j Acywó I ¶zavi gZ ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨v `xN©vwqZ n‡e| cqtwb®‹vkb AwZwi³ cvwbi wb®‹vkb I AveR©bv wb®‹vkb e¨e¯’v¸wji mg qnxbZv ¯^v¯’¨MZ mgm¨v e„w× Ki‡e| ^ 3. MvwjK wefvRb Ges iv Mi we¯vi: D”P A¶vsk Ges `ªvwNgvsk GjvKv¸wj‡Z gkv, ciRxex KxU Ges Bu`yi RvZxq (Zx¶è `uvZ wewkó ¶z`ª cÖvYx) Rx‡ei we¯—vi NU‡e| eZ©gv‡b wek¦ RbmsL¨vi cÖvq 45 kZvsk gvbyl g¨v‡jwiqv cÖeY A‡j emevm K‡i _v‡Kb| Rjevqy g‡Wj Abyhvqx A¶vsk Ges `ªvwNgv‡iLvi cÖv xq GjvKv¸wj‡Z †ivM cÖev‡ni ai‡b weivU cwieZ©b — Avm‡e| GB AÂj¸wj eZ©gv‡b g¨v‡jwiqv Avk¼vMÖ¯— AÂj| Avi GB cÖv —eZ©x A‡j DbZ †ivM cÖwZ‡iva e¨e¯’vI M‡o I‡Vwb| ‡g mygx Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j †g mygx ‡ivMe¨vaxmn Ab¨vb¨ †ivMmsµgY Ges gkvevwnZ (†W½y, njy` R¡i cÖf„wZ) I ciRxex KxU evwnZ (†jBg wWwRR BZ¨vw`) eû ai‡bi †iv‡Mi we¯—vi NU‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©b Øviv cÖ‡ivwPZ m¤¢ve¨ ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨vi (†hgb- GjvR©x Ges k¦vm msµv — †ivMe¨vax cÖfw„ Z) ZvwjKv Av‡iv j¤^v n‡e| GKB mg‡q `~lYKvix wewfb c`v‡_©i cÖfv‡e mvgyw`ªK Lv`¨I gvivZ¥K Suwy Ki g‡a¨ co‡e| 4. SuywKc~Y© gvbe emwZ: †h me gvbe emwZ evwYwR¨K grm¨ AvniY, cÖPwjZ K…wl e¨e¯’v I Ab¨vb¨ cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Dr‡mi Ici †ewk wbf©ikxj †m me emwZ Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqvq †ewk SuywKi gy‡L i‡q‡Q| GQvovI wbPy AÂj I e-Øxcmg~n, DcK‚jeZx© eo kni¸wj, eb¨v c-veb f~wg‡Z M‡o IVv ¶z`ª ¶z`ª emwZ, cvnvwo GjvKv, ebv‡j M‡o IVv gvbe 23
  • 24. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete emwZ (hv wKbv `vevb‡ji ûgwK‡Z co‡Z cv‡i) Ges cwi‡ek Ae¶‡q Avµv — gvbe emwZmg~n Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Suwy Ki gy‡L i‡q‡Q| Avi Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqv¸wji me©‡¶‡ÎB `wi`ªZg Rb‡Mvôx me‡P‡q †ewk gvÎvq ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| mgy`ª DcK‚jeZx© A‡bK A‡j eûwea Dbqb N‡U‡Q | Gme DcK‚jeZx© A‡j RbmewZ, wkí-e›`i I eûgyLx AeKvVv‡gv M‡o ‡Zvjv n‡q‡Q| wK ‘ mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×, N~wY©So, eb¨v cÖf„wZ cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi gy‡L c‡o NbemwZc~Y© A‡bK DcK‚jxq GjvKv, Dbqbkxj †`k¸wji mgy`ªZxieZx© AÂj I ¶z`ª Øxc¸wj †_‡K gvbyl †`‡ki wfZ‡ii w`‡K m‡i †h‡Z cv‡i-hv H me †`‡ki AeKvVv‡gvi Ici evowZ Pvc Zix Ki‡e| S) RjevqyRwbZ `y h©vM Ges AvenvIqvi PigfvevcbZv Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y ZvccÖevn, ZzlvicvZ, eb¨v, Liv Ges Ab¨vb¨ Pigfvevcb cwiw¯’wZi D™¢e n‡Z cv‡i| gvbe Rxeb I we‡k¦i cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vi Ici Rjevqyi cÖfve‡K MÖvn¨ bv K‡iB ¯^vfvweK ev c~eeZx© Ae¯’v †_‡K Rjevqyi e¨vcK I my¯úó cwieZ©b‡KB © Rjevqyi Pigfvevcb Ae¯’v ejv n‡q _v‡K| Avi Rjevqyi Pigfvevcb Ae¯’v hLb gvby‡li ¯^vfvweK Rxeb hvÎvq gvivZ¥K cÖfve †d‡j ZLb Zv‡K RjevqyRwbZ `y‡h©vM ejv nq| evqygÛ‡ji evB‡ii kw³, †hgb-Av‡MqwMwii AM~rcvZ ev m~h© kw³i ZviZ‡g¨i m‡½ m‡½ Rjevqyi Dcv`vbmn mgy`ª, RxegÛj, eid AveiY, f~-Z¡K cÖf„wZiI cwieZ©b NU‡Z cv‡i| Gj wb‡bv `wLYv Av‡jvob Gi cÖfv‡e Gme GjvKvq Af¨ ixb wg_w¯qvi MwZI e„w× cv‡e| — 1. Aiw¶Z gvbeRxeb Ges Pigfvevcb Rjevqy I `~ h©vM: we‡k¦i wKQy As‡k Rjevqyi AvKw®§K `yNUbv GZ Nb Nb N‡U †h G¸‡jv GKUv ¯^vfvweK wbqg e‡j we‡ePbv Kiv nq| Avi © wMÖbnvDm M¨vm GB Rjevqy cwieZ©b‡K cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i-hv Rjevqyi PigfvevcbZv I `y‡h©vM G `y‡UviB ZxeªZv, cÖmviZv I PwiÎ cv‡ë †`q| we‡k¦i en As‡ki RbMY cÖvK…wZKfv‡e Aiw¶Z I cÖvw —K A‡j emevm Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡”Qb| GQvovI †ewk SuywKcÖeY Rjevqy A‡j g~j¨evb cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Avavi M‡o D‡V‡Q-hv Rjevqyi Lvg‡Lqvwjcbvq evievi ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡q Avm‡Q| 1995 mv‡ji MÖx‡®§ hy³iv‡óªi ga¨-cwðgv‡j Ges fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡k `ve`vn AvNvZ nv‡b| Ryb gv‡mi ZvcgvÎv 500 †mjwmqv‡miI †ewk n‡q DËi fvi‡Z cuvP‡kvi †ewk Ges hy³iv‡óª mvZ‡kvi †ewk gvby‡li g„Zz¨i KviY nq| DËi Avwd«Kvi ‡mvnvBj A‡j 1970 n‡Z bq eQie¨vcx evwl©K e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY GB kZvãxi cÖ_g mvZ `kK A‡c¶v cÖvq 20 kZvsk K‡g †h‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q| hv H A‡ji ¯^vfvweK cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Avavi¸wj‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— K‡i| 2. Pigfvevcb Rjevqyi we¯vi Ges `y h©v Mi MwZew×: Rjevqyi Mo ev ¯^vfvweK Ae¯’vi †Kvb i`e`j NU‡j Zv Aek¤¢vexi ‡c `y‡h©v‡Mi Pigve¯’vi ZxeªZv‡K e„w× Ki‡e| mvaviYfv‡e 24
  • 25. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete ejv hvq †h, Zvc cÖevn e„w×i d‡j wngKYvi cZb ev ZzlvicvZ K‡g hv‡e Ges AwZwi³ e„wócv‡Zi d‡j wKQy wKQy GjvKv eb¨vq c-vweZ n‡e| MÖx®§gÛjxq A‡j mgy‡`ªi ZvcgvÎv e„w×i d‡j MÖx®§Kvjxb N~wY©So (mvB‡K¬vb) Gi gvÎv I ZxeªZv e„w× cvIqvi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| GQvovI Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y Ab¨vb¨ welq †hgb-evqy cÖevn I S‡oi MwZc‡_ cwieZ©b Avm‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Kvi‡Y Avmb Gme AwbwðZ cwiw¯’wZ h‡_ó gb‡hv‡Mi `vex iv‡L| T) Rxe- ewPΨ Ges cÖwZ ek e¨e¯v: Rjevqyi `ª“Z cwieZ©‡bi d‡j cÖvK…wZK-A_©‰bwZK Ges mvgvwRK m¤ú`mg~n ûgwKMÖ¯— n‡q c‡o‡Q| `ª“Z Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’vi †f ‡MvwjK wefvRb I mg ^q cv‡ë †h‡Z cv‡i| †hgb-‡Kvb ‡Kvb we‡kl cÖRvwZi Dw™¢` ¯’vb cwieZ©b K‡i bZzb ‡f ‡MvwjK cwi‡e‡k P‡j †h‡Z cv‡i| GKB mg‡q Rjevqy cwieZ©b, e„¶wbab Ges Ab¨vb¨ cwi‡ekMZ Pv‡ci mwb¥wjZ cÖfv‡e wewfb A‡ji Awaevmxiv wew”Qb Ges cÖvw —K Rb‡Mvôx‡Z cwiYZ n‡e| GB cwiewZ©Z Rjevqy cwiw¯’wZi m‡½ AwZ `ª“Z Lvc LvIqv‡Z bv †c‡i wewfb cÖRvwZ wecb, GgbwK wejyßI n‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| 1. ebvÂj I gi f~wgi cÖwZ ek e¨e¯v: ebvÂj Ges gi“f~wgi cÖwZ‡ek KvVv‡gv Rjevqy e¨e¯’vq ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L| GUv Kve©‡bi GK eo Avavi| we‡k¦i mg¯— Kve©‡bi 80 kZvsk Rgv n‡q Av‡Q MvQ-cvjvi g‡a¨ Ges Avi GB Kve©‡bi cÖvq 40 kZvsk gvwUi ¯’vqx Avav‡i _v‡K| f~-ZvcgvÎv, ev¯úxfeb, fywgi eÜziZv, †gN MVb Ges ¯’vbxq, AvÂwjK I gnv‡`kxq e„wócv‡Zi wcQ‡b ebvÂj ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv †i‡L _v‡K| ch©‡e¶Y, cix¶v-wbix¶v I Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wj †_‡K Rvbv †M‡Q †h, we‡k¦i Mo ZvcgvÎv gvÎ GK wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm e„w×i d‡j ebv‡ji Kvh©KvixZv I mg ^q e¨nZ n‡e| Dòvq‡bi d‡j Ab¨vb¨ `y‡f©vM †hgb-KxU-cZ½ evwnZ †ivM msµgY Ges `vevb‡ji cÖ‡Kvc e„w× cv‡e| wbi¶xq A‡ji †P‡q D”P A¶vs‡k ZvcgvÎvi e„w× †ewk nIqvq MÖx®§gÛjxq I bvwZkx‡ZvògÛ‡ji ebv‡ji †P‡q ‡evwiqvj AiY¨mg~n †ewk SuywKi g‡a¨ co‡e| GQvovI we`¨gvb ebv‡j wewfb cÖRvwZi mg ^q KvVv‡gv cwiewZ©Z n‡Z cv‡i| Gi d‡j cÖRvwZ¸wji byZb mg q NU‡e Ges bZzb cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’v ^ cÖwZwôZ n‡Z cv‡i| B‡Zvg‡a¨ cÖRvwZ¸wji g‡a¨ Ges B‡Kvwm‡÷‡g wek¦ Dòvq‡bi cÖwZwµqv cÖKvwkZ n‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q| gi“f~wg Ges ﮋ I cÖvq ﮋ A‡ji cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’v m¤¢eZ Av‡iv Pi‡g †cu Qv‡e| wKQy e¨wZµg Qvov gi“f~wg cÖPÛ Mig n‡e, wK ‘ Av`ª©Zv _vK‡e bv| eZ©gv‡b Zvc mn¨mxgvq we`¨gvb AY~Rxe¸wj D”P Zv‡ci d‡j ûgwKMÖ¯— n‡q co‡e| 2. Rjvf~wgi cÖwZ ek e¨e¯v: c-veb f~wg, b`x ev n«‡`i †h Ask eQ‡i wKQyKvj cvwb‡Z Wy‡e _v‡K †m¸wj Ges m¨uvZ‡mu‡Z RjKv`vgq wbPy f~wg I mgy‡`ªi wbqwgZ †Rvqv‡i Wy‡e hvIqv DcK‚jxq GjvKvi Ask we‡kl- Gme wKQyB Rjvf~wgi A —M©Z| c„w_exi †gvU f~-fv‡Mi cÖvq `k kZvsk Ry‡o i‡q‡Q Rjvf~wg, hvi g‡a¨ 2 kZvsk n‡”Q n«`, 30 kZvsk n‡”Q K`©gv³ 25
  • 26. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete m¨vZ‡m‡Z Rjvf~wg, 26 kZvsk n‡”Q wej, 20 kZvsk n‡”Q RjgM wbPz Rwg, Ges 15 kZvsk n‡”Q c-veb f~wg| GQvovI cÖvq `yB †KvwU 40 jvL †n±i Ry‡o i‡q‡Q jeYv³ Dw™¢‡`i g¨vb‡MÖvf ebvÂj Ges cÖvq 6 †KvwU †n±i Ry‡o i‡q‡Q cÖevj cÖvPxi| Rjvf~wgi cwiwa g~jZ cvwbi ¯—‡ii Ici wbf©ikxj| ZvB cvwb mieiv‡ni †¶‡Î Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfve co‡j Rjvf~wgi cÖKw… Z I Kvh©KvixZv m‡e©v”P gvÎvq cÖfvweZ n‡e| Gi d‡j Rjvf~wgi Dw™¢` I Rxe cÖRvwZmg~n ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| GgbwK wek¦e¨vcx Rjvf~wgi †f ‡MvwjK eÈbI cv‡ë †h‡Z cv‡i| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j ZvcgvÎv e„w×i cÖwZwµqvmn e„wócv‡Zi aiY e`‡j †h‡Z cv‡i I mgy`ª c„‡ôi ùxwZ NU‡Z cv‡i| Gi mewKQyB Rjvf~wgi Ae¯’vb I Kvh©KvixZv‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| Ab¨fv‡e, A_©vr cvwbP‡µi cÖKw…Z‡Z e`j n‡jI Rjvf~wg ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡Z cv‡i| cvwbP‡µi cªwµqv¸wji g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q evwifeb, ev®úxfeb, cwiPjb, cvwb k~b¨Zv, f~-Mf©¯’ cvwbi ¶qc~iY I cvwb cÖevn cÖf„wZ| GB cwieZ©b GKB m‡½ f~-Mf©¯’ I f~-Dcwiw¯’Z cvwb e¨e¯’vq cÖwZwµqv Zix Ki‡e Ges Af¨ —ifv‡Mi cvwb mieivn, †mP, Rjwe`y¨r Drcv`b, wkí KviLvbvq e¨envi, †b ‡hvMv‡hvM, cvwb wfwËK ch©Ub cªf„wZ‡Z cÖfve †dj‡e| cvwb Mwo‡q hvIqvi ai‡b ev cvwb cÖev‡n (run off) I cvwb ¯—‡i cwieZ©b NU‡j Zv Af¨ — ifv‡Mi Rjvf~wg‡Z eo ai‡bi cÖfve †dj‡e| e„wócvZ K‡g hvIqvq ﮋ I Aa©-ﮋ GjvKv¸wj †ewk SuywKc~Y© n‡e| e„wócv‡Z NvUwZ RjvGjvKvq A¯^vfvweK cwieZ©b †W‡K Avb‡e| ‰ewk¦K Dòvqb n«` I b`xi cvwbi ZvcgvÎv‡KI e„w× Ki‡e| Gi d‡j †ek wKQy eo ai‡bi cwieZ©b NU‡Z cv‡i, †hgb-D”P A¶vsk (†gi“ cÖ‡`‡ki wbKUeZ©x) GjvKvq RweK Drcv`b e„w× †c‡Z cv‡i Ges wbg A¶vsk GjvKvq kxZj I kxZj cvwbi cÖRvwZi cÖvYx‡`i wePiY f~wgi m‡e©v”P we¯—vi NU‡e| `yjf I ûgwKMÖ¯— Dw™¢` I cÖvYx cÖRvwZ¸wj weKí Avevm¯’‡ji © Afv‡e AvenvIqvi mvgvb¨ cwieZ©‡bB ms‡e`bkxj n‡q co‡e| DòZve„w× QvovI So-SÂvi cÖ‡Kvce„w× cvIqvq wewfb ¯—‡ii Rjvk‡qi cvi¯úwiK wgkªY e„w× cv‡e| GQvovI N~wY©So ev mvB‡K¬vb grm¨ cÖRvwZ¸wji eo ai‡Yi a sm †W‡K Avb‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Abylm½ wn‡m‡e mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× I R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi Kvi‡Y †ejvf~wg I gv‡Qi Avevm¯’j µ‡g a sm n‡q hv‡e| b`xi †gvnbv I wgwó cvwb cÖev‡n jeYv³Zv e„w× cv‡e, b`x I mvM‡i †Rvqv‡ii mxgv cv‡ë hv‡e, cwj Ae‡¶cY I Re cywó mieiv‡n cwieZ©b Avm‡e, DcK‚jxq c-veb e„w× cv‡e Ges Gme wKQy wgwjZfv‡e DcK‚jxq Rjvf~wgi Aw¯—Z¡‡K wecb K‡i Zzj‡e| 3. PviYf~wgi Drcv`b n«vm: Z…bf~wg¸wj we‡k¦i M„ncvwjZ cïi cÖ‡qvRbxq Lv‡`¨i cÖvq 50 kZvs‡ki †RvMvb †`q | eb¨cÖvYxivI Z…Yf~wg †_‡K Lv`¨ AvniY K‡i euv‡P| ZvcgvÎv Ges evwicv‡Zi aib e`‡j Livi Kvi‡Y Z…Yf~wg, ¸j¥-‡Svc Ges Ab¨vb¨ cÖwZ‡ekxK KvVv‡gvi AvKvi e`‡j hv‡e ev G¸wj bZzb i“c aviY Ki‡e| Gi d‡j K…wl, ch©Ub, cvwbkw³, KvV 26
  • 27. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete AvniY Ges Ab¨vb¨ A_©‰bwZK Kvh©Kjvcmg~nI ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| A‡bK Dbqbkxj †`‡ki Avw`evmx‡`i Lv`¨ Ges R¡vjvwb e¨e¯’vq a m bvg‡e| Dò A‡j ev¯úxq wbM©gb P‡µ cwieZ©b wewfb cÖRvwZi cÖRbb Ges wgkª‡Yi Dci Mfxi cÖfve †dj‡e| 4. gi A ji m ¼vPb: we‡k¦i ‡gvU my‡cq cvwbi cÖvq 80 kZvs‡ki g‡Zv i‡q‡Q DËi I `w¶Y †gi“ cÖ‡`k `ywU‡Z| GB †gi“ AÂj‡K wN‡i Av‡Q we‡k¦i mgMÖ Zzlvi, eid, Ges f~- Mf©¯’ wPiwngvwqZ AÂj| wngvwqZ cvwb Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi †¶‡Î LyeB ms‡e`bkxj| Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wji g‡Z cieZ©x GK‡kv eQ‡i cvnvox wngev‡ni cwiwa GK-Z…Zxqvsk †_‡K A‡a©K cwigvY K‡g †h‡Z cv‡i| GUv cvjvµ‡g cvk¦eZ©x cÖwZ‡ek KvVv‡gv Ges Rb‡Mvôx‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| GQvovI b`xi †g mygx cÖevn Ges cvwb mieiv‡ni Dci cÖwZwµqv Zix n‡e, hv ch©vqµ‡g cvwbkw³ Ges K…wl‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| A‡bK DuPz cvnvox AÂj Ges †gi“ A‡ji gvbwP‡Î bvUKxq cwieZ©b NU‡Z cv‡i| Zzlvi ¯—yc M‡j hvIqvi Kvi‡Y we`¨gvb AeKvVv‡gv e¨e¯’v G‡jv‡g‡jv n‡q co‡Z cv‡i Ges `ªexf~Z AwZwi³ Kve©b I wg‡_b evqygÛ‡j Aegy³ n‡q co‡e| U) AeKvVv gv, wkí-KviLvbv I e¯MZ m¤ú` Rjevqy cwieZ©b gvbe emwZ Ges gvby‡li †f Z e¯‘MZ m¤ú‡`i Dci eo ai‡bi cÖfve †dj‡e| wKQy ¸i“Z¡cY© AeKvVv‡gvi Ici GB cÖfve †ewk n‡e| Gm‡ei g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q wkí ~ c-v›U, kw³ Drcv`b I eȇbi miÄvg, iv¯—v NvU, e›`i Ges Ab¨vb¨ †hvMv‡hvM myweavmn AvevwmK I evwYwR¨K m¤úwË Ges DcK‚jxq euva BZ¨vw`| 1. wkí Lv Z cÖfve: Rjevqyi PigfvevcbZv †hgb - S‡oi AvNvZ, eb¨v, ¯’vbxqfv‡e cÖPÛ e„wócv‡Zi `i“Y f~wga m, `ª“Z Zzlvi weMjb, DògÛjxq N~wY©So Ges n¨vwi‡Kb A_ev GgbwK Livi Kvi‡Y ebvÂj ev †SvcSv‡oi cy‡o hvIqv eZ©gvb Drcv`b e¨e¯’vi Dci Mfxi cÖfve ‡dj‡e| Gi d‡j wkí, kw³ Ges †hvMv‡hvM AeKvVv‡gv¸wj `ye©j n‡q co‡e| cÖej Ges Nb Nb evwicv‡Zi ZxeªZv kû‡i eb¨v †W‡K Avb‡e| K…wl-wkí Ges Rjwe`y¨r Zix, ev‡qvgvm Drcv`b Ges †hvMv‡hvM m¤úwK©Z Ab¨vb¨ A_©‰bwZK Kvh©KjvcI `ye©j n‡q co‡e| GB Ae¯’v DcK‚jxq A‡j Av‡iv Zxeªfv‡e †`Lv †`‡e| 2. wkí I A_©bxwZi Ici c iv¶ cÖfve: A_©‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ûi cÖwZwU †¶Î ci¯úi Av — tm¤úwK©Z nIqvq GKwU ‡¶‡Î cÖfve co‡j Zv mgMÖ A_©bxwZ, wkí, kw³ Ges †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| K…wl, wkí Ges ev‡qvgvm Drcv`‡bi †¶Î¸wj Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j A_©‰bwZK Ab¨vb¨ †¶Î¸wj Øviv cÖfvweZ n‡e| Gi d‡j †gvUvgywU A‡bK¸wj wfb wfb cÖfv‡ei mg ^q NU‡e Ges G¸wj Ab¨vb¨ A_©‰bwZK †¶Î‡KI `ye©j Ki‡Z cv‡i| G QvovI MÖvgv‡j cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Drmmg~n µgvMZ ¶qcÖvß nIqvi Kvi‡Y MÖvg †_‡K kn‡i 27
  • 28. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Awfevmb eû¸Y e„w× †c‡q‡Q| we‡kl K‡i Dbqbkxj †`k¸wj‡Z GB Awfevm‡bi nvi A‡bK †ewk| cÖwZ eQi km¨nvbx, ¯’vbxq ch©v‡q eb¨v Ges Livq me©¯^v — n‡q Kv‡Ri †Luv‡R gvbyl `‡j `‡j kn‡ii w`‡K Qy‡U hv‡”Q| GB bZzb DØv¯‘iv kn‡ii evm¯’vb,cvbxq Rj,Lv`¨ I ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’vi Ici evowZ Pvc ‰Zwi Ki‡Q| V) cvwb m¤ú`: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j evwifeb I ev®úxfeb `y‡UvB e„w× cv‡e| e„wócv‡Zi ai‡b GB cwieZ©b B‡Zvg‡a¨B cvwb mieivn‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i‡Q| DËi †Mvjv‡a©i D”P I ga¨ A¶‡iLv A‡j e„wó I ZzlvicvZ e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K Dfq †Mvjv‡a©i wbi¶xq I Dc- wbi¶xq AÂj¸wj‡Z e„wócvZ K‡g †M‡Q| 1. evwife b cÖwZwµqv Ges ky® Rjevqy: evwicv‡Z cwieZ©b NU‡j g„wËKv ﮋ n‡q hvq| hvi d‡j Dw™¢` RM‡Z cÖwZwµqv N‡U-hv cÖ‡¯^`b I ev®úxq cÖwZdjb Ges †gN m„wó‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| GwU Avevi evwife‡b cÖwZwµqv ‰Zix K‡i| Rjevqy ev e„wócv‡Zi cwieZ©b QvovI cvwb P‡µi e¨e¯’vcbv gvby‡li Kvh©Kjv‡ci (†hgb-eb DRvo, bMivqb I cvwbi AwZ e¨envi BZ¨vw`) Kvi‡YI cÖfvweZ n‡q _v‡K| evwife‡b cwieZ©b NU‡j Zv me©‡gvU Rjw¯’wZi Ici cÖfve †dj‡e| †ewki fvM Rjevqy g‡W‡j mvaviYfv‡e AwZ el©‡Yi cÖeYZv e„w×i m¤¢vebv‡KB cÖvavb¨ †`qv n‡q‡Q| A_©vr Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j eb¨v e„w× cv‡e, wK ‘ gvwU PuB‡q cvwbi z f~M‡f© cÖ‡e‡ki m¶gZv K‡g hv‡e| FZz cwieZ©‡bi aib cv‡ë hvIqvi d‡j f~-M‡f© I f~- Dcwiw¯’Z Dfq cÖKvi cvwb mieivn e¨e¯’vi AvÂwjK wefvR‡b cÖwZwµqv NU‡e| GKKfv‡e ZvcgvÎv I evwife‡b mvgvb¨ cwieZ©bI RjcÖev‡n eo ai‡bi cwieZ©b NUv‡Z cv‡i| e„wócvZ K‡g hvIqvi d‡j ﮋ I Aav-ﮋ AÂj¸wji Ae¯’v Av‡iv bvRyK n‡q co‡e Ges ev¯úxfeb I Dw™¢‡`i cÖ‡k¦`b e„w× cv‡e| GQvovI ZzlvicvZ K‡g hvIqv Ges RgvU Zzlvi I wngev‡ni eid M‡j hvIqvi NUbv cvwb cÖev‡n cÖwZwµqv m„wó Ki‡e| we‡kl K‡i em — I MÖx‡®§ hLb wPivPwiZfv‡e Rjwe`y¨r I K…wl †m‡Pi Rb¨ cvwb cÖev‡ni †ewk cÖ‡qvRb nq †mB mgq cvwb cÖevn K‡g hvIqvi NUbv eo ai‡bi cÖwZwµqv Zix Ki‡e| Rjevqy g‡W‡ji me¸wj †_‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q †h, DËi ‡Mvjv‡a©i D”P A¶vsk GjvKvq gvwUi Av`ª©Zv kxZKv‡j †ewk e„w× cv‡e Ges ga¨ A¶vsk GjvKvq MÖx®§Kv‡j gvwUi Av`ª©Zv n«vm cv‡e| GB Abygvb DËi Av‡gwiKvi †P‡q BD‡iv‡ci m‡½ †ewk m½wZc~Y© n‡e| 2. cvwb cÖevn ew×i cÖwZwµqv: RjcÖevn I ev®úxfe‡bi cwiewZ©Z aib cÖvK…wZK Re Pµ‡K ¶wZMÖ¯— Ki‡e| cvwbi ¯—i e„w× I eb¨v‡ji cwieZ©‡bi d‡j wgwó cvwbi cÖwZ‡ekxK KvVv‡gv cÖfvweZ n‡e| cvwbi ZvcgvÎv cwieZ©b Ges wgwó cvwbi Zvcxq KvVv‡gvq cwieZ©‡bi d‡j A‡bK cÖvYx¯^Z¡vi e„w× I Aw¯—Z¡ ûgwKi gy‡L co‡e| GQvovI we`¨gvb cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vi Drcv`b¶gZv I Rxe-‰ewPΨ ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| f~-Mf©¯’ cvwb Mwo‡q hvIqvi aib I cvwb cÖevnmn e„wócv‡Z cwieZ©b mivmwi n«` I RjcÖev‡ni cywó gv‡b cÖfve †dj‡e Ges Aw·‡Rb 28
  • 29. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete wgkª‡Y NvUwZ Zix Ki‡e| Gi d‡j cvwbi ¸Y I gvb (¯^”QZv) Gi Ici †bwZevPK cÖfve co‡e| e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY I ai‡b cwieZ©b cvwbi ¸YMZgvb‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× NU‡j I f~-Mf©¯’ jeYv³ cvwb Dc‡ii ¯—‡i D‡V G‡j DcK‚jxq A‡ji wgwó cvwbi Avavimg~n `~wlZ n‡q co‡e| †gvnbvq jeYv³ cvwb cÖev‡ni AMÖfv‡Mi cÖej Pv‡ci Kvi‡Y DRvbevwnZ wgwó cvwbi cÖevn evavMÖ¯— n‡e| d‡j MvQ cvjv, Clr jeYv³ cvwbi grm¨ m¤ú` I K…wlKv‡R †bwZevPK cÖwZwµqv Zix n‡e| 3. gvbeRxe b c iv¶ cÖfve: cvwb mieiv‡n NvUwZ gvbe Rxe‡b evowZ `y‡f©vM Zix Ki‡e| GLbB we‡k¦i cÖvq GK-Z…Zxqvsk gvbyl (cÖvq GK‡kv mvZ †KvwU gvbyl) NvUwZ cvwbi †`k¸wj‡Z evm K‡i, GB msL¨v 2025 mvj bvMv` †e‡o †h‡q cÖvq cuvP‡kv †KvwU‡Z (cuvP wewjq‡b) †c uQy‡Z cv‡i| GQvovI RbmsL¨v e„w×, `~l‡Yi gvÎv e„w× I A_©‰bwZK Kg©KvÛ cÖmv‡ii d‡j ﮋ, Avav-ﮋ AÂj,A‡bK wbPz DcK‚jxq AÂj, e-Øxc AÂj I ¶z`ª Øxcmg~‡ni Ici Pvc Av‡iv e„w× cv‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m‡½ cvwbi mnRjf¨Zv, Lv`¨ Drcv`b, RbmsL¨v e„w× I A_©‰bwZK Dbq‡bi GK RwUj m¤úK© i‡q‡Q| GQvovI Rjevqy cwieZ©b bZzb A_©‰bwZK I ivR‰bwZK m¼‡Ui Rb¥ w`‡Z cv‡i| we‡kl K‡i cvwb NvUwZi AÂj¸wj‡Z Rjevqy cwieZ©b eo ai‡Yi m¼‡Ui Rb¥ †`‡e| †h me ¸i“Z¡c~Y© b`x e¨e¯’v `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK †`‡ki fv‡M c‡o‡Q, †mme †`k¸wji g‡a¨ msNvZ I D‡ËRbv e„w×i m¤¢vebvI cÖej| GiKg †ek wKQy †`‡ki g‡a¨ GLbB Awfb b`x¸wj wb‡q Zxeª Av RvwZK Ø›` i‡q‡Q| — © 29
  • 30. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq - 4 evsjv k Rjevqy cwieZ© bi cÖfve I m¤¢ve¨ ¶Îmg~n ‡f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`k me mgq Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ AwfNv‡Zi cÖwZ SuywKc~Y©| MÖxY nvDmM¨vm wbM©g‡bi Kvi‡Y evqygÛj w`bw`b DËß n‡”Q| wkíKviLvbv Ges hvbevn‡bi e¨en„Z LwbR †Zj †_‡K m„ó Kve©bWvB A·vBW‡K G Rb¨ we‡kl fv‡e `vwq Kiv nq| MÖxb nvDm M¨vm †hgb- Kve©b WvB A·vBW, wmGdwm Ges Ab¨vb¨ d¬z‡iv Kve©b, bvBUªvm A·vBW, I‡Rvb, wg‡_b, BZ¨vw` M¨vm mg~n f~-c„ô †_‡K †m ikw³i e¨vK †iwW‡qkb nªvm K‡i-A_©¨vr m~h© †_‡K c„w_ex‡Z Avmv DËvc‡K wd‡i †h‡Z evav †`q| evqygÛ‡ji DòZv Gfv‡e µgk e„w× cv‡”Q| DòZv e„w×i d‡j B‡Zvg‡a¨B †gi“ AÂj I ce©Z k„s‡Mi eid Mj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q Ges mg~`ª c„‡ôi DPPZv e„w× cv‡PQ| ewa©Z Zvc gvÎv we‡k¦i Rjevqyi aib‡KI e`‡j w`‡”Q| d‡j AvenvIqvi eix NUbvewj †hgb-eb¨v, Nywb©So, Liv, Ges e„wócv‡Zi gvÎv e„w× cv‡”Q| evsjv‡`k mg~`ªc„‡ôi mvgvb¨ DPuy †f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi GKwU e- Øxc nevi d‡j AvksKv Kiv nq †h, hw` c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv e„w×i nvi AcwiewZ©Z _v‡K Z‡e AvMvgx 50 eQ‡i evsjv‡`‡ki 15-17% bxPz I Aiw¶Z f~-fvM mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y †jvbv cvwb‡Z Zwj‡q hv‡e| MÖx¯§Kv‡j Liv Avi el©vKv‡j e„wói cÖ‡Kvc †e‡o †h‡Z cv‡i| Nb Nb †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i fqven eb¨v I NywY©So| G RvZxq cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vMmg~n cvbxq Rj I K…wl Kv‡Ri R‡b¨ e¨envi †hvM¨ wgwó cvwbi Drm¸‡jv‡K wmwgZ K‡i †dj‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfv‡e evsjv‡`‡ki DcK’jxq A‡ji bZzb bZzb GjvKvq †jvbv cvwbi Abyc‡ek Ö NU‡e| d‡j K…wlKvR I gvby‡li cÖ‡qvRbxq wgVv cvwbi Zxeª msKU †`Lv †`‡e| evo‡e DËvc, µgea©gvb jebv³Zv Ges bZzb bZzb GjvKvq m„ó Rjve×Zv K…wl I grm¨Pvl‡K Ges GKB ms‡M cvbxq R‡ji mnRjf¨Zv‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— Ki‡e| eZ©gvb †f Z AeKvVv‡gv wech©¯— n‡q co‡e| my›`iebmn DcK’jxq GjvKvi Rxe‰ewPΨ e¨vcK ûgwKi m¤§yLxb n‡e, hvi d‡j A‡bK weij cÖRvwZi Dw™¢` I cÖvYx wejyß n‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| ‡`‡ki DcK’jxq GjvKv we‡kl K‡i `w¶Y-cwðg DcK’jxq AÂj B‡Zvg‡a¨ mvM‡ii cvwbi DPPZv e„w×i cÖfv‡e Rjve×Zv, `ye©j b`x wb®‹vkb e¨e¯’v, b`x fivU, jebv³Zvi AbycÖ ‡ekmn wewfb mgm¨vi wkKvi n‡”Q| d‡j G mKj A‡ji Pvlvev` e¨e¯’v gvivZ¥Kfv‡e e¨nZ n‡Z _vK‡j I GB cÖwZK’j cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Lvc-LvB‡q †bqvi gZ †Zgb †Kvb e¨e¯’v G A‡ji RbM‡bi Rvbv †bB ej‡jB P‡j| ZvB GiKg cwiw¯’wZ‡Z cÖv_wgK c`‡¶c wn‡m‡e RbM‡bi gv‡S m‡PZbZv e„w×, Lvc LvB‡q †bqvi m¶gZv e„w× Kiv Qvov weKí wKQy †bB| KviY wek¦e¨vs‡Ki 2000 mv‡ji cÖwZ‡e`b Abyhvqx evsjv‡`‡ki 20-30 wgwjqb gvbyl Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ SuywKi Pig `y‡f©v‡Mi wbg©g wkKvi| Zv‡`i m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e, eyS‡Z n‡e, Ges AvMvwgi fqvenZv 30
  • 31. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e, ¯’vbxq D‡`¨v‡M Lvc-LvB‡q †bqvi gZ †K kj¸‡jv A Zc‡¶ — AvqZ¡ Ki‡Z n‡e| Avi G KvRwU Ki‡Z wewfb cÖwZóvb I ms¯’vi cvkvcvwk MYgva¨‡gi i‡q‡Q `vwqZ¡kxj f~wgKv| GUv mZ¨ †h cÖvK…wZK `y‡hv©‡M ¶wZMÖ¯— nIqvi ûgwK evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¨ †Kvb bZzb welq bq| we‡k¦i †gvU wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbtmi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki Ae`vb GK kZvs‡ki Kg n‡jI G †`kwU Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Kvi‡Y SzwKc~Y© †`k¸wji g‡a¨ cÖ_g mvwi‡Z i‡q‡Q| wek¦ e¨v‡¼i wi‡cv‡U© †`Lv hvq Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi gy‡L SzwKc~Y© †`k¸wji g‡a¨ evsjv‡`k we‡kl bvRyK Ae¯’v‡b i‡q‡Q| D”P gvÎvi `vwi‡`ª¨i Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki †ewkifvM gvbyl Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y e¨vcK gvÎvq ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| GLv‡b RxebaviY cÖwµqv cÖZ¨¶ ev c‡iv¶fv‡e cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Dci wbf©ikxj nIqvq Rjevqy cv‡ë hvIqvi Kvi‡Y cÖvK…wZK cwi‡e‡ki cwieZ©b mvaviY gvby‡li Rxeb hvÎvq myMfxi cÖfve †dj‡e| Zvi KviY n‡jv- f~-cÖvKwZK ewkó¨:evsjv‡`k mgy`ªmgZj †_‡K M‡o 10 wgUv‡ii Kg D”PZv m¤úb GKwU e„nr e-Øxc mgf~wg| Rjevqy: G †`‡k cÖej cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM¸wji g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q b`x mgÜxq `y‡h©vM Ges DcK‚jxq c-veb, MÖx®§gÛjxq So (Kvj ekvLx), U‡b©‡Wv Ges Liv| GLv‡b †g mygx evqyi cÖfv‡e cÖPzi e„wócvZ nq Ges eb¨v †`Lv †`q| kxZKvj mvaviYZ ﮋ n‡q _v‡K| RbmsL¨v: †`‡ki †gvU RbmsL¨v cÖvq 126 wgwjqb (1998 mv‡j)| eQ‡i RbmsL¨v e„w×i Mo nvi GK `kwgK Qq kZvsk (1992-98)| RbmsL¨v e„w×i AbywgZ nvi 1997-2015 mv‡ji Rb¨ 1.4 kZvsk| RbNbZ¡ cÖwZ eM©wK‡jvwgUv‡i cÖvq 850 Rb| Iqvì wi‡mvm© Bbw÷wUDU 1998-2020 mv‡ji RbmsL¨v 190 wgwjqb Ges 2050 mv‡ji RbmsL¨v 218 wgwjqb Abygvb K‡i‡Q10| 10 Z_¨ m~Ît * wek¦ e¨v¼ Gi Ôevsjv‡`k;K¬vB‡gU †PÄ GÛ mvm‡U‡bej †W‡fvjc‡g›UÕ-WKz‡g›U * 2000 mv‡ji 22 Rvbyqvwii Av`gïgvix Abyhvqx evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU RbmsL¨v 123.1 wgwjqb, evwl©K RbmsL¨v e„w×i nvi 1 `kwgK 47 kZvsk (1991-2001),RbmsL¨vi NbZ¡ cÖwZ eM© wK‡jvwgUv‡i 834 Rb (evsjv‡`k cwimsL¨vb el© MÖ -2000) ’ * evsjv‡`‡ki gv_vwcQy wRwWwc cÖvq 389 gvwK©b Wjvi, gv_vwcQy RvZxq Avq cÖvq 376 gvwK©b Wjvi, wk¶vi nvi 65 kZvsk, cÖZ¨vwkZ Avqy¯‹vj cÖvq 68 `kwgK 2 eQi| wkï g„Z¨i nvi cÖwZ nvRvi wkï‡Z z 58wU (kn‡i 44 I MÖv‡g 62 wU cÖwZ nvRv‡i), (Kv‡i›U G¨v‡dqvm©, RyjvB 2003)| bvU: 1998-Gi RbmsL¨v Mbbvi Î wek¦e¨vsK- 2000 mv j RbmsL¨v ew×i nvi 1.6 kZvsk (1992-1998) wnmv e K Q| wK GB wi cv U© RbmsL¨v ew×i nvi 1.47 kZvsk (1991-2001) 31
  • 32. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete A_©bxwZ: evsjv‡`k we‡k¦i `wi`ªZg Ges ¯^‡ívbZ †`k¸wji GKwU| 1998 mv‡j gv_vwcQy wRGbwc (†gvU RvZxq Drcv`b) wQj gvÎ 350 gvwK©b Wjvi- †hLv‡b `w¶Y Gwkqvi †`k¸wji gv_vwcQy wRGbwc 430 gvwK©b Wjvi| evsjv‡`‡ki wRGbwc-†Z K…wli Ae`vb GKKfv‡e cÖvq 22 kZvsk, hv Rjevqyi cwieZ©‡bi gy‡L me‡P‡q SzwKc~Y© Ae¯’v‡b i‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`k Zvi kw³ m¤ú` Dbq‡b cÖ‡Póv Pvwj‡q hv‡”Q| wK ‘ we‡`kx wewb‡qvMKvixiv Rjevqyi cwieZ©‡bi m¤¢ve¨ Avk¼vq evsjv‡`‡k wewb‡qv‡Mi †¶‡Î n‡Zv`¨g n‡Z cv‡i| wk¶v: 2000 mv‡ji Ry‡b evsjv‡`k (kªxj¼v ev‡`) `w¶Y Gwkqvi Ab¨†`k¸wj‡K Qvwo‡q wk¶vi nvi 62 kZvs‡k DbxZ Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Q| K ‘ DbZ †`k¸wji Zzjbvq GLbI wk¶vi nvi Kg _vKvi `i“Y H †`k¸wji Zzjbvq evsjv‡`‡ki c‡¶ Rjevqyi cwieZ©‡bi m‡½ Lvc LvB‡q †bqv KwVb| Rb¯^v¯¨: evsjv‡`‡k eZ©gv‡b cÖZ¨vwkZ Avqy¯‹vj 58 eQ‡i G‡m `uvwo‡q‡Q| wkï g„Zz¨i nvi cÖwZ nvRv‡i 75 Rb (1992-98mv‡j)| cuvP eQ‡ii Kg eqmx wkï‡`i 56 kZvsk Acywó‡Z fyM‡Q, gvÎ 85kZvsk gvbyl wbivc` cvwb cvq| cywónxbZv I cqtwb®‹vk‡bi Afv‡e K‡jiv, Avgvkq, Wvqwiqv,nvg,wU‡Ubvm cÖf„wZ mycwiwPZ msµvgK †ivMmn ciRxex RxevYy msµg‡Y †W½y, g¨v‡jwiqv, dvB‡jwiqv, †njwgbw_wmm cÖfw„ Z †iv†Mi msµgY N‡U _v‡K| cÖvq wbg~j n‡q © hvIqv g¨v‡jwiqv Avev‡iv 1980Õi w`‡K Qov‡Z †`Lv hvq|mgMÖ †`‡ki ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’v m‡ — vlRbK bv nIqvq mgMÖ ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’v I Rxeb avi‡Yi ai‡b †UKmB cwieZ©b NUv‡bv cÖ‡qvRbxq n‡q c‡o‡Q| AbybZ ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’vi Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡k Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi SzwK e„w× †c‡q‡Q| evsjv k Rjevqy cwieZ©b cÖwµqvq Suwy KMÖ¯ ¶Îmg~n Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqvq Avµv — m¤ú` mgy‡ni we‡ePbvq `y‡h©vM Avµv — GjvKv¸wji †kªYxweb¨vm Kiv hvq| wek¦ e¨v‡¼i (1999 Gi A‡±vei) `w¶Y Gkxq A‡ji Rb¨ cÖYxZ wi‡cvU© Abyhvqx 5wU AwaK ¶wZMÖ¯— †¶Î‡K wPwýZ Kiv nq, †h¸‡jv Rjevqyi cwieZ©‡bi m‡½ m¤úwK©Z †hgb- DcK‚jxq m¤ú`, K…wl I Lv`¨, cÖvY ewPΨ I cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’v, cvwb m¤ú` I gvbe¯^v¯’¨| aiv n Q hv evsjv ki cwimsL¨vb ey¨ iv MYbv K Q| GB Kvi Y 2000 mv ji RbmsL¨v (123.1 wgwjqb), 1998 mv ji RbmsL¨v (126 wgwjqb) A c¶v Kg| 32
  • 33. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete K) DcKjxq m¤ú `i Ici cÖwZwµqv evsjv‡`k g~jZ GK wbPz e-Øxc| G †`‡ki DËivsk †_‡K `w¶‡Y f~wg µgk Xvjy n‡q †M‡Q Ges †`‡ki †ewkifvM f~wgi D”PZv mgy`ª mgZ‡ji cÖvq KvQvKvwQ| †`kwUi mgZj f~- ‰ewk‡ó¨i Kvi‡Y mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv mvgvb¨ cwigvY e„w× †c‡jB †`‡ki DcK‚jeZx© A‡ji GK eo Ask Ry‡o e¨vcK cÖwZwµqv11 †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| G welqwU NU‡Z cv‡i wb‡æv³fv‡e- 1) N~wY©So: e‡½vcmvMi DògÛjxq N~w©Y©S‡oi Ab¨Zg cÖRbb †¶Î| we‡k¦i MÖx®§gÛjxq N~wY©So¸wji `k fv‡Mi GK fvMB GB DcmvM‡i Drcb n‡q KK©Uµvw — A‡ji wewfb ¯’v‡b AvNvZ nvb‡Q| e‡½vcmvM‡i Drcb nIqv N~w©Y So¸wji Qq fv‡Mi GK fvMB evsjv‡`‡ki DcKzjfv‡M AvNvZ †n‡b‡Q| e‡½vcmvM‡i Drcb nIqv a smvZ¥K N~wY©So¸wji g‡a¨ me‡P‡q fq¼i wQj 1876 mv‡j DcK‚‡j AvNvZ nv‡b ev‡KiMÄ mvB‡K¬vb| GwU GB DcmvM‡i Drcb nIqv gvbe BwZnv‡mi me‡P‡q a smvZ¡K N~wY©So¸wji GKwU wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| Rjevqy weÁvb Abyhvqx mgy‡`ªi ZvcgvÎv gvÎ GK wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm cwigvY e„w× †c‡j N~wY©S‡oi cwigvY cÖvq `k kZvsk e„w× cv‡e| ZvcgvÎv e„w× So-SÂv‡K Av‡iv NYxf~Z Ki‡e| 1999 mv‡ji GK M‡elYvq †`Lv †M‡Q 1877 mvj †_‡K 1995 mvj ch© — e‡½vcmvM‡i m„ó cÖvq 365 wU N~wY©So DcK‚‡j AvNvZ nvbvi Av‡MB w¯—wgZ n‡q †M‡Q| wK ‘ DòZv e„w×i d‡j G ai‡Yi N~wY©So Avi w¯—wgZ bv n‡q DcK‚j AÂj Ges Af¨ ifv‡M †ewk K‡i AvNvZ nvb‡e| — 2) eb¨v: evsjv‡`k b`x gvZ…K †`k| G †`‡ki me©Î Qwo‡q wQwU‡q _vKv b`x¸wji †gvU msL¨v cÖvq 300 wUi gZ| Gme b`x¸wji g‡a¨ 54 wU Av —R©vwZK b`x| A_©vr Ab¨ †Kvb †`‡k G b`x¸wj DrcwË jvf K‡i‡Q Ges Gme b`x K‡qKwU †`‡ki mxgvbv AwZµg K‡i esjv‡`‡ki wfZi w`‡q cÖevwnZ n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki wewfb b`-b`x w`‡q †h cwigvY cvwb cÖevn e‡½vcmvM‡i cwZZ nq Zvi kZKiv 92 fvMB wewfb Av RvwZK b`x evwnZ n‡q Av‡m — © MÖx®§Kv‡j (†g †_‡K AvMó) ZvcgvÎv e„w×RwbZ Kvi‡Y wngvj‡qi Zzlvi Mjv cvwb | eªþcyÎ, M½v (cÙv) I hgybv G cÖavb b`x †e‡q †b‡g Av‡m evsjv‡`‡ki w`‡K| Avi GKB mg‡q G 11 mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZve„w×i Suwy Ki gy‡L DcK‚jxq A‡j emevmKvix RbMY‡K †`‡ki Ab¨¯’v‡b mwi‡q †bqvi †Kvb ev¯—em¤§Z my‡hvM †bB| wek¦ e¨v¼ Gi wi‡cvU© (2000) Abyhvqx, evsjv‡`‡ki DcK‚jeZx© mxgvbvq mgy`ª mgZ‡ji D”PZv eQ‡i wZb wgwjwgUvi K‡i e„w× cv‡”Q Ges Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y mgy`ª c„‡ôi Dcwifv‡Mi D”PZv ax‡i ax‡i e„w× cv‡”Q| RvwZms‡Ni Av tivóªxq c¨v‡bj (IPCC)Õi — g‡Z, AvMvgx 50 eQ‡ii g‡a¨ mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv gvÎ GK wgUvi e„w× †c‡j evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU f~-fv‡Mi 15 †_‡K 18 kZvsk GjvKv mgy‡`ª wbgw¾Z n‡q m¤ú~Y© nvwi‡q hv‡e| G msµv — wek¦e¨v‡¼i GK wi‡cv‡U© ejv n‡q‡Q Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y 2 †_‡K 3 †KvwU evsjv‡`kx bvMwiK ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡Z cv‡i| 33
  • 34. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete †`‡k ïi“ nq el©vKvj| GB eid Mjv cvwbi mv‡_ †g mygx e„wócvZ hy³ n‡q G A‡j cÖvq wbqwgZ eb¨v NUvq| Avi evqygÛ‡ji ZvcgvÎv hw` Av‡iv e„w× cvq Zvn‡j †g mygx e„wócv‡Zi m‡½ m‡½ wngvj‡qi eid Mjv cvwb `y‡Uvi cwigvYB eû¸Y e„w× cv‡e| hvi cÖwZwµqvq evsjv‡`‡k Nb Nb eb¨v †`Lv †`‡e| Gi d‡j evsjv‡`‡k eb¨vi cÖ‡Kvc12 I gvÎv e„w×i cvkvcvwk eb¨vi ¯’vwqZ¡ eû¸Y e„w× cv‡e| GLbB G †`‡ki A‡bK b`-b`x AcwiKwíZ euva wbg©vY I i¶bv‡e¶‡Y Ae¨e¯’vcbvi wkKvi n‡q cwj‡Z fivU n‡q g‡i hv‡”Q| hvi d‡j eb¨vi cvwb wb®‹vk‡bi †h cÖvK…wZK e¨e¯’v wQj ZvI AvR eûjvs‡k i“× n‡q †M‡Q| Gi d‡j eb¨vi fqvenZv eû¸Y e„w× cv‡e e‡j aviYv Kiv n‡”Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfv‡e †g mygx e„wócvZ 11 †_‡K 20 kZvsk e„w× cv‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q| Gi d‡j cvwb cÖevn 20 †_‡K 45 kZvsk e„w× cv‡e| hv eb¨v mgm¨v‡K AviI fqven K‡i Zzj‡e| G QvovI ZvcgvÎv e„w× eb¨v‡K AviI cÖej K‡i Zzj‡e| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki `yB-Z„Zxqvsk GjvKv wbqwgZ eb¨vq c-vweZ n‡”Q| 2030 mvj bvMv` †`‡ki AviI 14 `kwgK 3 kZvsk GjvKv eb¨v cÖeY n‡q DV‡e| Avi eb¨v cÖwZ‡iv‡a euva †`qv n‡jI eb¨vgy³ GjvKv¸wj 2030 mvj bvMv` eb¨v Dc`ª“Z GjvKvq cwiYZ n‡e| ZvcgvÎv hw` 20 †m: e„w× cvq Zvn‡j e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY cÖvq 10 kZvsk e„w× cv‡e hvi d‡j M½v-eª²c~Î-‡gNbv (GMB ) GB wZb cÖavb b`x‡Z cvwb cÖevn h_vµ‡g 19, 13 I 11 kZvsk e„w× cv‡e| evsjv‡`‡k we‡`kx ch©UK‡`i R‡b¨ AZ¨ — AvKl©Yxq K·evRvi †_‡K e`i‡gvKvg ch© — cÖvq 145 wKtwgt `xN© †ejvf~wg mgy`ª mgZ‡ji D”PZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y m¤ú~Y© Zwj‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| 12 mv¤cÖwZK eb¨vwPÎ q RyjvB 2002 G Aweivg el©Y Ges wZ¯—v b`xi cvwb e„wׇZ wWgjv I RvjXvKv Dc‡Rjvi cÖvq 10 nvRv‡iiI †ewk evwo Zwj‡q hvq| e„wói cvwb †MvcvjMÄ †Rjvi 3,00,000 †n±i dmwj Rwg bó K‡i Ges wPswo †Ni Zwj‡q hvIqvq e¨vcK A_©‰bwZK ¶wZ mvwaZ nq| q 1999 mv‡ji eb¨vq 40 jvL †jvK Avµv — Ges 20 nvRvi gvbyl M„nnxb nq| H eQi eb¨vq 41wU †Rjvi 35 jvL gvbyl Avµv — n‡qwQj| GQvovI DVwZ dmj, iv¯—v, †mZz Ges evu‡ai e¨vcK ¶q¶wZ nq| q 1998†Z †`kRy‡o msNwUZ eb¨v G Aewa msNwVZ me©MÖvmx eb¨v¸wji Ab¨Zg| G‡Z †`‡ki 68 kZvsk GjvKv Avµv — nq, cÖvq 10 nvRvi eM© wKtwgt GjvKv c-vweZ nq, cÖvq 3 †KvwU †jv‡Ki RxebaviY e¨vnZ nq, 2 †KvwU 30 jv‡LiI †ewk gvbyl M„nnxb nq Ges 1400 gvbyl gviv hvq| me©‡gvU ¶q¶wZi cwigvY wnmve Kiv nq cÖvq 3 wewjqb Wjvi ev 14,600 ‡KvwU UvKv| q 1997 mv‡j GKwU N~wY©S‡o 30 jvL †jvK Avµv — Ges 10 jvL M„nnviv nq| q 1995 mv‡ji GK R‡jv”Q¡v‡m 20 jvL gvbyl ¶wZMÖ¯— nq| H R‡jv”Q¡v‡m 50 nvRvi †n±i Rwgi dmj webó nq Ges cÖvq 9 nvRvi Mevw` cï gviv hvq| 34
  • 35. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete GQvovI PÆMÖvg DcK‚jeZx© †ejvf~wg¸wjI mgy‡`ª Zwj‡q hvIqvi cÖej Avk¼v i‡q‡Q| 1998 mv‡ji GK cÖwZ‡e`‡b Avk¼v Kiv n‡q‡Q †h, mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y 2030 mvj bvMv` DcK‚jxq A‡ji cÖvq 58 nvRvi †n±i Rwg mgy‡`ª wbgw¾Z13 n‡e| 2000 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡ki eb¨vgy³ GjvKv wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ `w¶Y-cwðgv‡j fqven eb¨v msNwUZ n‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q| GB eb¨vq Rvb-gv‡ji e¨vcK ¶q-¶wZ nq| ZvcgvÎv e„w× I mgy`-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× GKB m‡½ NU‡j G A‡ji wbPz GjvKv¸wj Zwj‡q hv‡e| D`vniY ª wn‡m‡e ejv hvq ZvcgvÎvi 20 †mt cwigvY e„w×i m‡½ mgy`-c„‡ôi D”PZv 450 †mt wgUvi ª cwigvY e„w× †c‡j †`‡ki †gvU AvqZ‡bi cÖvq 29 kZvsk GjvKv Zwj‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| 3) gvwUi jeYv³Zv: jeYv³ gvwU‡Z ch©vß `ªeYxq jeY _v‡K hv k‡m¨i e„w× I Drcv`b‡K ¶wZMÖ¯— K‡i _v‡K| cvbxq jeY mvaviYfv‡e †mvwWqvg †K¬vivBW (Lvevi jeY), g¨vM‡bwmqvg †K¬vivBW, K¨vjwmqvg †K¬vivBW, g¨vM‡bwmqvg mvj‡dU, mvj‡dU Ges †mvwWqvg evB Kve©‡bU Gi wgkªY| jeYv³Zvi e„w× gvwU †_‡K MvQ ev km¨‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq cvwb Ges cywó wb‡Z †`q bv, hvi d‡j MvQ ev km¨ ¶wZMÖ¯— nq| ﮋ ‡g my‡g Av`ª©Zvi †K wkK cÖeYZvi Kvi‡Y cvwb DØvwq nq, d‡j gvwU‡Z je‡Yi ¯—i c‡o _v‡K| gvwUi jeYv³Zv g~jZ wbf©i K‡i jeY cvwbi AbycÖ‡ek, †K wkK AvKl©‡Y f~-Mf©¯’ jeY cvwbi Dc‡i D‡V Avmv Ges gvwUi duvK w`‡q D‡V Avmv jeY cvwb DØvwq n‡q D‡o hvIqvi ci gvwU‡Z c‡o _vKv je‡Yi Ae‡¶‡ci Ici| evsjv‡`‡ki wbU Avev`x Rwgi cÖvq 30 kZvsk DcKzjxq A‡j Aew¯’Z| 28 jvL 50 nvRvi (2 `kwgK 85) wgwjqb †n±i DcK‚jxq Ges DcK‚jeZx© Rwgi g‡a¨ cÖvq 15 jvL (1 `kwgK 5) wgwjqb †n±i GjvKv wewfb gvÎvi jeYv³Zvq Avµv —| ﮋ FZz‡Z (b‡f¤^i-†g) evsjv‡`‡ki DcK‚jxq AÂj mvgyw`ªK †Rvqv‡ii c-ve‡b Ges †jvbv cvwbi Abyc‡ekRwbZ jeYv³Zvi Ö mgm¨vq †fv‡M| wW‡m¤^i †_‡K GwcÖj gvm ch© — hLb b`x¸wj‡Z cvwb cÖevn Kg _v‡K ZLb jeYv³ cvwb Zxeª †Rvqv‡ii †Zv‡o †gvnbvi A‡bK wfZ‡i Xy‡K c‡o| `w¶Y-cwðgv‡ji ‡Rvqvi cÖfvweZ †Rjvmg~‡ni (h‡kvi-mvZ¶xiv-Lyjbv-bovBj-ev‡MinvU- †MvcvjMÄ) 42 wU Dc‡Rjvi 31wUB wbPz GjvKvq Ges Hme GjvKv D”P jeYv³Zvq Avµv | — 4) Liv: Liv n‡”Q cvwbP‡µi Ggb GKwU Ae¯’v hLb Nwbfeb ev e„wócv‡Zi Zzjbvq ev¯úxfeb †ewk n‡q hvq| evsjv‡`‡ki DËi cwðgv‡j eQ‡ii ïK‡bv †g my‡g 1400 wgtwgt Ges el©v †g my‡g 5000 wgtwgt ch© — e„wócvZ nq|G‡`‡k mvaviYZ eQ‡ii †gvU e„wócv‡Zi 13 mgy`ª c„ô 1wgUvi D”P n‡j 10kZvsk, †`o wgUvi D”P n‡j 15.5 kZvsk, 3wgUvi D”P n‡j 23,5 kZvsk, 4.5 wgUvi D”P n‡j 33 kZvsk Rwg cvwbi bx‡P wbgw¾Z n‡e| m~Î: `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv wk¶v_©x‡`i cÖwk¶Y mnvwqKv| 35
  • 36. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete 90 kZvs‡ki gZ e„wócvZ nq gvÎ Pvi gv‡mi (Lvwid †g myg ev Ryb-‡m‡Þ¤^‡ii) g‡a¨| wK ‘y GB Pvi gv‡mI e„wócv‡Zi eÈb c×wZ‡Z eo ai‡Yi †ni- †di j¶¨ Kiv hvq| Av‡iKwU RwUjZv nj †`kRy‡o gvwUi cÖKvi‡f` Ges f~wgi wewfbZv| GLvbKvi gvwUi A‡bK iKg‡di i‡q‡Q| gvwUi GB iKg‡di Av`©ªZv aviY ¶gZvi Ici, cvwbi gvwU‡f` ¶gZv Ges Av`ª©Zv m¤úwK©Z Ab¨vb¨ ewk‡ó¨i Ici wbf©i K‡i| wK ‘ Gi d‡j †h cwigvY cvwb ev®úxf~Z n‡q evqygÛ‡j P‡j hvq Zvi‡P‡q Kg cwigvY cvwb e„wócv‡Zi gva¨‡g f~-c„‡ô wd‡i Avm‡Z cv‡i| AwbwðZ e„wócvZ I ev®úxfe‡bi A¯^vfvweK eȇbi Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki iwe (A‡±vei- †deª“qvwi), Lvwid (RyjvB-†m‡Þ¤^i) Ges cÖvK-Lvwid (gvP©-Ryb) †g my‡g wfb wfb gvÎvi Liv †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| iwe †g my‡g ev¯úxfe‡bi gvÎv e„wócv‡Zi gvÎv‡K AwZµg K‡i †M‡j ZLb gvwUi Av`ª©Zv wbf©i K‡i g~jZ Lvwid †g my‡gi †i‡L hvIqv cvwbi Dci| ga¨-iwe †g my‡gi ci cvwb ¯^íZv cÖLi n‡q I‡V| Lvwid c~e© mg‡q Live¯’v m„wói cÖavb KviY n‡”Q- (1) ﮋ w`‡bi msL¨v µgvMZnv‡i e„w×, (2) D”P ZvcgvÎv (gvP© †_‡K †g gv‡mi ga¨eZx© mg‡q ZvcgvÎv cÖvq 40 wWwMÖ †mjwmqv‡mi KvQvKvwQ Ae¯’vb K‡i), (3) gvwUi cÖ‡qvRbxq Av`ªZv n«vm| © GB mgqKvi Liv mg¯— iwe km¨,†hgb-nvBweªW †ev‡iv, Mg, Avjy, gmyi Wvj I AvDk av‡bi Ici ¶wZKi cÖfve †d‡j| Lvwid FZz‡Z Liv †`Lv w`‡j G †`‡ki cÖavb dmj Avgb avb Livi Ke‡j c‡o G RvZxq Livq cÖwZ eQ‡i cÖvq 2.32 wgwjqb †n±i Rwgi Avgb avb webó n‡q _v‡K| Gi d‡j Lv`¨km¨ Drcv`‡b NvUwZi cwigvY cÖvq 35 jvL Ub Qvwo‡q hvq| 1960 mvj †_‡K 1991 mv‡ji ga¨eZx© 30 eQi mg‡q evsjv‡`k 19 evi Liv KewjZ n‡q‡Q| 1951, 1961, 1975, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1984 I 1989 mv‡j cÖPÛ Liv †`L‡Z cvIqv wM‡q‡Q| Gme Livq †`‡ki cÖvq 47 kZvsk GjvKv Ges 53 kZvsk Awaevmx Avµv — n‡qwQj| Rjevqyi gvSvwi cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y 1979-80 mv‡j Livq AvDk av‡bi djb 7 kZvsk I M‡gi djb 61 kZvsk n«vm †c‡qwQj| Avi gvwUi Av`ª©Zv 60 kZvsk K‡g †M‡j Rjevqyi eo ai‡bi cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y †ev‡iv dm‡ji Drcv`b 55 †_‡K 62 kZvsk n«vm ‡c‡Z cv‡i| ZvcgvÎv 20 †mjwmqv‡mi †P‡q †ewk e„w× cvIqv Ges e„wócvZ 10 kZvsk K‡g hvIqv‡K cÖej Liv Ae¯’v ejv †h‡Z cv‡i| GiKg Ae¯’vq cvwb cÖevn M½v b`x‡Z cÖvq 32 fvM, eª²c~‡Î cÖvq 25 fvM Ges †gNbv‡Z cÖvq 17 fvM ch© — n«vm †c‡Z cv‡i| ﮋ †g my‡g DRvb †_‡K Avmv cÖevn K‡g hvIqvi Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki cÖavb cÖavb b`x¸wj, †hgb M½v I eªþc~‡Î cÖevn K‡g hvq| hvi d‡j cvwbP‡µ cÖ‡qvRbxq fvimvg¨ i¶v m¤¢e nq bv,hv cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’v‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i _v‡K| M½v b`xi Dci fviZ KZ…©K wbwg©Z dviv°v evu‡ai cÖwZwµqv Liv mgm¨v‡K AviI cÖej K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| mv¤cÖwZK Z_¨vbyhvqx †`Lv hvq evsjv‡`‡ki DËiv‡ji A‡bK RvqMvq f~-Mf©¯’ cvwbi ¯—i wb‡P †b‡g †M‡Q, d‡j MvQcvjvi e„w× e¨nZ n‡”Q Ges cvbxq Rj cÖvw߇Z NvUwZ †`Lv w`‡”Q| 36
  • 37. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete 5) cwjfivU cÖwµqv: evsjv‡`‡k b`xB n‡”Q cÖavb cÖvK…wZK wbq ¿K| †ewkifvM b`-b`x DËi †_‡K `w¶‡Y cÖevwnZ n‡jI, Aí wKQy msL¨K b`x c~e©-cwðg eivei cÖevwnZ| GB Av — ms‡hvMKvix b`xmg~n kZvãxi ci kZvãx a‡i †`‡ki †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq AZ¨ — ¸i“Z¡cY© ~ f~wgKv cvjb K‡i G‡m‡Q| wK ‘ eZ©gv‡b Gme b`-b`xi †ewki fvMB g‡i hv‡”Q| wKQy msL¨K b`x AZ¨ — msKxY© n‡q bve¨Zv nvwi‡q‡Q| b`x¸wji GB fivU n‡q hvIqvi Kvi‡Y jeYv³Zvi Abyc‡ek e„w× †c‡q‡Q| gv‡Qi wePiY †¶Î K‡g †M‡Q Ges eb¨v cÖeYZv e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Gme Ö wKQy evsjv‡`‡ki †ek K‡qKwU A‡ji A_©‰bwZK Kvh©Kjvc‡K ¶wZMÖ¯— Ki‡Q| ZvB G‡`‡ki cÖvY cÖev‡ni cÖavb Drm b`x¸wj‡K h_vh_fv‡e msi¶‡Y †`‡ki bxwZ wba©viK‡`i `ª“Z gb‡hvMx nIqv GKv — evÂbxq n‡q c‡o‡Q| L) Rjvf~wgi cÖwZ ekxK e¨e¯v I Rxe- ewP Ψi Dci cÖwZwµqv: wecyj msL¨K nvIi-evIi, Lvj-wej, b`x-bvjv I Ab¨vb¨ cvwb Avav‡ii Dcw¯’wZ evsjv‡`k‡K b`x-bvjv, Lvj-we‡ji †`‡k cwiYZ K‡i‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j g¨vb‡MÖvf ebvÂj my›`ieb I Zvi cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’v gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| my›`ie‡bi Ae¯’vb e‡½vcmvM‡ii mi“ As‡ki wVK Dc‡i nIqvq G ebvÂj me©‡c¶v †ewk SuywKc~Y© A‡j cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| 2050 mv‡ji g‡a¨ mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv 45 †mw›UwgUvi e„w× †c‡j mgMÖ my›`iebv‡ji cÖvq 75 fvM GjvKv mgy‡`ª wbgw¾Z n‡e| DRvb †_‡K wgwó cvwbi cÖevn K‡g hvIqvq Ges jeYv³ mvgyw`ªK cvwbi AbycÖ‡e‡ki Kvi‡Y jeYv³Zv e„w× cvIqvq GB ebv‡ji wewfb cÖvRwZ givZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| GQvovI my›`ie‡bi we¯—…Z jZv-¸j¥, †Svc-Svo cÖf„wZ ¶wZMÖ¯— nIqvi d‡j GB e‡bi Dw™¢` ewPΨI SuywKi m¤§yLxb n‡e| my›`ieb wek¦L¨vZ i‡qj †e½j UvBMvi Gi Avevm f~wg| GQvovI Ge‡b mvgyw`ªK K”Qc, †jvbvcvwbi Kzwgi, wewfb cÖRvwZi e¨vO Ges wgwó cvwbi Wjwdb h‡_ó cwigv‡Y emevm K‡i| my›`ieb nvwi‡q †M‡j Gme cÖvYxI Zv‡`i Avevmf~wg nviv‡e| miKvwi wnmve Abyhvqx eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU AvqZ‡bi cÖvq 17 `kwgK 8 fvM GjvKvq ebvÂj I e„‡¶i Av”Qv`b i‡q‡Q| eb DRv‡oi cÖwµqvq Ges ebf~wg‡K K…wlf~wg‡Z cwiYZ Kiv ev Ab¨ Kv‡R e¨env‡ii cÖeYZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y ebvÂj `ª“Z K‡g Avm‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k eZ©gv‡b 18 cÖRvwZi ¯—b¨cvqx, 30 cÖRvwZi cvwL Ges 24 cÖRvwZi Dw™¢` ûgwKi gy‡L i‡q‡Q| Rjevqyi cwieZ©b Gme cÖRvwZi Aw¯—Z¡‡K wejyß K‡i w`‡Z cv‡i| Aek¨ mviv‡`‡ki Rxe-‰ewPΨ m¤ú‡K© GL‡bv Ggb m¤¢vebvi K_v cwi¯‹vifv‡e ejv m¤¢e n‡”Q bv| M) Kwl m¤ú` I Lv`¨ Drcv` b cÖwZwµqv ‡g mygx e„wócvZ I ZvcgvÎv `y‡UviB e„w× evsjv‡`‡ki K…wl e¨e¯’vq GKB m‡½ mydj I Kzdj `yB-B e‡q Avb‡e| Rjevqy g‡Wjmg~n Abyhvqx ZvcgvÎv e„w× †`‡ki †ewki fvM ¯’v‡b me FZz‡Z av‡bi djb Kwg‡q †`‡e| kxZKvjxb e„wócvZ K‡g hvIqvi Kvi‡Y †ewkifvM kxZKvjxb dmj Drcv`b ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| Gi d‡j Dcwifv‡Mi g„wËKvi Av`ª©Zv K‡g hv‡e Ges 37
  • 38. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete f~-Mf©¯’ cvwbi cybt fivUKiY cÖwµqv K‡g hv‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j e„wócvZ wbf©i AvDk (GwcÖj †_‡K AvM÷ mgqKv‡j GB avb †evbv n‡q _v‡K) I Avgb (Ryb †_‡K †m‡Þ¤^i mgqKv‡j †h avb †evbv n‡q _v‡K) Gi Drcv`b fxlYfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU Pvlvev`‡hvM¨ f~wgi cÖvq 30 kZvskB i‡q‡Q DcK‚jxq A‡j| wK ‘ DcK‚jxq A‡j K…wl Drcv`b e„w×i cÖavb A —ivq n‡”Q jeYv³Zv| mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× DcK‚jxq A‡ji gvwU‡Z we`¨gvb jeYv³Zv‡K Av‡iv evwo‡q Zzj‡e| we‡klÁiv ej‡Qb gvÎ GK kZvsk jeYv³Zv e„wׇZ cÖwZ eQi cÖvq 2 jvL †gwUªKUb dmj Drcv`b K‡g hv‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Kvi‡Y mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZve„w× DcK‚jxq A‡ji †ejvf~wgmn mgMÖ AÂj‡K ax‡i ax‡i cvwb‡Z wbgw¾Z Ki‡e| GB wekvj f~-fv‡Mi g‡a¨ K…wlRwgI i‡q‡Q| DcK‚jxq A‡ji Rwg¸wj‡K K…wl Drcv`b¶g Rwg‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z mvaviYZ 15 eQi mgq `iKvi nq| GQvov eb¨vi Kvi‡YI K…wl Drcv`b K‡g hvq| 1988 mv‡ji eb¨vi Kvi‡Y K…wl Drcv`b 45 kZvsk Kg n‡qwQj| N) wgwó cvwb cÖev ni Ici cÖwZwµqv fwel¨‡Z ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y wngvjq ce©‡Z mwÂZ eid¯—i Mjvi cwigvY e„w× †c‡q M½v- eª²c~Î AeevwnKvi b`x¸wji cvwb cÖevn‡K Amg‡q ùxZ K‡i Zzj‡Z cv‡i| el©v FZz‡Z e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY e„w× †c‡qI b`x¸wj‡Z c-veb NUv‡Z cv‡i| Gi d‡j GB eb¨vcÖeY †`kwU‡Z eb¨vi cÖ‡Kvc Av‡iv fqven i“c wb‡Z cv‡i| el©v FZz‡Z cvwb cÖev‡ni cÖej Pv‡c Ach©vß I cvwb wb®‹vkb e¨e¯’vi Kvi‡Y eb¨v Av‡iv `xN©¯’vqx i“c jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i| wK ‘ kxZKv‡j e„wócvZ K‡g hvIqv I f~-c„‡ôi cvwbi ev®úxfeb e„w× cvIqvq m¤ú~Y© wecixZ Ae¯’vi Zix nq| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y cvwb cÖevn K‡g †M‡j cvwb NvUwZ GjvKvi cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡Z DRvb A‡j cvwb cÖZ¨vnv‡ii cwigvY e„w× cv‡e| Gi d‡j fvwU A‡j cvwb cÖevn gvivZ¥Kfv‡e e¨nZ n‡e| e‡`wkK gy`vª AR©‡b Ges cywó †hvMv‡bvi ‡¶‡Î evsjv‡`‡k grm¨ m¤ú‡`i AZ¨ — ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU Avwgl Pvwn`vi 80 kZvs‡kiI †ewk c~iY nq gvQ †_‡K| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j evsjv‡`‡ki grm¨ m¤ú‡`i Ici KZUv cÖwZwµqv co‡e Zv GL‡bv wbwðZ K‡i ejv hv‡”Q bv| Z‡e kxZKv‡j DRvb †_‡K Avmv cvwb cÖevn K‡g hvIqvq Rjvf~wgi msL¨v K‡g Avm‡e Ges Gi d‡j we`¨gvb Rjvf~wg¸wj‡Z gv‡Qi cwigvYI K‡g hv‡e| mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× †c‡j jeYv³ cvwb M½v-eª²c~Î †gvnbv w`‡q Aev‡a Av‡iv †fZ‡i XyK‡e, hv wgwó cvwbi gv‡Qi Avevm¯’j‡K ¶wZMÖ¯— K‡i Zzj‡e| cvwbi ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡j cvwb‡Z Aw·‡Rb `ªexfe‡bi cwigvYI K‡g hv‡e| hvi d‡j gv‡Qi Dchy³ Avevm¯’j¸wj we‡kl K‡i wWg cÖRb‡bi †¶Î¸wj K‡g hv‡e| DcK‚jxq A‡j N~wY©S‡oi m‡½ R‡jv”Q¡vm e„w×i SuywK G A‡j gvQ Drcv`b, we‡kl K‡i gvQ Pv‡li cwigvY Kwg‡q †`‡e| evsjv‡`k cÖwZ BDwbU GjvKvq ¯^v`y cvwbi gvQ Drcv`‡b we‡k¦i cÖ_g mvwii †`k nIqv ¯^‡Z¡I 38
  • 39. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete GL‡bv ch© — G‡`‡k grm¨ m¤ú‡`i Ici Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwµqv wb‡q †Kvb M‡elYv nq wb| Z‡e Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q †h, mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× wgwó cvwbi gv‡Qi wePiY †¶Î Kwg‡q Avb‡e| hvi d‡j gvQ Drcv`b K‡g hv‡e| GQvovI jeYv³Zv e„w×i Kvi‡Y `w¶Y-cwðg DcK‚jxq A‡ji wgwó cvwbi hvhvei gvQ¸wji Aw¯—Z¡ wecb n‡Z cv‡i| Gi d‡j DcK‚jxq A‡ji wPswo PvlI ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| b`x¸wji †gvnbv w`‡q jeYv³ cvwb †ewk cwigvY †fZ‡i XyK‡j wgwó cvwbi gv‡Qi Avevm¯’j †ewk K‡i ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| evsjv‡`‡ki grm¨ AvniY I Drcv`b LvZwUI h‡_ó eo| 1993-95 mv‡j G †`‡k eQ‡i †gvU 250,000 †gwUªK Ub ¯^v`y cvwbi gvQ Drcvw`Z n‡qwQj| GKB mg‡q †gvU 713,000 †gwUªK Ub ¯^v`y cvwbi Ges 389,000 †gwUªK Ub14 mvgyw`ªK gvQ AvnwiZ n‡qwQj| GB wekvj grm¨ AvniY LvZwUI kxZKv‡j cvwbi cÖevn K‡g hvIqvq ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| kxZKv‡j e„wócvZ I b`xi cvwb cÖevn K‡g hvIqvi cvkvcvwk ev®úxfeb e„w× cvIqvq Gmgq gv‡Qi wePiY †¶Î m¼zwPZ n‡q co‡e| GQvovI ZvcgvÎv e„w× cvIqvi Kvi‡Y cvwb‡Z Aw·‡Rb `ªwef~Z nIqvi cwigvY K‡g hvIqvi NUbv grm¨ m¤ú‡`i Ici gvivZ¥K ¶wZKi cÖwZwµqvi Rb¥ †`‡e| O) Rxe- ewP Ψi Ici cÖwZwµqv we‡k¦i GKK e„nËg g¨vb‡MÖvf ev jeYv³ Dw™¢‡`i ebvÂj my›`ieb hv, 522 Zg wek¦ HwZn¨ wn‡m‡e Av RvwZKfv‡e ¯^xK…Z| GB e‡bi AvqZb cÖvq Qq jvL GK nvRvi mvZ‡kv †n±i, hv — © mgMÖ evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU AvqZ‡bi cÖvq Pvi `kwgK k~b¨ mvZ kZvsk| GB ebvÂj Dw™¢` I cÖvY ewP‡Î¨i GK wecyj Avavi| GB ebv‡j cÖvq 334 cÖRvwZi MvQ-cvjv Ges cÖvq 269 cÖRvwZi cÖvYx i‡q‡Q| GQvovI GB e‡bi me‡P‡q eo cwiPq n‡”Q †h, GUv i‡qj †e½j UvBMv‡ii Avevmf~wg| my›`ie‡bi Ici Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwµqv AZ¨ — cÖej I my`~icÖmvix| mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv GK wgUvi cwigvY e„w× †c‡jB we‡k¦i GKK e„nËg g¨vb‡MÖvf ebvÂj my›`ieb m¤ú~Y©fv‡e mgy‡`ª wbgw¾Z n‡e| GgbUv NU‡j eZ©gv‡b my›`ie‡bi Ici wbf©i K‡i †eu‡P _vKv †R‡j, KvVy‡i, wSbyK msMÖnKvix I KvV e¨emvqx, gvIqvwj, evIqvwj BZ¨vw` wewfb †ckvi cÖvq Qq jvL gvbyl Zv‡`i Rxeb-RxweKvi cÖavb DrmwU nviv‡e| kxZKv‡j DRvb †_‡K cvwb cÖevn K‡g hvIqvi wecix‡Z mgy‡`ªi jeYv³ cvwbi e¨vcK AbycÖ‡e‡ki d‡j gvÎvwZwi³ jeYv³Zvi Ke‡j c‡o g¨vb‡MÖvf ewkó¨ m¤úb cÖRvwZmg~n wecb n‡e| DcK‚jeZx© AÂjRy‡o N~wY©So I R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi cÖejZv I ZxeªZvi gvÎv e„w× cv‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j †g mygx e„wócvZ e„w× cv‡e, hv eb¨vi ¯’vwqZ¡ I ZxeªZvi gvÎv‡K evwo‡q †`‡e| †ewk e„wócv‡Zi Kvi‡Y M½v AeevwnKvi b`x¸wj †ewk cwigv‡Y wgwó cvwb enb K‡i G‡b my›`ieb I msjM GjvKv w`‡q mvM‡i †h‡q co‡e| wK ‘ mgy‡`ªi cvwb ùxwZi Kvi‡Y DRvb †_‡K Avmv cvwb cÖevn evavcÖvß n‡q D‡ëv w`‡K cÖevwnZ n‡e| G‡Z K‡i DRv‡bi cvwb 14 m~Î: wek¦ e¨v¼ Gi wi‡cvU©-1998 39
  • 40. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete enb K‡i wb‡q Avmv b`x¸wji mgy‡`ª cvwb wb®‹vk‡b †ewk mgq jvM‡e| Gi d‡j †g mygx el©v FZz‡Z (RyjvB-‡m‡Þ¤^i) my›`ieb `xN© mgq cvwb‡Z wbgw¾Z _vK‡e| Gi d‡j my›`iebv‡ji Rjvf~wg I Luvwomg~‡n cwj Ae‡¶c‡Yi nvi e„w× cv‡e| jeYv³Zvi AvMÖvm‡bi m‡½ Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y N~wY©S‡oi m‡½ Avmv mvgyw`ªK R‡jv”Q¡‡mi gvÎv e„w× hy³ n‡j jeYv³Zv e¨vcKZi i c †b‡e| mvgyw`ªK †Rvqv‡i Avmv jeY cvwb‡Z †h me MvQ-cvjv I Rjvf~wg GZw`b wbgw¾Z nZ bv, †m¸wjI R‡jv”Q¡v‡m Avmv jeYv³ cvwb‡Z Zwj‡q hv‡e| my›`iebv‡ji cwji ¯^vfvweK e„w× I weKvk jeYv³Zvi gvÎvi Ici wbf©i K‡i| cvwb‡Z jeYv³Zvi gvÎv gvÎvwZwi³ n‡j my›`ie‡bi †fZ‡i gvwUi jeYv³Zvi ai‡YI eo ai‡bi cwieZ©b NU‡e| d‡j GB e‡bi Dw™¢‡`i cÖvK…wZK cÖRbb I ¯^vfvweK weKvk gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| Gi d‡j GB e‡bi B‡Kvwm‡÷‡gi ¯’vwq‡Z¡i Ic‡iI eo ai‡Yi cÖwZwµqv Zix n‡e| GQvovI GB ebv‡ji wVK evB‡ii As‡k M‡o IVv gvbeemwZi Kvi‡Y GB e‡bi cÖRvwZmg~n gvÎvwZwi³ jeYv³Zvi Kej †_‡K †invB †c‡Z Kg jeYv³ GjvKvq m‡i hvIqvi my‡hvMI cv‡e bv| GB `yB cÖfv‡ei mswgkª‡Y my›`iebv‡ji cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’v (B‡Kvwm‡÷g) Aw¯—Z¡ nviv‡bvi S~uwKi gy‡LvgywL n‡q co‡e| GB me m¼U †_‡K GB ebvÂj wb‡R‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cvi‡jI jeYv³Zvi gvÎvwZwi³ e„w×i Kvi‡Y GB e‡bi eZ©gvb Rxe cÖRvwZmg~‡ni mg ^q KvVv‡gv cv‡ë hv‡e| fviZxq As‡ki my›`ie‡bi AwfÁZvq †`Lv †M‡Q, jeYv³Zvi µgvMZ e„w×i Kvi‡Y ¯^v`y cvwbi MvQ my›`ixi Rb¥ n‡”Q bv| Gi cwie‡Z© †SvcSvo I jeYv³Zv mnbkxj Nv‡mi we¯—vi NU‡Q| GQvovI A‡c¶vK…Z Kg jeYv³ GjvKvq †hme my›`ixMv‡Qi Rb¥ n‡”Q Zv‡`i e„w×I Lwe©Z n‡q‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`k As‡ki my›`ie‡bI GKB cwiw¯’wZ m„wó n‡Z cv‡i| ZvcgvÎv 0.50 †_‡K 20 †mt ch© — e„w× †c‡j mgy‡`ªi cvwbi D”PZv 10 †_‡K 40 †mw›UwgUvi e„w× cv‡e hvi d‡j my›`ie‡bi cÖvq 15 kZvsk GjvKv, A_©vr cÖvq 750 eM© wKt wgt GjvKv cvwb‡Z m¤ú~Y© wbgw¾Z n‡e| hvi d‡j my›`ie‡bi Ab¨Zg AvKl©Y i‡qj †e½j UvBMvi, DwØovj, wPÎj nwiY I eb¨ ïKi cÖfw„ Zi Aw¯^Z¡ wecb n‡e hv my›`ie‡bi we¯—Z Rxe-‰ewPΨ‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e Le© Ki‡e| wb‡Pi †Uwe‡j … `w¶Y-cwðg A‡ji ûgwKMÖ¯— Rxe-‰ewP‡Î¨i cwimsL¨vb †`qv nj| P) RjR m¤ú `i Ici cÖwZwµqv : grm¨ m¤ú‡`i Ici Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwµqv m¤ú‡K© GL‡bv †Kv‡bv M‡elYv Pvjv‡bv nq wb| wK — GUv Abygvb Kiv hvq †h, mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i d‡j wgwó cvwbi gv‡Qi wePiY †¶Î Ges gv‡Qi Drcv`b `y‡UvB K‡g hv‡e| cwj fivU I jeYv³Zv e„w×i Kvi‡Y wgwó cvwbi Rjvf~wg Ges gv‡Qi wePiY †¶Î `y‡UvB m¼zwPZ n‡q co‡e| jeYv³Zv gv‡Qi cÖavb Lv`¨ RjR cÖvY¯^Ëv/cÖvYcs‡Ki Ici cÖej cÖwZwµqv Zix K‡i| wPswo I nuv‡mi Ab¨Zg cÖavb Lv`¨ kvgyK| jeYv³Zv e„w×i Kvi‡Y kvgyK cÖRvwZ ûgwKMÖ¯— n‡q co‡e| d‡j wPswo Pvl I nuvm cvjb ¶wZi m¤§yLxb n‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi mywe¯—…Z cÖfve Ges gbyl¨m„ó Kvi‡Y MZ 30 eQ‡i A‡bK cÖRvwZi wgwó cvwbi gvQ wejyß n‡q †M‡Q Avi A‡bK¸wj cÖRvwZ GLb wejyß n‡q hvIqvi ûgwKi gy‡L| 40
  • 41. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Q) Rb¯^v ¨i Ici cÖfve: evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¯^v‡¯’¨i Ae¯’v AZ¨ — wbggv‡bi| G‡`‡k Mo Avqy¯‹vj cÖvq 58 eQi, hv cÖwZ‡ekx †`k¸wji †P‡q Kg| †`‡ki cuvP eQi eqmx wkï‡`i `yB- Z„ZxqvskB IRb ¯^íZvq fyM‡Q Ges wkï g„Zz¨i nvi cÖwZ nvRv‡i cÖvq 78 Rb, hv mviv Gwkqv gnv‡`‡ki Mo nv‡ii †P‡q cÖvq wZb¸Y †ewk| G‡`‡ki †ewkifvM AmyLB h‡_ó cwiwPZ (K‡jiv, Avgvkq, Wvqwiqv, nvg, wU‡Ubvm cÖf„wZ) Ges G¸wj mvaviYZ Acywó I cq:e¨e¯’vi AcÖZzjZvi Kvi‡Y msµwgZ nIqvi my‡hvM cvq| GQvovI fvBivmNwUZ wewfb †ivM †hgb- g¨v‡jwiqv, †W½y, dvB‡jwiqv, †nj‡gbw_wmm cªf„wZi msµgY h‡_ó cwigv‡Y N‡U _v‡K| †ewkifvM †ivM msµgYB N‡U †`‡ki MÖvgv‡j-†hLv‡b ¯^v¯’¨ †mevi my‡hvM AZ¨ — Kg| G‡`‡k cÖwZ 12,884 Rb gvby‡li Rb¨ gvÎ GK Rb Wv³vi Ges 11,549 Rb gvby‡li Rb¨ gvÎ GKRb bvm© i‡q‡Q| 1980 †_‡K 1990 Gi g‡a¨ RbcÖwZ Wv³v‡ii AbycvZ Av‡Mi PvB‡Z e„w× †c‡q‡Q| GQvovI †`‡ki gvÎ 48 fvM gvbyl ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cqtwb®‹vkb myweav †fvM Ki‡Z cv‡i| Rjevqy cwieZ©b G mKj Kvi‡YB `w¶Y-cwðg DcK‚jxq A‡ji Rb¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’vq gvivZ¥K cÖwZwµqv m„wó Ki‡e| esjv‡`‡ki ZvcgvÎv FZz‡f‡` 100 †mt †_‡K 380 †mt Gi g‡a¨ IVvbvgv Ki‡jI ga¨ GwcÖj I ga¨ AvM÷ mg‡q `ve`vn e„w× ¯^v‡¯’¨i Ici cÖfve †dj‡Z cv‡i| D”PZvc I Av`ª©Zvi Kvi‡Y e„× I Acywói wkKvi wkïiv Gmgq cvwb k~b¨ZvRwbZ mgm¨vq fyM‡Z cv‡i| ZvcgvÎv GK †_‡K `yB wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm e„w× †c‡j Lye eo †Kvb cwieZ©b bv NU‡jI AvenvIqvi PigfvevcbZvi Kvi‡Y `ve`v‡ni cÖ‡Kvc e„w× †c‡Z cv‡i| d‡j Gmsµv — ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨v n‡Z cv‡i| Rb¯^v‡¯’¨i Ici Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi wKQy c‡iv¶ cÖfveI i‡q‡Q| D”P ZvcgvÎv wewfb †iv‡Mi evn‡Ki eske„wׇZ mnvqK n‡e Ges wewfb RxevYyevwnZ †iv‡Mi we¯—vi NU‡e| evsjv‡`‡k cÖwZ eQi g¨v‡jwiqv I †W½y †iv‡Mi cÖv`~f©ve †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| Gme †iv‡M cÖvq cÖwZ eQiB AmsL¨ gvbyl Avµv — n‡q _v‡Kb| mvj gvwbjv n‡”Q GKwU cwiwPZ RxevYy hv UvBd‡qW †iv‡Mi gnvgvix m„wó K‡i _v‡K| Dò I Av`ª© AvenvIqv GB †iv‡Mi we¯—…wZ NUv‡e e‡j aviYv Kiv hvq| fvi‡Zi KjKvZv‡Z †W½y RxevYyi Ici GK M‡elYvq †`Lv †M‡Q †h, ZvcgvÎvi 20 †mjwmqvm e„w×i d‡j †W½y RxevYyi Avqy¯‹vj 44 mßvn †_‡K 52 mßvn ¯’vqx n‡Z cv‡i| evsjv‡`k we‡kl K‡i `w¶Y- cwðgv‡ji AvenvIqv cwðg evsjvi Abyi c nIqvq G¯’v‡bI ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y †W½yi RxebP‡µi mgqKvj ewa©Z n‡Z cv‡i| evsjv‡`‡ki meLv‡bB gkv GK wb`vi“Y DrcvZ| gkv g¨v‡jwiqv RxevYyi me‡P‡q cwiwPZ evnK| e× Ges †bvsiv Rjvf~wg gkvi m‡e©vËg cÖRbb †¶Î| D”P ZvcgvÎv Ges `xN© w`b e„wó bv _vKvq Rvbyqvwi I †deª“qvwi gv‡m, we‡klZ kxZKv‡j Rjvkq¸wji cvwbi cwigvY K‡g hvq- G mgq gkvi DrcvZI cÖeji“c aviY K‡i| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y gkvevwnZ †iv‡Mi we¯—vi e¨cKZv jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y Ab¨vb¨ †¶Î¸wj‡Z cwieZ©b Avm‡j G‡`‡ki ¯^v¯’¨ Lv‡ZI Zvi cÖwZwµqv co‡Z eva¨| ZvcgvÎv e„w×i d‡j K‡jiv Ges eb¨vi Kvi‡Y Wvqwiqv †iv‡Mi cv`~f©ve N‡U _v‡K| Lv`¨ Drcv`‡b Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi †bwZevPK cÖwZwµqv co‡j G †`‡ki `wi`ª gvby‡li 41
  • 42. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete AcywóRwbZ mgm¨vwU Av‡iv cÖKU n‡e| µv —xq N~wY©So ev eb¨vi cÖ‡Kvc e„w× RbRxe‡b evowZ Suwy K Zix Ki‡e| Rje× GjvKv¸wj‡Z, we‡kl K‡i `w¶Y-cwðgv‡ji we¯—Y© Rjve× A‡j … Pg©‡iv‡Mi we¯—vi GK ¯^vfvweK NUbv| Gme †iv‡Mi Kvi‡Y mvaiYgvbyl kvixwiK I Avw_©K-`yB w`K †_‡KB Pvc †fvM K‡i _v‡Kb| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwµqvq Rjve×Zvi cwiwa e„w× †c‡j Av‡iv e¨vcK msL¨K gvbyl GRvZxq ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨vq `ywe©mn w`bvwZcvZ Ki‡eb| c„w_exi gvbyl evovi cvkv-cvwk evo‡Q my‡cq cvwbi Pvwn`v; A_P my‡cq cvwbi cwigvb mxwgZ Ges Gi Drm c„w_exi mKj ¯’v‡b mgvb Abycv‡Z we¯—…Z bq| gvby‡li wewfbgyLx n¯—‡¶c‡ci Kvi‡Y c„w_exi A‡bK ¯’v‡b my‡cq cvwbi Avavi `ywlZ ev webó n‡”Q| `ywbqvi cvwb m¤ú` Adzi — n‡j&I me cvwb gvby‡li e¨envi Dc‡hvMx bq| c„w_exi †gvU cvwbi 97.5 fvM †jvbv Ges 2.5 fvM wgwó cvwb| GB wgwó cvwbi 23 fvM wk‡ívrcv`‡b, 69 fvM K…wl Drcv`‡b Ges 8 fvM M„n¯’vwji Kv‡R e¨en„Z nq| we‡k¦i †gvU cvwb m¤ú‡`i gvÎ .025 fvM cvwb cvb‡hvM¨| RvwZms‡Ni RbmsL¨v msµv — GK wn‡m‡e ejv n‡q‡Q, 2025 mv‡j 48wU †`‡k emevmKvwi 280 †KvwUi&I †ekx gvbyl Ges 2050 mv‡j 54 wU †`‡ki 400 †KvwU gvbyl Kg‡ekx Lvevi cvwbi Afv‡ei m¤§yLxb n‡e| we‡k¦i cwi‡ekMZ wech©q I Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j G cvwb msK‡Ui gvÎv Av‡iv ZxeªZi AvKvi avib Ki‡e| ‡f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`k me mgq Rievqy cwieZ©bRwbZ AwfNv‡Zi cÖwZ SuywKc~Y©| MÖxY nvDmM¨vm wbM©g‡bi Kvi‡Y evqygÛj w`bw`b DËß n‡”Q| wkíKviLvbv Ges hvbevn‡bi e¨en„Z LwbR †Zj †_‡K m„ó Kve©bWvB A·vBW‡K G Rb¨ we‡kl fv‡e `vwq Kiv nq| MÖxb nvDm M¨vm †hgb- Kve©b WvB A·vBW, wmGdwm Ges Ab¨vb¨ d¬‡iv Kve©b, bvBUªvm A·vBW, I‡Rvb, wg‡_b, BZ¨vw` M¨vm z mg~n f~-c„ô †_‡K †m ikw³i e¨vK †iwW‡qkb nªvm K‡i-A_©¨vr m~h© †_‡K c„w_ex‡Z Avmv DËvc‡K wd‡i †h‡Z evav †`q| evqygÛ‡ji DòZv Gfv‡e µgk e„w× cv‡”Q| DòZv e„w×i d‡j B‡Zvg‡a¨B †gi“ AÂj I ce©Z k„s‡Mi eid Mj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q Ges mg~`ª c„‡ôi DPPZv e„w× cv‡PQ| ewa©Z Zvc gvÎv we‡k¦i Rjevqyi aib‡KI e`‡j w`‡”Q| d‡j AvenvIqvi eix NUbvewj †hgb-eb¨v, Nywb©So, Liv, Ges e„wócv‡Zi gvÎv e„w× cv‡”Q| evsjv‡`k mg~`ªc„‡ôi mvgvb¨ DPuy †f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi GKwU e-Øxc nevi d‡j AvksKv Kiv nq †h, hw` c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv e„w×i nvi AcwiewZ©Z _v‡K Z‡e AvMvgx 50 eQ‡i evsjv‡`‡ki 15-17% f~-fvM mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y †jvbv cvwb‡Z Wy‡e Zwj‡q hv‡e| MÖx¯§Kv‡j Liv Avi el©vKv‡j e„wói cÖ‡Kvc †e‡o †h‡Z cv‡i| Nb Nb †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i fqven eb¨v I NywY©So| G RvZxq cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vMmg~n cvbxq Rj I K…wl Kv‡Ri R‡b¨ e¨envi †hvM¨ wgwó cvwbi Drm¸‡jv‡K wmwgZ K‡i †dj‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfv‡e evsjv‡`‡ki DcK’jxq A‡ji bZzb bZzb GjvKvq †jvbv cvwbi AbycÖ‡ek NU‡e| d‡j K…wlKvR I gvby‡li cÖ‡qvRbxq wgVv cvwbi Zxeª msKU †`Lv †`‡e| evo‡e DËvc, µgea©gvb jebv³Zv Ges bZzb bZzb GjvKvq m„ó Rjve×Zv K…wl I grm¨Pvl‡K Ges GKB ms‡M cvbxq R‡ji mnRjf¨Zv‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— Ki‡e| eZ©gvb †f Z AeKvVv‡gv wech©¯— n‡q co‡e| my›`iebmn DcK’jxq GjvKvi 42
  • 43. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Rxe‰ewPΨ e¨vcK ûgwKi m¤§yLxb n‡e, hvi d‡j A‡bK weij cÖRvwZi Dw™¢` I cÖvYx wejyß n‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| ‡`‡ki DcK’jxq GjvKv we‡kl K‡i `w¶Y-cwðg DcK’jxq AÂj B‡Zvg‡a¨ mvM‡ii cvwbi DPPZv e„w×i cÖfv‡e Rjve×Zv, `ye©j b`x wb®‹vkb e¨e¯’v, b`x fivU, jebv³Zvi AbycÖ‡ekmn wewfb mgm¨vi wkKvi n‡”Q| d‡j G mKj A‡ji Pvlvev` e¨e¯’v gvivZ¥Kfv‡e e¨nZ n‡Z _vK‡j I GB cÖwZK’j cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Lvc-LvB‡q †bqvi gZ †Zgb †Kvb e¨e¯’v G A‡ji RbM‡bi Rvbv †bB ej‡jB P‡j| wek¦e¨vs‡Ki 2000 mv‡ji cÖwZ‡e`b Abyhvqx evsjv‡`‡ki 20-30 wgwjqb gvbyl Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ SuywKi Pig `y‡f©v‡Mi wbg©g wkKvi| hvi g‡a¨ cÖvq 50 j¶ gvbyl mivmwi my‡cq cvwbi Zxeª msK‡U f~n‡Qb|w`bw`b GB fy³‡fvMx gvby‡li msL¨v evo‡Z _vK‡e| KviY c„w_exi Ab¨vb¨ A‡ji gZ evsjv‡`‡ki DcK’jxq A‡ji mg~`ªc„‡ôi D”PZv eQ‡i 3-4 wgwjwgUvi e„w× cv‡”Q e‡j we‡klÄMY g‡b Ki‡Qb| †mRb¨ bZzb bZzb GjvKvq jeb-cvwbi cÖ‡e‡ki SuwK evo‡e| jebv³Zvi cvkv-cvwk G mKj GjvKvi wgwócvwbi Ab¨Zg Drm f~Mf©¯— wUDe‡q‡ji cvwb‡Z ‡`Lv w`‡q‡Q gvÎvwZwi³ Av‡m©wbK| d‡j DcK’jxq A‡j jebv³Zvi cvkv-cvkx Av‡m©wbK mgm¨v gvby‡li Lvevi cwbi msKU‡K Av‡iv gvivZ¥K wech©‡qi m„wó K‡i‡Q|`w¶Y-cwðgvÂj evsjv‡`‡ki g~j f~-L‡Ûi Ask bq ev Zvi m¤cÖmvwiZ AskI bq| GK mgq GB `w¶Y-cwðg DcK’jxq AÂj wQj M½v b`xi c-veb f~wg| M½vi wgwócvwbi cÖev‡n G AÂj wQj mg„×| g~jZ: GLv‡b wgwócvwbi cÖev‡ni †¶‡Î `yBevi wech©‡qi m„wó n‡q‡Q, cÖ_gZ:‡lvol kZ‡K M½v b`xi MwZgyL cwieZ©b Ges wØZxqZ:Aóv`k kZ‡Kgv_vfv½v b`xi DrmgyL eÜ n‡q hvIqv| GQvov Dbwesk DcK’jxq euva cÖKí, b`xfivU, AcwiKwíZ wPswoPvl, f~wgi wbgMgb I mgy`c‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y ª „ G A‡ji RbRxe‡b my‡cq cvwbi wZeª msKU †`Lv w`‡q‡Q| 43
  • 44. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete evsjv‡`‡k Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖZ¨ÿ NUbv mv¤cÖwZK mg‡qi eb¨v I mvB‡K¬vY wmWi evsjv‡`k †Rvqvi fvUvi †`k, el©vKv‡j eb¨v Avi So GLvbKvi cÖvK…wZK GKwU ewkó¨| wewfb mg‡q G‡`‡ki Dci w`‡q e‡q hvIqv fqven cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi BwZnvm bZzb bv n‡jI B`vwbs Kv‡j †hmKj cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM cwijwÿZ n‡”Q Zv AwZ‡Zi A‡bK `y‡h©v‡Mi mvaviY ewkó¨‡K nvi gvbvq| AvBbB AvKeix‡Z D‡j-L i‡q‡Q,Ó A great storm in 1584 which affected the district Barisal . NywY©S‡oi fqvenZvi BwZnv‡m †`Lv hvq †h, A great storm in October 1876 which affected three coastal districts of Barisal, Noakhali and Chittagong, about 200000 people died during this storm . weMZ 200 eQ‡i G‡`‡k cÖvq 97wU N~wY©So wewfb mgq AvNvZ †n‡b‡Q hvi g‡a¨ 64 wU fqvenfv‡e e¨vcK ¶q¶wZ mvab K‡i| 3 Ryb 1795 mv‡j cÖPÛ mvB‡K¬vb PUªMÖv‡gi mgy`ª e›`i GjvKvq AvNvZ nv‡b| BwZnv‡mi fqvenZg NywY©So wQj 1797 mv‡ji †g gv‡m PUªMÖv‡gi Dci w`‡q e‡q hvIqv NywY©SowU| Gi c 1822, 1869, 1876, mv‡ji fqven NywY©S‡oi AvNv‡Zi wPý e½ Rbc‡` AvRI BwZnvm n‡q Av‡Q| 1919 mv‡j `ywU NywY©S‡oi D‡j-L cvIqv hvq wVK Gfv‡e, ÓTwo great cyclone of 1919 also deserves mention if originated in two pacific about 6000 km away and it took 20 days to reach to the coast of Bangladesh . 1941, 1942 Ges 1960 mv‡jI fqven N~wY©S‡oi ZvÛe gvby‡li ü`q‡K cÖPÛfv‡e bvov †`q| Gi ci †_‡K 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1991 Ges 1997 mv‡ji NywY©S‡oi fqvenZv GLbI A‡b‡KB ¯§„wZPviY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| me©‡kl 2004 mv‡ji fqven eb¨v, 2006 mv‡ji †m‡Þ¤^i gv‡m DcK~jxq mvgyw`ªK R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi wbg©g ZvÛ‡ei wPÎ meviB ‡hgb Rvbv i‡q‡Q †Zgwb 2007 mv‡ji †`ke¨vcx fqven eb¨vi ¶q¶wZ I †fvMvw —i wPý KvwU‡q DV‡Z bv DV‡ZB c~bivq 15 b‡f¤^i 2007 mv‡j DcK’jxq †Rjv¸‡jv‡K jÛfÛ K‡i w`‡q hvq ¯§iYKv‡ji me‡P‡q kw³kvjx mvB‡K¬vY wmWi| cÖjqsKix N~Y©xSo wmW‡ii AvNv‡Z DcK’jxq GjvKvi GKwU eo Ask a sg¯‘‡c cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| g~û‡Z©i g‡a¨ cy‡iv DcK’jxq GjvKvq AvZ©bv`, AvnvRvix, nvnvKv‡i fvix n‡q I‡V AvKvk evZvm| kZ kZ cï-cvLx, M„ncvwjZ cï, eb¨ Rxe R ‘ Avi gvby‡li jvk GKmv‡_ ¯‘‡c cwiYZ nq| cÙv-†gNbv-hgybvi AeevwnKvi fqven eb¨v| Zvi ciciB wea smx N~YxSo wmWi| G‡Ki ci GK evsjv gv‡qi gvby‡li Rxeb Amnbxq S‡oi m¤§yLxb nq| 44
  • 45. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete wmW‡ii AvNvZ †_‡K Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ÿqÿwZi cwigvb Kwg‡q ivL‡Z 13 b‡f¤^i †_‡KB miKv‡ii Lv`¨ `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbg ¿Yvjq, evsjv‡`k †iWwµ‡m›U †mvmvBwU I evsjv‡`k AvenvIqv Awa`ßi DcK’jxq †Rjv¸‡jvi Rb¨ 2 b¤^i mZK© ms‡KZ bvwg‡q Z`¯’‡j 3 - 4 b¤^i mZK© ms‡KZ †`wL‡q †h‡Z civgk¨ cÖ`vb K‡i e¨vcK cÖPvibv K‡ib15| 4 b¤^i mZK© ms‡K‡Zi mgq cwi¯‹vifv‡e ejv nq †h, mvB‡K¬vY wmWi evsjv‡`‡ki `wÿ‡Y PUªMÖvg I gsjv mg~`ªe›`I †_‡K 1115 wK.wg †_‡K 1090 wK.wg. `~i‡Z¡ Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q hv 74 †_‡K 165 ev 185 gvBj MwZ‡e‡M AMÖmi n‡”Q| GwU DcK’jxq A‡j Av‡iv kw³kvjx n‡q AvNvZ nvb‡Z cv‡i e‡j AMÖxg Rvbv‡bv nq| mKj gvQ aiv †b Kv, Uªjvi I Ab¨vb¨ †b Rvb †K AbwZwej‡¤^ wbKU¯’ Avkªq †K‡›`ª ev wbivc` ¯’v‡b Ae¯’v‡bi Rb¨ ejv nq| 14 b‡f¤^i 3-4 b¤^i mZK© ms‡KZ bvwg‡q Z`¯’‡j 9-10 b¤^i mZK© ms‡KZ †`wL‡q †h‡Z civgk¨ cÖ`vb K‡i e¨vcK cÖPvibv K‡ib| 10 b¤^i mZK© ms‡K‡Zi mgq cwi¯‹vifv‡e ejv nq †h, mvB‡K¬vY wmWi evsjv‡`‡ki `wÿ‡Y gsjv mg~`ªe›`i Gi AwZ wbK‡U Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q hv iv‡Zi †h †Kvb mgq DcK’jxq GjvKvq AvNvZ nvb‡Z cv‡i Ges DcK’jxq GjvKv AwZµg Ki‡Z cv‡i| mKj DcK’jxq Rb‡Mvwôi gvbyl‡K AbwZwej‡¤^ wbKU¯’ Avkªq †K‡›`ª ev wbivc` ¯’v‡b Ae¯’v‡bi Rb¨ ejv nq| †iWwµ‡m›U Gi †m”Qv‡meK `j gvB‡K MÖv‡g MÖv‡g cÖPviYv Pvwj‡q †jvKRb‡K Avkªq †K‡›`ª hvIqvi Rb¨ ZvwM` †`Iqv nq| wK ‘ mKj cÖPvi cÖPviYvi mdjZv‡K Avg‡j †bqvi Av‡MB g~û‡Z©i g‡a¨ cy‡iv DcK’jxq GjvKvq AvZ©bv`, AvnvRvix, nvnvKv‡i fvix n‡q I‡V AvKvk evZvm| kZ kZ cï-cvLx, 15 Explanation of local cautionary signal no.4: the port is threatened by a storm but it does not appear that the danger is as yet sufficiently great to justify extreme precautionary measures. Source: Standing order on Disaster, Ministry of Food and disaster Management, Cyclone preparedness program of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society and Bangladesh Meterological Department. The severe Cyclone storm SIDR over southeast bay and adjoining area moved north- northwestwards, concentrated into a severe cyclonic storm (ECP 968 HPA) with a core of hurricane wind and was centred at 09 am today (13th November 2007) about 1115 KMs south-southwest of Chittagong port, 1030 KMs south-southwest of Cos`s Bazar port and 1090 KMs south of Mongla port move in a north/northwesternly direction. Maximum ports of chittagong, cox`s Bazar and Mongla have been adviced to lower distant warning signal number two but instead hoist warning singal number four (04). All fishing boats and trawlers over North Bay have been adviced to take shelter immediately. 45
  • 46. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete M„ncvwjZ cï, eb¨ Rxe R ‘ Avi gvby‡li jvk GKmv‡_ ¯‘‡c cwiYZ nq16| mgy‡`ªi cvwb‡Z fvwm‡q wb‡q hvq nvRvi nvRi grm¨Rxwe, DcK’jxq wbixn emwZ, R‡ji gvbyl wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ gvbZv17 m¤cÖ`v‡qi †jvKRb mn bvix-cyiæl, wkï, Avevj e„× ewbZv, ag© -eY© wbwe©‡k‡l DcK’xq Rbm¤cÖ`v‡q GK wekvj Ask hvi mwVK msL¨v I eY©bv miKvi ev Ab¨ †Kvb `vwqZ¡kxj cwZôv‡bi c‡ÿ ZvrÿwYKfv‡e eY©bv Kiv m¤¢e nqwb| wgwhqv‡Z †h cÖPvi cÖPviYv Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv LyeB mvgvb¨ I AvswkK ev wmW‡ii a smjxjvi LÛ wPΨ gvÎ| eZ©gvb ewk¦K ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y, Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi †¶‡Î wmWi Gi gZ bZzb bZzb SzuwK I fqvenZvi gvÎv e„w× †c‡q‡Q Ges †h mKj AÂj Gi Øviv Avµv Í n‡”Q Zvi g‡a¨ evsjv‡`k Ab¨Zg SuywKc~Y© Ae¯’v‡b †h i‡q‡Q Zv cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q wek¦-m¤cÖ`v‡qi mvg‡b| ZvQvov G‡`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’v, NbemwZc~Y© RbmsL¨v Ges AbybZ AeKvVv‡gvMZ Ae¯’vi Kvi‡Y SuywKi gvÎv Av‡iv evwo‡q Zz‡j‡Q| G‡¶‡Î cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM wmW‡ii nvZ †_‡K SuywKc~Y© Rb‡Mvwôi Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZi gvÎv Kwg‡q ivLv A‡bK †ÿ‡ÎB m¤¢e n‡q I‡Vwb Avi wKfv‡e cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZi mv‡_ Lvc LvB‡q gvbyl †eu‡P _vK‡Z cv‡i †m wel‡q mwVK mg‡q w`K wb‡Ï©kbv cÖ`vb, m‡PZbZv Zix I ÿwZ KvwU‡q DV‡Z RbMY‡K mnvqZv cÖ`vb Kiv GKK fv‡e miKv‡ii c‡ÿ cÖvqB Am¤¢e n‡q c‡i‡Q| †emiKvix GK wn‡m‡e ejv n‡q‡Q DcK’jxq 21 †Rjvq cÖvq 3 †KvwUi †ekx gvbyl Kg †ekx ÿqÿwZi m¤§yLxb n‡q‡Qb hvi g‡a¨ 50 jv‡Li †ekx gvbyl mivwi I gvivZ¥Kfv‡e Rvbgvj LyB‡q‡Qb| miKv‡ii fvl¨ g‡Z 3 nvRv‡ii AwaK gvbyl wmW‡ii AvNv‡Z gviv †M‡Qb| wemiKvix Rwi‡c hv ejv n‡”Q 10 nvRv‡ii D‡a © | Avi M„ncvwjZ cï-cvwL, eY¨ RxeR ‘i wnmve Avm‡j Kiv m¤¢e n‡q I‡Vwb Kv‡iv c‡ÿB| †h Z_¨B ejv n‡”Q me Abygvb wbf©i| A‡b‡K ej‡Qb ïay my›`i e‡b †h a sm jxjv mvwaZ n‡q‡Q Zv KvwU‡q DV‡Z GKKfv‡e miKv‡ii 50 eQ‡ii †ekx mgq jvM‡e| †mB mv‡_ DcK’jxq A‡ji †hvMv‡hvM, we`¨yr, cvwb e¨e¯’vcbv, wkÿv AeKvVv‡gv, Drcv`b e¨e¯’v, wkíKviLvbvi m‡e©v”P ÿqÿwZ n‡q‡Q| 16 AvenvIqv mZK© ms‡KZ bv gvbv, †eZvi h ¿ bv _vKv, AvenvIqv msµv Í Z‡_¨I `‡e©va©Zvi Kvi‡Y †ekxi fvM mgq grm¨Rxwe m¤cÖ`v‡qi †jvKRb cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡M cÖvY nvivb| Z_¨ m~Î: DcK’jxq grm¨Rxwe‡`i wbivcËvq †eZv‡ii f’wgKv, g¨vm jvBb wgwWqv †m›Uvi, A‡±ei 2002 XvKv| 17 gvbZb kã †_‡K gvbZv k‡ã DrcwË, Z‡e Zviv †e‡` bq, DcRvwZ bq, Zviv evOMvjx| gvbZviv †b Kvq emevm K‡i, ¯’‡j I‡`i Ni-evox †bB, gvbZvi gviv †M‡j cvwb‡Z fvwm‡q †`Iqv nq| Zv‡`j ¯’jfv‡M †Kvb f’-m¤úwË †bB| ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡g I‡`i †M i‡ev¾¡j f’wgKv _vK‡jI †KD I‡`i K…wZ‡Z¡i K_v g‡b K‡iwb| GgbwK MYgva¨‡gI Zv‡`i †Kvb wPÎ †Zgbfv‡e I‡V Av‡mwb| eZ©gvb wmW‡ii AvNv‡Zi ci Zv c~Yivq cÖgvwbZ n‡jv| Drm: gvbZv m¤cÖ`v‡qi RxebwPÎ I Avgv‡`i MYgva¨g- †gvnv¤§` Avãyj gvbvb, wbixÿv, 193Zg msL¨v, A‡±vei 2005, wcAvBwe, XvKv| 46
  • 47. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete †emiKvixfv‡e ejv n‡q‡Q DcK’jxq GB ÿÿwZi Kvi‡Y †`‡k 10 nvRvi †gwUªKUb Lv`¨k‡m¨i NvUwU †`Lv †`‡e| miKvi B‡Zvg‡a¨ mivmwi 5 jÿUb Lv`¨ Aby`v‡bi Rb¨ wek¦ m¤ú`v‡qi `„wó AvKl©Y K‡i‡Qb| ZvQvov miKvi `xN©‡gqv`x Dbqb cwiKívi Rb¨ Ges Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ mivmwi AvKv Í Rb‡Mvwói Rb¨ mvnvh¨ I cÖKí MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ Av‡e`b Rvwb‡q‡Qb18| miKvi me©‡gvU 1000 †KvwU gvwK©b Wjvi Dbqb mnvqZv Kvgbv K‡i‡Qb wek¦ Dbqb I `vZv ms¯’vi wbUK| hvi me UvKvB e¨q aiv n‡q‡Q DcK’jxq A‡ji †hvMv‡hvM, wkÿv, we`y¨r, my›`ieb iÿv, e›`i Dbqb, cvbxq Rj, cÖ‡qvRbxq NyY©xSo Avkªq‡K›`ª ¯’vcb Kvh©µ‡g e¨q Ki‡Z| wmW‡ii AvNv‡Z ÿqÿwZi mvwe©K wPÎ GZB fvqven †h miKvix †emiKvix D‡`¨v‡M †bqv `y‡h©vM c~bevm©b Kvh©µg AwZ mvgvb¨ e‡j AvcvZ `„wó‡Z g‡b n‡Z cv‡i| wK ‘ gvby‡li wec‡` gvbyl †hfv‡e `ªæZ mvnvh¨ mn‡hvMxZvi nvZ evwo‡q w`‡q‡Q Zv ¯§iY Kv‡ji BZwnv‡m gvbe †mevi GK D¾¡j `„óv Í n‡q _vK‡e| Avgv‡`i MYgva¨g cÖwZóvb¸‡jv `y‡h©v‡Mi c~‡e© mZK©Zv Kvh©µg Avi `y‡h©vMKvjxb mveavbZv Ges cieZ©x‡Z `ªæZ ÎvY Avi cÖ‡qvRbxh mvnvh¨ mn‡hvMxZvi Rb¨ †`kx we‡`kx mK‡ji mvg‡b ev¯ÍeZv Dc¯’vcbv Ki‡Z b~b¨Zg Kvc©b¨ K‡iwb| d‡j we‡k¦i mKj Dbq cÖwZôvb, `vZv mq¯’v Qz‡U G‡m‡Q ÿwZMÖ¯Í gvby‡li cv‡k, miKv‡ii cv‡k gvbweK mvnh¨ wb‡q| 18 wek¦ `vZv ms¯’vi cÖwZwbwaM‡bi mv‡_ eV‡K 03 wW‡m¤^i, 2007 evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii gvbbxq cÖavb Dc‡`óv W: dKiæÏxb Avn‡g`| 47
  • 48. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq - 5 Rjevqy cwieZ©b I SuywK cÖkg‡b Awf‡hvRb †K kj Awf‡hvRb n‡”Q cªKZ ev m¤¢ve¨ Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi NbNUv ev cÖwZwµqvi gy‡L c~‡e©i Ae¯’vi … m‡½ eZ©gvb ev¯—eZvi mg ^q mvab| A_©vr Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j bZzb cÖwZ‡ewkK, mvgvwRK A_ev A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’vi m‡½ Lvc LvB‡q †bqv‡K Awf‡hvRb ejv nq| GB mg q ^ cÖvK…wZK wbqgvejx ev gvbexq Kg© c×wZi g‡a¨ n‡Z cv‡i| cÖwµqv, Abykxjb Ges KvVv‡gvMZ cwieZ©‡bi gva¨‡g m¤¢ve¨ `y‡h©vMRwbZ ¶q-¶wZ Kgv‡bv m¤¢e n‡Z cv‡i, ev bZzb Zix nIqv my‡hv‡Mi mبenvi K‡i mydj e‡q Avbv †h‡Z cv‡i| Awf‡hvRb ej‡Z Lvc LvB‡q †bqvi GB avivevwnK cÖwµqv Ges Lvc LvB‡q †bIqvi Dchy³ cwi‡ek‡K eySvq| cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vi †¶‡Î Awf‡hvRb ej‡Z Ggb cwieZ©b‡K eySvq hv‡Z K‡i H cÖvwYK‚j wU‡K _vK‡Z Ges Av‡iv †ewk m¶g ev cybtDrcv`b¶g n‡Z cv‡i| mgvR weÁv‡b Awf‡hvRb ej‡Z e¨w³e‡M©i Dc‡hvMxZv Ges Av_©-mvgvwRK e¨e¯’vi mvgwMÖK AvPvi-AvPiY‡K eySvq| ZvB Awf‡hvR‡bi e¨vL¨v e¨w³ wbf©i| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi †¶‡Î Awf‡hvRb ej‡Z msNwUZ ev Avmb Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi NbNUv Ges Gi cÖwZwµqv ev cÖfv‡ei m‡½ we`¨gvb cÖwZ‡ekxK, mvgvwRK I A_©‰bwZK e¨e¯’vi mg ^qmvab‡K eySvq| GB Awf‡hvRb cÖwµqv Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m‡½ m¤úwK©Z mgm¨vmg~‡ni mgvav‡bi c_ †LuvRvi m‡½ m‡½ bZzb cÖvß my‡hvM †_‡K mydj e‡q Avbvi j‡¶¨ cwiPvwjZ nq| cwiewZ©Z Rjevqyi m‡½ Lvc LvB‡q †bqv GKwU avivevwnK cÖwµqv, cÖwZw`‡bi KvR| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y Lvc LvB‡q †bqvi ev Awf‡hvRb cÖwµqvi cÖavb bxwZ nj Awf‡hvRb ev LvcLvB‡q †bqvi m¶gZv‡K e„w× Kiv, eZ©gvb I fwel¨‡Z Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ SuywK n«vm Kiv Ges †Kvb wbw`©ó cwi‡ekMZ cwieZ©b‡K D‡c¶v K‡iB wU‡K _vKvi Dcvq D™¢veb Kiv| Avi GB Awf‡hvRb †K kj †kLv‡Z, †K kj mg~n gvby‡li Avq‡Z¡ Avb‡Z, cvwievwiK, KwgDwbwU, cÖvwZôvwbK I RvZxq ch©v‡qi cÖ‡Z¨KwU †¶‡Î m¶gZv e„w×I cÖ‡qvRb i‡q‡Q| me †¶‡ÎB AvPibMZ I e¨e¯’vcbvq cwieZ©b I mg‡qvc‡hvMx Ki‡Yi ¸i“Z¡ †`Kv †`q| †mRb¨ cÖ‡Z¨KwU †¶‡Î ev ¯Í‡iB MYgva¨‡gi mswk-÷Zvi cÖ‡qvRb i‡q‡Q| Mbgva¨‡gi mswk-÷Zvi gva¨‡g SuywK e¨e¯Ívcbv I Awf‡hvRb †K kj¸‡jv mwVKfv‡e m¤cÖmvwiZ n‡Z cv‡i| †Kvb ai‡bi Awf‡hvR‡bi Rb¨ †Kvb welq¸‡jv Aej¤^b Ki‡Z n‡e Zv MYgva¨gB evjfv‡e RbM‡bi gv‡S Zz‡j ai‡Z cv‡i| Kv‡RB Awf‡hvRb †K kj¸‡jv mwVKfv‡e cvwievwiK I KwgDwbwU ch©v‡q †cu ‡„Q w`‡Z MYgva¨‡gi `vwqZ¡ wb‡g Awf‡hvRb †K kj¸‡jv Zv‡j `iv n‡jv: wbewËg~jK Awf hvRb: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZK‚j cÖfve cwijw¶Z nIqvi Av‡MB Awf‡hvRb e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv n‡j Zv‡K wbe„wËg~jK Awf‡hvRb wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv hvq| †hgb-eb¨vi Av‡MB ïK‡bv Lv`¨ msMÖn I msi¶‡Yi e¨e¯’v †bqv| NywYSo, mvB‡K¬vb, 48
  • 49. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete R‡jv”Q¡vm cÖfw„ Zi c~‡e©B c~evfv‡mi mv‡_ mv‡_ wbe„wËg~jK Awf‡hvRb e¨vcKfv‡e Kvh©Ki © D‡`¨vM wb‡Z cv‡i| ¯^Z:ùZ© Awf hvRb: cwiewZ©Z cwi‡e‡ki m‡½ Lvc LvIqv‡Z Ges Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi (mvgwMÖK ev¯—eZv‡K Abygvb Ki‡Z bv †c‡iI) gy‡L gvbeKj¨vb ev †Kej e¨w³MZ jvf- ‡jvKmvb I evRvi cwiw¯’wZ Øviv PvwjZ n‡q †h Awf‡hvRb N‡U Zv‡K ¯^Z:ù‚Z© Awf‡hvRb ejv nq| †hgb- Ab¨ gv‡Qi †P‡q wPswo gv‡Qi `vg †ewk nIqvq A‡b‡KB Ab¨vb¨ gvQ Pv‡li cwie‡Z© wPswo Pv‡l AvMÖnx n‡q I‡Vb| weKí G ai‡bi nvRviI Awf‡hvRb Kvh©µg mgv‡Ri g‡a¨ me mgqB n‡”Q| †m¸‡jv‡K gvby‡li gv‡S e¨vcKfv‡e MÖnY‡hvM¨ K‡i †Zvjvi KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i MYgva¨g Zvi cÖPviYv Kvh©µ‡gi gvaª‡g| cwiKwíZ Awf hvRb : Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m¤¢ve¨ BwZevPK ev †bwZevPK cÖwZwµqv, G m¤ú‡K© m‡PZbZvi Ae¯’v, ivóªxq wbqg-bxwZgvjv Ges m¤¢ve¨ wewfb mycvwik‡K mycwiKwíZ I avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g †h Awf‡hvRb cÖwµqv Pvjv‡bv nq Zv‡KB cwiKwíZ Awf‡hvRb ejv hvq| †hgb- evsjv‡`‡ki `w¶Y-cwðgv‡j Pjgvb Aviwfwmwm cÖKí| cwiKwíZ Awf‡hvRb¸‡jvi wkLb¸‡jv MYgva¨g e¨vcKfv‡e cÖPvi Ki‡Z cv‡i hv‡Z K‡i GKB ai‡bi Ae¯’vq †h‡Kvb ¯’v‡b G wkLb¸‡jv Kv‡R jvMv‡Z cv‡i| e¨w³MZ Awf hvRb: G‡¶‡Î †Kvb e¨w³, cwievi ev e¨w³ gvwjKvbvaxb ms¯’v Awf‡hvR‡b D‡`¨vMx nq Ges Zv ev¯—evqb K‡i| Gai‡Yi Awf‡hvRb D‡`¨v³vi wbR¯^ Drmvn †_‡K m„wó nq| D`vniY wn‡m‡e, jeYv³ cvwbi GjvKvq Mfxi bjK‚c ¯’vc‡bi K_v ejv hvq| wK ‘ †m¸‡jvi cwi‡ek evÜeZv hvPvB Kiv‡eb †Kv_v †_‡K, †Kb Zv Kiv‡bv Riywi †m me wel‡q MYgva¨‡g †ek f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| hv‡Z K‡i e¨w³MZ Drmv‡n Av‡iv A‡bK †jvK G wel‡q GwM‡q Av‡mb| mve©Rbxb Awf hvRb: miKvwifv‡e Awf‡hvR‡bi D‡`¨vM MÖnY K‡i mKj ¯—‡i Zv ev¯—evqb Kiv‡K mve©Rbxb ev ivóªxq ch©v‡qi Awf‡hvRb ejv †h‡Z cv‡i| me gvby‡li Awfb Pvwn`v c~i‡Y Gai‡bi Awf‡hvRb †K kj ev¯—evqb Kiv n‡q _v‡K| †hgb-¯’vbxq miKvi ch©v‡q AeKvVv‡gvMZ Dbqb| Gai‡bi Awf‡hvRb Kvh©µ‡g me‡kªYxi gvby‡li AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kivi e¨vcv‡i MYgva¨‡gi Øviv cÖPvi cÖPvibv Pvjv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖwZwµqvg~jK Awf hvRb: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi ¶wZKi cÖfvemg~n cwijw¶Z nIqvi c‡i †h Awf‡hvRb cÖwµqv MÖnY Kiv nq, Zv‡K cÖwZwµqvg~jK Awf‡hvRb e‡j| †hgb- Clr ‡jvbv GjvKvq jeYv³Zv mnvqK av‡bi cÖRvwZ D™¢veb, Dbqb I Avev` Kiv| MYgva¨g GB D™¢vebv¸‡jvi MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv evwo‡q Zzj‡Z f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i| 49
  • 50. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -6 Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y h©v M Z_¨m¤cÖmviY c×wZ Avgiv mvgvwRK Rxe| Avgv‡`i mgvR Rxe‡b †hgb i‡q‡Q wfbZv, †Zgwb gvby‡li e¨w³ Pwi‡Î, wk¶vq, AvPvi-AvPi‡bI cv_©K¨ i‡q‡Q| mK‡ji B”Qv, a¨vb-avibv GK iKg bq| cÖ‡Z¨‡KiB Rxeb Pjvi c‡_ ¯^Kxq I ¯^Z ¿ ewkó¨ i‡q‡Q| †Kvb we‡kl Z_¨ ev avibv m¤cÖmvi‡bi †¶‡Î GKRb m¤cÖmviYKg©x Rbmvavi‡bi GmKj ewkó¨ cysLvbycysLfv‡e we‡k-lY K‡iB m‡PZbZv m„wói gZ Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi D‡`¨vM wb‡q _v‡Kb| cÖ‡Z¨K gvby‡li g‡a¨ Avevi Z_¨ ev Ávb wewbg‡qi †¶‡ÎI ewPΨ i‡q‡Q| †KD †`‡L, †KD Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g Z_¨ wewbgq K‡i| gvby‡li mv‡_ Z_¨ wewbgq I m¤cÖmviY Ki‡Z PviwU cÖavb cÖwµqv Aej¤^b Kiv n‡q _v‡K- c‡iv¶ †hvMv‡hvM, e¨w³MZ †hvMv‡hvM, `jxq †hvMv‡hvM I MY‡hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqv| MªvgxY Rb‡Mvwôi gv‡S Rjevqy cwieZ©b RwbZ SuywK I SuywK cÖkg‡bi †K kj wel‡q m‡PZbZv Zix Kvh©µ‡g c‡iv¶ †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvi f~wgKv e¨vcK| G cÖwµqvq ¯’vbxq RbcÖwZwbwa, Rb‡bZv, Av`k© K…lK, eÜz-evÜe, AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb I cvov- cowki gva¨‡g Z_¨ ‡c‡q _v‡Kb Ges m‡PZb nb| e¨w³MZ †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g RbMb‡K m‡PZb Kivi †Kvb ZzjbvB nq bv| e¨w³MZfv‡e Rbmvvavi‡bi g‡a¨ Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi wel‡q me©‡kl Z_¨ †`Iqv I wU‡K _vKvi †K kj m¤ú‡K© GKRb DbqbKg©x m‡PZbZv m„wói KvR K‡i _v‡Kb| e¨w³MZ †hvMv‡hvM c×wZ‡ZB Lªxwóq cÖ_g kZvãx‡Z Lªxóvb ag©hvRK‡`i gva¨‡g Pxb n‡Z gvQ Pvlc×wZ †iv‡g m¤cÖmvwiZ nq| evsjv‡`‡k Avjyi Pvl we‡`kx ewYK‡`i ØvivB ïi“ n‡qwQj| cZ©yMxR ewYK‡`i e¨w³MZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡k Avbvim I †cu‡ci Pvl m¤cÖmvwiZ nq| `jxq †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡gI Rjevqy cwieZ©b RwbZ SuywK cÖkgb wel‡q mn‡RB MÖvgxY RbMb‡`i m‡PZbZv Zix Kiv m¤¢e| G‡¶‡Î †hvMv‡hvMwe` ev DbqbKgx© mvsMVwbK mfv, cwiKíbvmfv, cÖwk¶Y mfv, mvgvwRK mfv, c×wZ cÖ`k©b, djvdj cÖ`k©b, GjvKv ågb, D‡Vvb eVK, `jxq Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g Rjevqy cwieZ©b I SuwK cÖkgb wel‡q Z_¨ m¤cÖmvib K‡i m‡PZbZv Zix Ki‡Z cv‡ib| GQvov MY‡hvMv‡hvM c×wZ‡Z AwaK msL¨K †jvKRb‡K mn‡RB Kg mg‡q Kg Li‡P †h‡Kvb Z_¨ Rvwb‡q †`Iqv †h‡Z cv‡i| e¨w³MZ †hvMv‡hvM, `jxq †hvMv‡hvM I MY‡hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g †jvKRb‡K LvcLvB‡q †bIqvi †K kj wn‡m‡e Rjve×Zvq avc Pvl, LvPvq gvQPvl, nuvm cvjb, jebv³Zvq †g‡j Pvl, KuvKov †gvUvZvRvKib, Liv cÖeb GjvKvq mewR Pvl, SocÖeY GjvKvq So mnbkxj Ni Zix Ges Lvevi cvwbi msK‡U e„wói cvwb msMÖn, cyKi ms¯‹vi I msi¶Y wel‡q nv‡Z Kj‡g ‡kLv‡bv z hvq| 50
  • 51. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete gvbyl mvavibZ †Kvb wel‡q cÖ_g †_‡KB my¯úó avibv m¤úb _v‡b bv| Ggb wK Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi gZ AZ¨ — RwUj wel‡q A‡bK †¶‡ÎB †ekxifvM gvbyl _v‡Kb mg¨K avibv AR©‡bi evB‡i| Kv‡RB mgv‡Ri gvby‡li avibv‡K mg„×kvjx Ki‡Z A‡bK¸‡jv avc AwZµg Ki‡Z nq| †m‡·‡Î †hvMv‡hv‡Mi aib¸‡jvI wfb wfb n‡q _v‡K| Rjevqy welqK Z_¨ mgcÖmvib †hvMv‡hv‡M cÖ_‡gB gvby‡li `„wó AvKl©Y Kiv nq, Gi ci Zv‡`i AvMÖn m„w÷ n‡q _v‡K, AvKvsLv ‰Zix nq, cÖZ¨qx n‡q I‡Vb, Gi ci Zviv K‡g© AvZ¥wb‡qvM K‡ib Ges cwiZ…ß nb| Avi GB †hvMv‡hvM Kvh©µ‡gi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ Ki‡Z n‡j GKRb Dbqb Kg©x Aek¨B DÏx÷ Rb‡Mvwô m¤ú‡K© mg¨K avibv _vK‡Z n‡e| Zvn‡jB wZwb Kvh©Kifv‡e Zv‡`I mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb Ki‡Z I cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ cÖ`vb Kvi‡Z cvi‡eb| mvavibZ: g‡b ivLv cÖ‡qvRb †h, GKRb wkw¶Z †jv‡Ki Zvi gvZ…fvlv m¤ú‡K 5wU `¶Zv _v‡K| †hgb- wZwb K_v ej‡Z cv‡ib, wjL‡Z cv‡ib, eyS‡Z cv‡ib, co‡Z cv‡ib Ges ïb‡Z cv‡ib| Avi GKRb A¶inxb gvby‡li Zvi gvZ…fvlvi Dci _v‡K 3wU `¶Zv †hgb- wZwb ïb‡Z cv‡ib, eyS‡Z cv‡ib Ges K_v ei‡Z cv‡ib| Kv‡RB †Kvb †kªYxi gvby‡li mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Kvi‡Z wK ai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e Zv GKRb Dbqb Kg©xi mvwe©K `¶Zv I weP¶YZvi Dci A‡bKLvwbB wbf©i K‡i| Z_¨ m¤cÖmviY I MYm‡PZbZv m„wóg~jK Kvh©µ‡g †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g ev Mbgva¨‡gi mswk-óZv AbwlKvh©| Z‡e GB Kvh©µ‡g MYgva¨‡gi ev †hvMv‡hvM gva¨‡gi cÖfve Rbgvb‡m KZLvwb Zv mwVKfv‡e cwigvc Kiv KwVb| we‡kl K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki gZ Dbqbkxj †`‡k Zv cwigvc Kiv Av‡iv KwVb| KviY G‡`‡k wgwWqv cwiwe¶Y e¨e¯’v G‡Zv `ye©j †h, †Kvb wgwWqvi cÖfveb ¶gZv KZUzKz Zv KLbB †mfv‡e ch©v‡jvPbv I M‡elbv cÖwZ‡e`b AvKv‡i cÖKvk Kiv nqwb| Z‡e a‡i †bIqv nq †h, †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g Avevje„×-ewbZv mevB‡K Kg‡ekx cÖfvweZ K‡i| gZvgZ I i“wP cwieZ©‡b mnvqZv K‡i| me MYgva¨‡gi cÖfveb ¶gZv Avevi me‡¶‡Î mgvb bq| cÖfve‡bi welqwU Avevi `k©K, †kªvZv, cvV‡Ki †kªYx web¨v‡mi DciI A‡bKUv wbf©i K‡i| hv D”P wkw¶Z‡`i‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i Zv Aíwkw¶Z ev wbi¶i‡`i cÖfvweZ bvI Ki‡Z cv‡i| †Zgwb Aíwkw¶Z ev wbi¶i‡`i hv cÖfvweZ K‡i Zv D”P wkw¶Z‡`i cÖfvweZ bvI Ki‡Z cv‡i| kni-MÖvg‡f‡`, †f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi web¨v‡m MYgva¨‡gi cÖfvweZKi‡Yi kw³i wfbZv _vK‡Z cv‡i| Avevi mswk-ó Z_¨ Dc¯’vc‡bi Rb¨ e¨en„Z DcKi‡Y wfwˇZI wfbZv I cÖfv‡ei gvÎvi †ni‡di n‡Z cv‡i| †KD Dc¯’vcbxq DcKiY †hgb- cÖK…Z e¯‘, bgybv, g‡Wj Qwe, Wv÷, †ccvo c¨vW, d¬‡bj MÖvd, e-vK‡evW©, d¬vkKvW©, wd¬cPvU cÖf„wZ| †KD Avevi cÖ`k©bxq DcKiY †hgb- †cv÷vi, cÖ`k©b †evW©, †`Iqvj cwÎKv, ey‡jwUb †evW©, cÖKvkbv, mvK©yjvi, cyw¯—Kv, cÖPvicÎ, †dvìvi, d¨v÷bxU BZ¨vw`| †KD ev cÖ‡¶cbxq DcKiY †hgb- Pjw”PÎ, ¯-vBW, wdj¥, w÷c Ifvi‡nW cÖ‡Wv-I‡cK cÖ‡RKk‡bi gva¨‡g, Avevi †KD ev kªeb 51
  • 52. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete DcKib †hgb- †iwWI, †Uc‡iKW©vi †_‡K, †KD †KD kªeb I `k©b Dfq DcKib †hgb- Pjw”PÎ, †Uwjwfkb, wfwWI K¨v‡mU †iKW©vi cf„wZi gva¨‡gB cÖfvweZ n‡q _v‡Kb| Z‡e gvby‡li Dci †hvMv‡hvM gva¨‡gi ¯^í I `xN© †gqvw` cÖfveb ¶gZv †h i‡q‡Q †m wel‡q †hvMv‡hvMwe`‡`i gv‡S †Kvb wØgZ †bB| Dc‡iv³ e³‡e¨i wb¸p A_© gv_vq †i‡LB Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ SuywK cÖkgb welqK ‡h ‡Kvb Dbqb cÖK‡íi Rbm‡PZbZv m„wóg~jK Kvh©µ‡g e¨eüZ †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g wbe©vP‡bi ‡¶‡Î we‡kl mZK©Zv Aej¤^b Ki‡Z nq| GRb¨ †h, hv‡Z wkw¶Z- wbi¶i, kni-MÖvg, awb-Mixe, ag©-eY© - †ckv, †QvU - eo, bvix-cyi“l, RvwZ - DcRvwZ, msL¨v Mwió ev msL¨v jwNó, RvZ-AwfRvZ ‡f‡` †hb †Kvb ‡kªYx-‡ckvi gvbyl Rjevqy cwieZ©b RwbZ SuywKi KviY I SuywK cÖkg‡bi wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ cÖvwßi my‡hvM †_‡K ewÂZ bv nq| 52
  • 53. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -7 Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ SuywK cÖkgb hvMv hvM Kvh©µ g e¨enZ Uzjm-mg~n me ai‡bi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨B †Kvb bv †Kvb gva¨g i‡q‡Q| †m †cÖw¶‡Z Mb‡hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨gB Mbgva¨g| GB gva¨g‡K †hfv‡e e¨envi Kiv hvq †mfv‡eB e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K| †mRb¨ mevi Av‡M cÖ‡qvRb †Kvb wel‡q wKfv‡e e¨vcK A‡_© †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g‡K e¨envi Kiv hvq †mUv wba©vib Kiv| we‡kl K‡i Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi gZ GKwU RwUj I ¸iyZ¡c~b© wel‡q RbM‡bi gv‡S m‡PZbZv e„w×i D‡`¨vM †bIqvi cÖv°v‡jB fvjgZ †f‡e wb‡Z n‡e| KviY MYgva¨g¸‡jvi ewkó¨MZ wfbZvi Kvi‡Y †KvY †¶‡Î weZvi evZ©v Kvh©Kix bvI n‡Z cv‡i| mwVKfv‡e MY‡hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î †h me ewkó¨ †`Lv hvq Zv n‡jv: 1. †ekx‡fvM †¶‡ÎB MY‡hvMv‡hvM GKKfv‡e N‡U _v‡K| wK ‘ †hvMv‡hvM n‡”Q wØgyLx cÖwµqv& mvavibZ: GKRb †kªvZv MYgva¨g ‡_‡K Z_¨ †h‡q Zvr¶wYKfv‡e Gi e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv| 2. MY‡hvMv‡hvM me mgqB wbe©vPbg~jK| MÖvnK Gi wbe©vPK| d‡j MYgva¨‡g cÖPvwiZ evZ©v †kªvZv cQ›`g‡Zv ï‡b _v‡Kb| 3. MYgva¨‡gi j¶¨ n‡jv evZ©v ev Z_¨ †ekx Rb‡Mvwôi wbKU †cu Qv‡bv| wK ‘ gva¨‡gi cÖvwß mxwgZ nIqvi Kvi‡Y Zv m¤¢e nq bv| 4. MYgva¨g we‡kl wKQy welq wb‡q nvwRi nq| wK ‘ ‡fv³v H wel‡q AvMÖnx _v‡Kb bv| 5. MY‡hvMv‡hvM gva¨‡gi KvVv‡gv mgvR, ivóª I cwi‡ek‡e‡` wfb n‡q _v‡K| d‡j KvVv‡gvMZ wfbZvi Kvi‡Y MYgva¨g evZ©v DÏxó Rb‡hvwôi Kv‡Q †cu Q‡Z e¨_© nq| Z‡e gvby‡li mv‡_ gvby‡li †hvMv‡hvM wbweoZi Kivi D`‡hv‡MB ax‡i ax‡i eû hy‡Mi mvabvi d‡j MYgva¨‡gi Rb¥ Ges wewfb DÌvb-cZb, euvav-weN AwZµg K‡i Zvi Kv‡jvc‡hvMx weKvk N‡U‡Q| hvi d‡j GKw`‡K †hgb eZ©gvb Dbq‡bi K¨vbfv‡m MYgva¨‡gi mswk-÷Zv‡K ¸i“‡Z¡i mv‡_ fvev n‡q _v‡K| Ab¨w`‡K †Zgwb †hvMv‡hvM gva¨gmg~‡ni mZK©Zvg~jK, Kvh©Ki I BwZevPK e¨env‡ii wel‡q ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv nq| †mRb¨ †h‡Kvb ai‡bi cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM I Gi SuywK cÖkg‡bi †cÖw¶‡Z RbM‡bi gv‡S m‡PZbZv m„wó‡Z Mbgva¨‡gi mwVK I Kvh©Ki e¨envi n‡Z cv‡i Ab¨Zg cÖavb †mvcvb| we‡kl K‡i MYm‡PZbZv e„w×g~jK Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z †M‡jB Z_¨ m¤cÖmvi‡bi Rb¨ †Kvb bv †Kvb †hvMv‡hvM nvwZqvi ev Uzj‡mi cÖ‡qvRb nq| †m n‡Z cv‡i cÖvPxb, †`kxq ev AvaywbK †hvMv‡hvM ev Z_¨ m¤cÖmvib gva¨g| ïay m‡PZbZv Zix Kvh©µg bq, †h †Kvb 53
  • 54. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete cÖKv‡ii Z_¨ m¤cÖmvib Kvh©µ‡gB †hvMv‡hvM nvwZqv‡ii `iKvi nq| GiKg KvRK‡g© †h mKj nvwZqvi ev †hvMv‡hvM gva¨gmg~n e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i Zv n‡jv: Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU, †Uwj‡dvb, ‡eZvi ev †iwWI, †Uwjwfkb, Pjw”PÎ, msev`cÎ, wóKvi, †cv÷vi| bvbv ai‡bi cÖKvkbv †hgb- wjd‡jU, wd¬cPvU©, wbDR †jUvi, eyK‡jU, Bbdi‡gkb c¨v‡KR, Awdwmqvj WKz‡g›U| Kvh©µg wn‡m‡e cwiPvjbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i- IqvK©kc, †mwgbvi, †Uªwbs, Iwi‡qb‡Ukb, i¨vwj, wgwQj, wgwUs cÖf„wZ| G¸‡jvi g‡a¨ me¸‡jv gva¨gB mgvbfv‡e †hgb Z_¨ m¤cÖmvi‡b f~wgKv iv‡Lbv †Zgwb MY-gvby‡li Ae¯’vb, Ae¯’v, wk¶v, ms¯‹„wZ I AÂj †f‡` G‡KKwU ‡hvMv‡hvM gva¨‡gi f~wgKv G‡KK iKg n‡Z cv‡i| Kv‡RB m‡PZbZv Zix Ki‡Z †h †Kvb GKwU ev `y-wU †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi †P‡q K‡qKwU ev gvwë Uzjm e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g Z_¨ m¤úªmvi‡bi e¨e¯’v KivB fvj| 294 Rb GjvKvevwmi (QvÎ, wk¶K, mvsevw`K, GbwRI Kg©x, wmweI †g¤^vi, K…lK, †R‡j - ZvwZ, Kvgvi-Kzgvi mn me †k¨Yxi gvbyl) mv¶vrKvi I 24 wU `wjq Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g cwiPvwjZ Ó`w¶Y-cwðgv‡ji gvby‡li †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g e¨env‡ii cÖebZv19Ó welqK GKwU Rwi‡c †`Lv †M‡Q †h, †iwWI G A‡ji gvby‡li wbKU mePvB‡Z RbwcÖq Mbgva¨g, Gi c‡iB †jvKRb ‡Uwjwfkb, msev`c·K ¸i“Z¡cY© †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g wn‡m‡e g‡b K‡ib| GQvov ~ †jvKRb KweMvb, hvÎvcvjv, cvjvMvb, cUMvb, AvÇvK‡i mgq KvUv‡bv‡KI ¸i“Z¡c~Y© we‡bv`b gva¨g wn‡m‡e ‡`‡L _v‡K| 75% bvix I 37% cyi“l bvUK †`L‡Z cQ›` K‡i, 47% bvix wm‡bgv †`Lv, 33% msev` †`Lv, 27% g¨vMvwRb †`L‡Z cQ›` K‡i| ZvQvovI †jvKRb †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g wn‡m‡e wej‡evW©, eyK‡jU, wbDR‡jUvi, †cv÷vi, gvBwKs, wóKvi, wjd‡jU, wd¬cPvU©, mvBb †evW©, wbDR †jUvi, Awdwmqvj WKz‡g›U,bvUK, cUMvb, MÖvgxY Z_¨ Av`vb cÖ`vb mfv, D‡Vvb eVK,IqvK©kc, †jUvi ivBwUs,jvB‡eªwi ¯’vcb cÖf„wZi gva¨‡g bvbv ai‡bi Z_¨ †c‡q _v‡Kb e‡j g‡b K‡ib| ‡`kxq †hvMv‡hvM c×wZI we‡bv`b gva¨‡gi cÖwZ i‡q‡Q G‡`‡ki gvby‡li bvixi Uvb& †m¸‡jvB GLb gvby‡li m‡PZbZv Zixi †¶‡Î †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡”Q| evsjv‡`‡ki †jvKms¯‹…wZ, †jvKmvwnZ¨, †j wKK-ms¯‹vi ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i †`Lv hvq G‡`‡ki gvbyl AvRI Aemi mg‡q M¤¢xiv, Muv_v, MxZxKv, Qov, RvwiMvb, Szgyi, UzmyMvb, WvK I LbviePb, avgvjx, auvauv, cyivb, cÖev`, fvIqvBqv, fvwUqvjx, i“cK_v, mvwiMvb, wKm&mv Kvwnbx, MuvRxi cuvPvjx, cvjvMvb ïb‡Z †ek cQ›` K‡i| MÖv‡gi gvbyl hv‡`i †iwWI,†Uwjwfkb †bB- msev`cÎ cvVKi‡Z cv‡i bv, wm‡bgv n‡j hvevi gZ GKUz mgq cvq bv, w`‡bi ci w`b P‡j hvq `-ygy‡Vv 19 `w¶Y-cwðgv‡ji gvby‡li †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g e¨env‡ii cÖebZv welqK M‡elYv, Aviwfwmwm cÖKí, †Kqvi evsjv‡`k| 54
  • 55. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete †c‡Ui fvZ †RvMvi Ki‡Z, Gai‡bi gvbyl GKw`‡K †hgb SuywKc~Y© Rxeb hvcb Ki‡Q Ab¨ w`‡K Z_¨nxbZv Zv‡`i‡K Av‡iv †ekx SuywKi g‡a¨ †V‡j w`‡”Q| GB ai‡bi gvby‡liv cUMvb, MÖvgxb c_bvUK †`‡L I ï‡bB mePvB‡Z †ekx Z_¨ †c‡q _v‡K| ZvQvov MÖvgxb nvU evRv‡i wkw¶Z- wbi¶i, e„×-hyeK, bvix-cyi“l mK‡jB cUMvb I bvUK †ek cQ›` K‡i Ges we‡bv`b Dc‡fvM K‡i| MÖvgxb Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb mfvi gva¨‡g, mvs¯‹…wZK Abyôv‡bi gva¨‡g, B‡Kv K¬ve wgwUs‡qi gva¨‡g Mbm‡PZbZv m„wóg~jK Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z wM‡q wkLb wn‡m‡e †`Lv †M‡Q †h, †iwWI‡Z cÖPvwiZ evZ©v AwZ mn‡R †ekx msL¨K †kªvZvi `„wó AvKl©Y K‡i MÖvgxY Rb‡Mvwôi gv‡S m‡PZbZv Zix Ki‡Z m¶g nq| cvkvcvwk D‡Vvb eVK, MÖvgxb Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb mfvi gva¨‡g MÖvgxY bvixiv `ª“Z m‡PZb nq| ZvQvov MÖvgxb Rb‡Mvwôi gv‡S m‡PZbZv Zix‡Z wPwV wjLb, †jvKMvb, bvUK, mvBb‡evW© (‡`qvj wjLb), wjd‡jU, D‡Vvb eVK, †cv÷vi, wóKvi, †ek Kvh©Ki †hvMv‡hvM ev Z_¨ m¤cÖmviY Uzjm wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| 55
  • 56. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -8 Rjevqy cwieZ©b I SuywK cÖkg‡b MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv Awf‡hvR‡bi ¶gZv ej‡Z †Kvb we`¨gvb e¨e¯’v, AÂj ev Rbmgv‡Ri †mB ev¯—eZv ev m¶gZv‡K eySvq hvi mvnv‡h¨ Zvi c‡¶ Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqv ev cÖfv‡ei m‡½ Lvc LvB‡q †bqv m¤¢e nq| Rjevqy‡Z A¯^vfvweKZv ev cwieZ©bmn Rjevqyi wewPÎZv I Pig Ae¯’vi m‡½ ev¯—em¤§Z Dcv‡q mdjfv‡e Lvc LvB‡q †bqvi ¶gZv e„wׇKB Awf‡hvR‡bi m¶gZv wn‡m‡e eySv‡bv nq| GBfv‡e Awf‡hvR‡bi m¶gZv e„w×i Ae¨nZ cÖ‡Póv Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqvi SuywK n«vm K‡i Ges †UKmB Dbq‡bi weKvk NUvq| Rjevqy cwie©bRwbZ SuywK Kgv‡Z n‡j mdj A_©‰bwZK Dbqb, `vwi`ª `~ixKiY, cÖhyw³i weKvk, wk¶v I cÖwk¶Ymn AvBwb, mvgvwRK I cÖvwZôvwbK me c ’vi mwb‡ek mvab Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| Awf‡hvR‡bi †¶‡Î †Kvb c ’v GKKfv‡e ev wbwðZfv‡e mvdj¨ e‡q Avb‡Z m¶g n‡e Zv wbwðZ bq| KLb, †Kv_vq, wKfv‡e I KZUv SuywK n«vm Kivi cÖ‡Póv wb‡Z n‡e Zv AwfÁZvi wfwˇZ wba©vwiZ n‡q _v‡K| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m‡½ Lvc LvB‡q wb‡Z †Kvb e¨e¯’vi m¶gZv e„wׇK mvaviY †h me welq¸wj cÖfvweZ K‡i _v‡K †m¸wj nj:- A_©‰bwZK m¤ú`, cÖhyw³, Z_¨ I `¶Zv, AeKvVv‡gv, cÖwZôvb I bvh¨Zv| Gi cÖ‡Z¨KwU av‡cB MYgva¨‡gi bvbv iKg f~wgKv ivLvi my‡hvM i‡q‡Q| we‡kl K‡I cÖhyw³, Z_¨, I `¶Zv Ges b¨vh¨Zvi wel‡q MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv‡K Gwo‡q hvIqvi †Kvb Dcvq bvB| GKwU RvwZ (MÖ“c) ev m¤cÖ`v‡qi Lvc LvB‡q †bqv ev Awf‡hvR‡b m¶gZv wePv‡ii †¶‡Î Zv‡`i A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’v GKwU eo wba©viK welq| `vwi`ª¨ Avi Aiw¶Z Ae¯’v A½vw½fv‡e RwoZ| GUv mvaviYfv‡e cÖwZwôZ †h `wi`ª GKwU RvwZi PvB‡Z m¤ú`kvjx GKwU RvwZ Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqv I Suwy Ki m‡½ Lvc LvB‡q †bqvi wel‡q A‡bK †ewk cÖ¯Z I —y mvg_©¨evb | wewfb †m±i Ges ch©v‡q cÖhwy ³i mnRjf¨Zv Ges e¨env‡ii Ici Awf‡hvRb ¶gZv wbf©ikxj| Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ eû Awf‡hvRb Kvh© cwiKíbvq cÖhyw³i e¨envi †UKmB mgvavb G‡b w`‡q‡Q| †hgb: mZK© ms‡KZ, D”Pdjbkxj Rv‡Zi D™¢veb, †mP, eb¨v wbq ¿Y e¨e¯’v cÖf„wZ| `y‡h©v‡Mi Av‡M, `y‡h©v‡Mi mgq I `y‡h©v‡Mi c‡i me mgqB MYgva¨g ms‡KZ †cÖib, Ab¨vb¨ cªhyw³i mÜvb †`qv, bZzb †Kvb D™¢vebvi mnR cÖvwßi Dcvq m¤ú‡K© w`K wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb K‡i MYgva¨g| djcÖmy Awf‡hvR‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb Awf‡hvR‡bi †¶Îmg~n wPwýZKiY, mnRjf¨ weKí e¨e¯’v m¤ú‡K© Ávb, weKí e¨e¯’v hvPvB Kivi mvg_©¨ Ges Dc‡hvMx e¨e¯’v ev¯—evq‡bi mvg_©¨, j¶¨wfkvix Ges mgm¨vi eÁvwbK e¨vL¨v Awf‡hvRb ¶gZvi e„wׇK Z¡iv ^xZ K‡i| cÖwkw¶Z Ges `¶ Rbej †Kvb RvwZi Awf‡hvRb ¶gZv e„w×i c~ekZ©| mvaviYfv‡e ejv hvq †h, D”P Z_¨ e¨e¯’vcbv Ges `¶ Rbej m¤^wjZ RvwZi © Awf‡hvRb ¶gZv †ewk| Avi MYgva¨g Zvi cÖPvibvq Z_¨ †`qv, cÖwkw¶Z K‡i †Zvjv, wewfb 56
  • 57. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete wel‡q mwVK e¨vL¨v `vb K‡i _v‡K hv‡Z gvby‡li Awf‡hvRb ·gZv e„w× cvq| mvgvwRK AeKvVv‡gvi Ici Awf‡hvRb m¶gZv A‡bKvs‡k wbf©i K‡i _v‡K| D`vniY wn‡m‡e ejv hvq, wdwjcvB‡bi wg›`vbvI Øx‡ci †gvU Drcvw`Z we`y¨‡Zi 90 kZvskB Av‡m Rj-we`y¨r †_‡K| wkí-KviLvbv I ¯’vbxq Dbqb GB we`y¨‡Zi Dci wbf©ikxj| wK ‘ Abve„wói mgq cvwbi Afv‡e Rj-we`y¨r cÖK‡í we`y¨r Drcv`b K‡g hvq, hv cy‡iv GjvKvq A_©‰bwZK SuywK e„w× K‡i _v‡K| †hme †`k¸wji DbZ mvgvwRK cÖwZôvb i‡q‡Q Zv‡`i Kg DbZ mvgvwRK cÖwZôvb m¤úb †`k¸wji (we‡kl K‡i ¯^‡ívbZ †`k¸wj) †P‡q †ewk Awf‡hvRb m¶gZv i‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi SuywK me‡P‡q †ewk i‡q‡Q K…wl Drcv`b, gvbeemwZ I gvbeRxe‡bi †¶‡Î| †K›`ªxq I ¯’vbxq ch©v‡qi mvgvwRK cÖwZôvbmg~‡ni gvb `~e©j nIqvq Gme cÖwZôvbmg~‡ni KvQ †_‡K `wi`ª gvby‡liv Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ SuywK †gvKv‡ejvq Lye Kg mn‡hvwMZv †c‡q _v‡K| hw` mvgvwRK cÖwZôvbmg~n b¨vqm½Zfv‡e ¶gZv Ges m¤ú` wewfb †¶Î¸wj‡Z eivÏ K‡i, Z‡e Zv Awf‡hvRb ¶gZv e„wׇZ fvj f~wgKv ivL‡e| D`vniY¯^i c: evsjv‡`‡ki mKj gvby‡li, we‡kl K‡i `wi`ª gvby‡li miKvwi Rjgnvj I LvmRwg e¨env‡ii AwaKvi †bB| Gi d‡j `wi`ª gvby‡li Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Suwy Ki †¶‡Î Lvc LvIqv‡bvi ¶gZv abx‡`i Zzjbvq A‡bK Kg| m¶gZv e„w×i GB wba©viKmg~n GKKfv‡e ¯^vaxb bq, Avevi †h _fv‡eI cwic~Y© bq| Awf‡hvR‡bi m¶gZv n‡”Q A‡bK¸wj wba©vi‡Ki mg ^q mva‡bi dj Ges GK‡`k †_‡K Ab¨ †`‡k I mg‡qi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z Awf‡hvRb m¶gZvi ZviZg¨ n‡q _v‡K| A_©bxwZ‡Z †bv‡ej weRqx A_©bxwZwe` Aa¨vcK AgZ©¨‡mb e‡j‡Qb,Ó¯^vaxb msev`cÖevn †h ¯^vaxb MYZvw ¿K †`‡k Aby‡gvw`Z, †m‡`‡k KLbB `ywf©ÿ nqwb|Ó Avi weL¨vZ MY‡hvMv‡hvMwe` Dbjevi k¨vg g‡b K‡ib, Dbqkxj †`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Db‡b MY‡hvMv‡hv‡Mi cy‡ivkw³ KLbB e¨eüZ nqwb| †`‡ki MYZ ¿vqb I Z_¨ cÖev‡ni gvÎvi m‡½ Av_©-mvgvwRK e¨e¯’vi Dbqb †h‡nZz mivmwi m¤úwK©Z †m‡nZz KZ©„Z¡ev`x ivóª I kvmb e¨e¯’vq Kvw•LZ Dbqb KLbB m¤¢e nq bv| cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi gZ fqven welqmg~n †gvKv‡ejvq MY‡hvMv‡hvM gva¨gmg~‡ni f’wgKv MYZvw ¿K iv‡óª GK iKg nq Avi KZ©„Z¡ iv‡óª wfb iKg †Pnvivq Ae¯’vb K‡i| wK ‘ ¯^vaxb, e¯‘wbô `vwqZ¡kxj mvsevw`Kzvi Dchy³ cwiwek weivRgvb bv _vK‡j †mB †`‡k N‡U hvIqv ‡h †Kvb cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejv Kiv KZ©Zev`x miKvi e¨e¯’vq m¤¢e bvI n‡Z cv‡i| we‡kl „ ¡ K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki gZ Dbqbkxj †`‡k cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejv Ki‡Z ¯^vaxb I gy³ mvsvw`KZvi cÖ‡qvRbxq Acwinvh©| †mB mv‡_ MYgva¨g ‡hvMv‡hvM gva¨gmg~‡ni f~wgKv‡K me©vwaK ¸iæ‡Z¡i mv‡_ we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q _v‡K| †m n‡Z cv‡i †jvKR gva¨g, wcÖ›U ev B‡j±ªwbK †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g| 57
  • 58. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete K) †jvKR gva¨‡gi f~wgKv weÁv‡bi eûgyLx Kj¨v‡Y gvbe Rxe‡bi A‡bK DbwZ I wbivcËv wbwðZ K‡i‡Q Zv‡Z †Kvb m‡›`n bvB| we‡kl K‡i cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM †_‡K wbivcËv jv‡fi Rb¨ AvaywbK MY‡hvMv‡hvM gva¨g¸‡jv `y‡h©v‡Mi c~e©vfvm cÖPvi K‡i _v‡K| wK ‘ evsjvi Dˇii wngvjq I Ab¨vb¨ kjgvjv †_‡K wbM©Z cÙv, †gNbv, eªþcyÎ Avi hgybvi AeevwnKvh MwVZ G f~-L‡Ûi †ekxi fvM gvbyl¸‡jv MÖv‡g emevm K‡i| G‡`i †ekxi fvMB K…wl Kv‡Ri Dci wbf©ikxj| K…wl KvR QvovI †QvU LvU nvRviI †ckvi †jvK Mªv‡g emevm K‡ib| wk¶vi w`K †_‡K Zviv ¯^í wkw¶Z ev Awkw¶‡Zi msL¨vB †ekx| A_P †h †Kvb m¤cÖmviY Kvh©µ‡g G‡`i f~wgKv A‡bK| cÖwk¶Y K¬v‡m e³…Zvi gva¨‡g aviYv jv‡fi †¶‡Î G †kªYxi †jvKRb †Zgb GKUv ¯^v”Q›` †eva K‡ib bv| wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM G‡`i wbKU g~j¨nxb| Avi AvaywbK ‡hvMv‡hvM gva¨g Z_v †eZvi, †Uwjwfk‡b m¤cÖmvwiZ cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨vw` MÖn‡bi †¶‡Î e¨vcK AcviMZv G‡`i _v‡KB| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Awbnv, mwVK I ch©vß mg‡qi Afve| GKgvÎ †jvKR ‡hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡gi ØvivB G‡`i‡K bZzb bZzb I cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Rvbv‡bv m¤¢e| we‡kl K‡i cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi mg‡q G †hvMv‡hvM †ekx Kvh©Ki n‡q _v‡K| hyM GwM‡q hv‡”Q weÁv‡bi mv‡_, weÁvb G¸‡”Q cÖhyw³i mgv Íiv‡j Avi cÖhyw³ GwM‡q Pi‡Q gvby‡li m‡½| wK ‘ evsjv‡`‡ki Rb‡Mvwôi gv‡S GB weÁvb m¤§Z aviYvi wKQyUv e¨Z¨q j¶ Kiv hvq| GLv‡b evK †hvMv‡hvM †hgb Kvh©Kix †Zgwb G †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î †jvK K_v, †jvKms¯‹…wZ, cÖev`-cÖePb I †`kR avivi e¨e¯’vi AZ¨ Í djcÖmy| wewfb †jvKms¯‹…wZ, †jvKKvwnbx, cÖev`-cÖePb Avgv‡`i mgvR Rxeb‡K AjsK…Z I DbZ K‡i‡Q| †mB cÖvPxbKv‡ji gvby‡li Qov, †k-vK, cÖePb I cÖev‡`I Øviv Rxe‡bi Pig mZ¨‡K mnRfv‡e e¨³ K‡i‡Q| Zvi cÖwZwU †Qvqv GB evsjvi cÖwZwU ci‡Z ci‡Z AvRI Qwo‡q wQwU‡q i‡q‡Q| evOvjx Rxe‡bi Ggb †Kvb †¶Î †bB †hLv‡b †jvKR Áv‡bi aviv Abycw¯’Z we‡kl K‡i cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi wel‡q Avgv‡`i †jvKR wek¦vm, M©vZv, ms¯‹vi, cÖev` cÖePb‡K mg„× K‡i Zz‡j‡Q hy‡M hy‡M|AvaywbK weÁv‡bi GB jvMvgnxb hy‡MI evhvjx mgv‡R cÖPwjZ cÖev` I wKse` Íx¸‡jvi AwaKvskB `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡eivi †¶‡Î Kvh©Ki Z_¨ enb K‡i e‡j cÖgvwbZ| G‡`‡ki gvby‡li wbKU `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejv I e¨e¯’vcbvh cÖPwjZ †jvKR Ávb, a¨vb-aviYv, cÖPwjZ DcK_v, cÖev`mg~n hyM hyM a‡i e¨eüZ n‡q G‡m‡Q| Rvbgv‡ji ¶q¶wZi cwigvb Kwg‡q‡Q - `y‡h©v‡Mi c~‡e©, `y‡h©vMKvjxb I `y‡h©v‡MvËi cwiw¯’wZ‡Z wK Ki‡Z n‡e Zvi Dcvq wb‡Riv †ei K‡i‡Qb| cÖev` cÖeP‡bi g‡a¨ `y‡h©v‡Mi c~e©fvm, mZK©xKiY I `y‡h©vM cwiw¯’wZ †gvKv‡ejvi Dcvq msµv Í hveZxq Z_¨ i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv eZ©gvb hy‡MI AZ¨ Í djcÖmy f~wgKv †i‡L _v‡K| GLb ch© Í G‡`‡ki gvbyl bvbv Kvi‡Y †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g wn‡m‡e †eZvi, †Uwjwfkb, msev`c‡Îi mywe`v cÖn‡bi †¶‡Î A‡bKvs‡kB ewÂZ I wew”Qb _v‡Kb| weÁv‡bi GB Pig DbwZi hy‡M emevm K‡iI `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejvi Rb¨ RbMb‡K m¶g K‡i †Zvjvi 58
  • 59. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete e¨e¯’v G‡`‡ki `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv KZ©„c‡¶I wbKU †bB| GLb ch© Í evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii wbKU `y‡h©vM m¤úwK©Z cye©vfvm`v‡bi Rbª GK eQ‡ii †ekx cyi‡bv Z_¨ msi¶‡Yi e¨e¯’v †bB ev Zviv msi¶‡Y iv‡Lb bv| Kv‡RB G‡`‡ki gvby‡li esk cigcivq Zv‡`I †h Ávb I AwfÁZv Kv‡R jvwM‡q GLbI ch© Í `y‡h©vM g~û‡Z© D™¢~Z cwiw¯ÍwZ †gvKv‡ejv K‡i _v‡K| Zv‡`i G Ávb I AwfÁZvi g~j †h wfwË Zv n‡”Q Zv‡`i `xN© w`‡bi we‡k-lYg~jK ch‡e¶Y| Kv‡RB miKv‡ii wbw`ó wefv‡M `vwqZ¡ cÖv߇`i wbKU `y‡h©vM msµv Í Z‡_¨i Afve _vK‡jI Avgv‡`I cÖvPxb HwZn¨gwÛZ mgv‡Ri g‡a¨ `y‡h©vM wel‡q †jvKR Áv‡bi Afve †bB| Avi †mB †jvKR Áv‡bi I AwfÁZvi mv‡_ weÁvb wfwËK Z‡_¨I A‡bK ‡¶‡ÎB wgj i‡q‡Q& hw`I †eÁvwbK we‡k-lb MÖv‡gi H gvbyl¸‡jvi ‡`Iqvi m¶gZv bvB| KviY G¸‡jv Zviv esk cig civq AR©b K‡i‡Q| †mRb¨ †`‡ki †h †Kvb cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi c~e©vfvm cÖ`vb I `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejvi Rb¨ miKvwi †emiKvwi ms¯’v I cÖwZôvb ch©vß eÁvwbK Z‡_¨i Afve i‡q‡Q GB ARynvZ bv †`wL‡q eiO †`kxh R&nv‡bi e¨envi K‡i AvMvg c~e©vfvm cÖ`vb K‡I `y‡h©vM cwiw¯_wZ †gvKv‡ejvi Rb¨ Ziw Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Zvn‡I †jvKR Áv‡bi g‡a¨ jywK‡h _vKv Z_¨vw` †h †Kvb ai‡bi `y‡h©vMRwbZ Szwu K cÖkgb I cwiw¯’wZi Dbq‡b Abymibxq Ae`vb ivL‡Z cvi‡e| KviY G mKj †jv ms¯‹…wZ ¯^vaxb I cwieZ©bkxj Ges †g wLK cÖPviB †jvK ms¯‹…wZi cÖavb ewkó¨& †mRb¨ `y‡h©vM m¤úwK©Z †jvKRÁv‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxq cwieZ©b I cwiea©b Kv m¤¢e| Avi †mfv‡eB G Ávb‡K `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejvq e¨vcKfv‡e Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi my‡hvM i‡q‡Q| MY‡hvMv‡hvM I MYgva¨g we‡klÁMY g‡b K‡ib †h, `y‡h©vM m¤úwK©Z c~e©vevm cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î ch©vß Z‡_¨I Afv‡e AvaywbK MYgva¨gI cÖ‡qvRbxq c~e©vfvm cÖ`vb Ki‡Z m·g nq bv| †m‡¶‡Î †`kxq Áv‡bi cÖwZdjb AvaywbK MYgva¨‡gi Øviv NUv‡bv †M‡j †h †Kvb cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi c~e©vfvm h_vh_ mg‡q cÖPvi Kiv m¤¢e| KviY G‡`‡ki †jvKms¯‹…wZ, †jvKms¯‹vi, †jvK-cÖK…wZi avivi †fZi evwni fvjfv‡e cix¶v - bxwi¶v Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h, M¤¢xiv, Muv_v, MxwZKv, Qov, RvwiMvb, Szgyi,, UzmyMvb, WvK, Lbvi ePb, auvauv, cyivb, cÖev`, fvIqvjx, fvwUqvjx, i cK_v, mvwiMvb, †k-vK, ePb- cÖePb, cÖev` cÖf„wZ †jvK ms¯‹…wZi Dcv`v‡bi g‡a¨ `y‡h©vM msµv Í bvb Z_¨vw` i‡q‡Q Ges †m¸‡jv hyM hyM a‡i gvby‡li gv‡R `y‡h©v‡Mi c~e©fvm †hgb †`h †Zgwb `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejvi Rb¨ wK Kibxq †m mKj Z_¨ I enb K‡i| MÖvgxY †jvK mgv‡R `y‡h©vM msµv Í †jvKvwqZ Ávb, †K kj ev cÖev`¸‡jv‡K `y-fv‡M fvM K‡i Av‡jvPbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| (1) c~efvm c×wZ wb‡Ï©kK (2) `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejv wb‡Ï©kK| © `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejv wb‡Ï©kK Avevi `y-iKg n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb- cÖ¯‘wZg~jK I mvov g~jK| `y‡h©v‡Mi c~e©vfvm cvIqvi †¶‡Î Ges cÖ¯‘wZ MÖn‡bi Rb¨ Lbv m„÷ ePb MÖvgxY Rbc‡` GKwU Kvh©Ki Dcvq wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…Z| Z‡e Lbvi eP‡bi evB‡iI A‡bK cÖev`-cÖePb, †K gj I aviYv i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv‡K MÖvgxY †jvKR‡bi wbKU eb¨v, Liv, e„w÷, cvnvox Xj, NywY©So, Zzdvb, 59
  • 60. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete R‡jv”Q¡vm, b`x fvOb, Kvj‰ekvLx ev U‡b©‡Wv, wkjve„wó, kZ¨cÖevn Ges g½vi c~e©vfvm †c‡q _v‡Kb| MÖvgxY †jvKR‡bi gv‡S wKQy wPivqZ c~e©vfvm †K kj i‡q‡Q| Zviv evZv‡mi †eM, evZv‡mi MwZ ev w`K, cvwb cÖev‡ni ¸Z, cvwb DVvi gvÎv, cvwbi is Ges cvwb‡Z Zv‡ci cwigvb, †g‡Ni MwZ cÖK…wZ, Kzqvkvi gvÎv, gvwU‡Z ayjvi cwigvb, ïK‡bv ev †fRv cÖf„wZ wbi cb K‡i eb¨v ev Livi, So ev R‡jv”Q¡vm, e„wó ev gZ¨ cÖevn Ges g½v ev ¯^vfvweKZv msµv Í AvMvg c~e©vfvm wbY©q K‡i _v‡Kb| G msµv Í †jvKR aviYv¸‡jv Ggb †h, Lovq Sov, PÎ gv‡m DˇI Kzqvkv _vK‡j eo eb¨v nq, eb¨vi Av‡M cvwbi is †Nvjv _v‡K| eb¨vi c~e©g~û‡Z© cvwb VvÛv _v‡K, AvKv‡k †Rvqvi eB‡Q Lye kxNÖB b`x‡Z cvwb evo‡e, mKv‡j Kzqvkv _vK‡j kxNÖB e„w÷ n‡e, `w¶Y w`K †‡K Kzqvkv”Qb evZvm DËigyLx eB‡Z ïi“ Ki‡j DRv‡bfvix e„wó I eb¨v m„w÷ K‡i| `w¶Y w`K †_‡K Dˇi evZvm eB‡Z ïi“ Ki‡j DRv‡b e„wó n‡e Ges eb¨v n‡e, `w¶Y-cwðg w`K †_‡K DËi c~e© w`‡K GKUvbv evZvm †mB mv‡_ †gN _vK‡j DRv‡b fvwi e„wó n‡e hv eo eb¨vi myw÷ Ki‡e Ges PÎ- ekv‡L c~e© w`‡K we`y¨r PgKv‡j Liv n‡e| g~jZ GmKj aviYvi gvS w`‡q eb¨v I Liv msµv Í †h c~e©vfvm cvIqv hvq Ges AvaywbK weÁvbwfwËK c~e©vfv‡mi cv_©K¨ Lye †ekx bq| †m Kvi‡YB †jvKR G avibvi wfwˇZB MÖvgxY †jvKRb eb¨v ev Livi gvÎv wbY©q Ki‡Z m¶g nb| d‡j Zviv eb¨v I Livi Kvi‡Y m„÷ gvivZ¥K Suwy K Gwo‡q hvIqvi gZ c~e© cÖ¯w‘ Z MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| ¶z`ª cÖvYx I KxUcZ‡½i MwZ wewa I AvPiY j¶¨ K‡ii Avgv‡`i MÖvgxY Rbc‡`i gvbyl evb- e„wói c~evfvm †c‡q _v‡Kb| gvbyl AwfÁZvi Av‡jv‡K ch©‡e¶Y I we‡k-lY K‡i †h‡q _v‡Kb © †h, eb¨v Avmb n‡j wccov `j †eu‡a wWg gy‡L K‡i †eov ev LyuwU †e‡q Dc‡i DV‡Z ïi“ K‡i, e¨vO Dc‡i Avk¨q †bq, eb¨vi Av‡M e¨vO I ¸Bmvc Wv‡K, `je×fv‡e dwos Do‡j e„wócvZ I So n‡q _v‡K, gvwQi DrcvZ evo‡j e„wócvZ nq, mKvj †ejvq cwðg w`K †_‡K Kv‡Ki WvK ïb‡j el©Y Avmb, w`‡b wkqvj iv‡Z KvK- evQyi †Kv‡j nv¤^v WvK evb Zzdv‡bi j¶Y| KzKi Kvbv Ki‡j eb¨v wKsev Zzdvb wKsev Lv`¨vfve †`Lv †`q, Rô¨ Avlvp gv‡m bZzb cvwb z †c‡q gvQ jvwd‡q hZ`yi DV‡e †m eQi eb¨vi cvwb Z‡Zv`yi DV‡e| K…wlcÖavb G‡`‡ki gvbyl cÖavbZ K…wl KvR K‡iB Rxeb avib K‡i _v‡Kb| gv‡V gv‡V d‡j bvbv dmj| K…l‡Ki Drcvw`Z GB k‡m¨I djb †_‡KI `y‡h©v‡Mi cye©vfvm †c‡q _v‡Kb viv| †hgb- Av‡g avb, KuvVv‡j evb, †ZZz‡j Zzdvb, a‡Âi Avev` Lvivc n‡j eb¨v nq| Gfv‡e bvbv ai‡bi k‡m¨i Drcv`b nIqv bv nIqvi gvÎv we‡k-lY K‡iI gvbyl `y‡h©v‡Mi AvMvg c~e©vfvm †c‡q _v‡Kb| AvKw¯§K eb¨v ev cvnvox X‡ji wel‡q miKvwi ch©v‡q †Kvb c~evfvm e¨e¯’v © Avgv‡`i †`‡k bvB| wK ‘ Avgv‡`i cÖexYiv AvenvIqv I b`xi wKQy wKQy AvjvgZ †`‡L eyS‡Z cv‡ib †h cvnvox Xj ev AvKw¯§K eb¨v n‡Z cv‡i wK bv cv‡i| †jvKR GB aviYvi 60
  • 61. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Dci wfwË K‡iB †jvKRb Zv‡`i Rvb gvj i¶vq eªwZ nb| ‡m‡¶‡Î ¯’vbxq c~e©vfvm n‡jv- nVvr b`x‡Z cvwbi †eM †e‡o hvIqv, ccwbi is †Nvjv nIqv I cvwbi mv‡_ †dbv AveR©bv, KvV , Kqjvi ¸‡ov cÖf„wZ †f‡m Avmv, b`x‡Z †XD I †kuv †kuv kã nIqv, †gN I evZvm cvnv‡oi w`‡K `ª“Z avweZ nIqv, evZvm Mig nIqv I †cvKv gvK‡oi Dc`ªe †e‡o hvIqv| GmKj c~evfv‡mi †cÖw¶‡Z ¯’vbxq †jvKRb‡K m‡PZb Ki‡Z wk½v, mvB‡ib, †Pv½v, wUb © evRv‡bv ev gvBK w`‡q †jvKRb‡K wbivc` Avkª‡q †h‡Z ejv nq| cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡KB †hvMv‡hv‡Mi G mKj ¯’vbxq gva¨g¸‡jv MÖvgxY Rbc‡` AZ¨ Í Kvh©Kix| NywY©So, Zzdvb ev R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi c~e©vfvm wewfb cÖvK…wZK cwieZ©b ev RxeR ‘I AvPiY †`‡L ey‡S _v‡Kb| Mfxi mg~‡`ª ev b`x‡Z gvQ ai‡Z wM‡q †R‡j‡`i †b Kvq †h †eZvih ¿ _v‡K Zv †bUIqv‡K©i evB‡i _v‡K weavq Zv Kv‡R jv‡M bv| Zv‡`i wbR¯^ aviYvi wfwˇZ `y‡h©v‡Mi c~e©vfvm wba©vib K‡ib| G‡¶‡Î gvbyl Zv‡`i AwfÁZvi Av‡jv‡K †`‡L‡Qb †h, AvKvk jvj n‡q †M‡j Ges evZvm †kuv †kuv Ki‡j, Mv‡q Mig evZv‡mi SvcUv Abyf~Z n‡j, GKvav‡i KzKzi WvK‡Z _vK‡j, f¨vcmv Mig Abyf~Z n‡j, AvKv‡k †_vKv †_vKv †gN Do‡j, w`‡bi †ejvq AÜKvi n‡q Avm‡j, evZv‡mi wecwiZ w`‡K †gN _vK‡j, mg~‡`ª cÖPÛ †e‡M evZvm eB‡j, AwZwi³ †XD DV‡j, cyK‡ii cvwb ¯^vfvwe‡Ki †P‡q DËß n‡j, Rjvk‡qi me gvQ †f‡m z DV‡j, Mevw` cïi Mv‡q AwZwi³ gvwQ †`Kv †M‡j, mvM‡i gvQ †ekx aiv co‡j, wccov †ekx †ekx †eo n‡j, mg~‡MÖi cvwb †ekw Mig Abyf~Z n‡j, Øxc mg~‡n cvwKi Avbv‡Mvbv K‡g †M‡j gvbyl eyS‡Z cv‡ib †h, NywY©So, Zzdvb ev R‡jv”Q¡vm n‡Z cv‡i| Gmg‡q Dcw¯’Z mK‡j wg‡j wbb©q K‡ib wec‡`i gvÎv Ges wec` †gvKv‡ejvi Rb¨ Kibxqmg~n| Zviv Zv‡`i mvg_© Abyhvqx ZLb cÖ¯w‘ Z ce© mvovi †Póv K‡ib| Avi †jvKR‡bi m‡PZbZvi Rb¨ wbivc` Avk¨‡q †h‡Z civgk© †`b, †jvKR‡bi `ª“Z Rvbvi Rb¨ gmwR‡`i gvB‡K AvRvb †`b ev †Nvlbv cÖ`vb K‡ib, †`qv `i“` c‡ob, hvi hvi ag© g‡Z cÖv_©bv K‡ib| b`x fv½b wel‡q MÖvgxY Rbc‡` A‡bK K_v, Mvb I Qovi mÜvb cvIqv hvq| K_vq e‡j Av¸‡b cyo‡j wKQy _v‡K wK ‘ b`x‡Z fv½‡j wKQyB _v‡K bv| b`xi cv‡oi gvby‡li Rb¨ ZvB ejv nq- Ób`xi Gcvo fv‡½ I cvo M‡o GB †Zv b`xi †Ljv, mKvj †ejvi Avwgi †i fvB dwKi mÜv †ejv|Ó b`xi cv‡oi gvb~‡liv Zv‡`i AwfÁZvi Av‡jv‡KB eyS‡Z cv‡ib †h Zvi emZ evwowU KZw`‡bi g‡a¨ Ab¨Î mwo‡q wb‡Z n‡e| cÖexYMY cvwbi ey`ey‡`i AvK…wZ, NbZ¡ I msL¨v †`‡L fvO‡bi ZxeªZv I MwZ cÖKw… Z Av›`vR Ki‡Z cv‡ib| b`x fvOb msµv Í Q›`, Mv_v, I †k-v‡K ejv nq ÓDRv‡b fvOb fvwU‡Z Pi, H P‡i KB‡iv bv Ni| fvwU‡Z fvOb DRv‡b Pi †mB P‡i emZ Ki|Ó GB n‡jv †jvK Áv‡bi gva¨‡g b`x fvO‡bi gZ mgm¨vq gvby‡mi Kibxq w`K wb‡Ï©kbv| G Áv‡bi mv‡_ eÁvwbK Áv‡bi †Kvb cv_©K¨ ev Ø›Ø bvB| 61
  • 62. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Kvj ekvLx m¤ú‡K©I †jvKR aviYv cvIqv hvq| †hgb- Ckvb †Kv‡bi †g‡N So I‡V †e‡M, So nIqvi Av‡M gkv-gvwQ †ekx nq, m~h© †Wvevi Av‡M bxj e‡Y©i kxl †h w`‡K †`Lv hv‡e †mw`‡K So e„wó n‡e, AvKv‡ki DËi cwðg‡Kv‡b MvQyqv †gN †`Lv †M‡j So nq| S‡oi mgq Kuvmvi †c-‡U Xs K‡i AvIqvR nq, wk½v dzwK‡q mevB‡K mZK© Kiv nq| eo So n‡j A‡b‡K kxj †bvov evB‡i Qy‡o †d‡j, †KD _vjv evmb †cUvq| Zv‡`i wek¦vm gvby‡li kã †c‡q kqZvb †cZx Dc‡i D‡V hvq A_ev Ab¨w`‡K P‡j hvq| f~wgK‡¤úi wel‡q †jvKR aviYv i‡q‡Q †h, GKwU lv‡oi `ywU wks Av‡Q| GKwU wks‡qi Dci c„w_exUv fi K‡i Av‡Q| foK…Z wks‡q K¬vw Í Abyf~Z n‡j lvowU c„w_ex‡K Ab¨ wks‡q ¯’vbv Íi K‡i, Gmgq c„w_ex ‡Ku‡c I‡V| Lovq gvby‡li ¶wZi gvÎv †e‡o †M‡j ev Rwg‡Z exR eybvi Rb¨ e„wói cvwbi Afve †`Lv †M‡j gvbyl GLbI ag©xq Dcvmbv K‡i e„wó bvgv‡bvi Rb¨| wn›`y bvix cyi“‡liv D‡cvl K‡i `j †eu‡a Mvb K‡i evox‡Z evox‡Z wf¶v K‡i †mB wf¶vi UvKv w`‡q kxZjv †`exi cuyRv K‡i| gymjgv‡biv bdj bvgvR Av`vq K‡i †`vq †gvbvRvZ K‡ib| GLbI Lov cÖeb GjvKvq G¸‡jv j¶¨ Kiv hvq| cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©M I `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK cÖkg‡bi wel‡q †jvKR Áv‡bi GiKg nvRviI aviYv i‡q‡Q| G¸‡jvi †ekxi fv‡MiB eÁvwbK wfwË Lu‡R cvIqv bv †M‡jI G Abyfw~ Z¸wjB gvby‡li y `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK e¨e¯’vcbvi g~j cuywR e‡j g‡b K‡ib| Kv‡RB Gi Av‡e`b I ¸i“Z¡‡K †QvU K‡i †`Lvi Dcvq †bB| eis AvaywbK weÁvb wfwËK MYgva¨‡gi †Qvqv, mwVKfv‡e m¤cÖmvi‡bi gva¨‡g G‡`‡ki g‡a¨ msNwVZ A‡bK `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejv AwZ mn‡RB Kiv m¤¢e| GLv‡b †jvKR gvaa¨g AvaywbK gva¨‡gi cÖwZc· bq eis cwic~iK| L) wcÖ›U wgwWqv I Gi f’wgKv g‡b Kiv n‡q _v‡K †h wKQzUv Ae‡PZb, ¯^Z©:ùzZ© wKsev wKQz cwigvb cwiKwíZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g wn‡m‡e Aóv`k kZvãxi †kl wmwKfvM, †MvUv Dbwesk kZvãx Ges weskkZvãxi cÖvi¤¢ ch© Í MY‡hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g wn‡mwe msev`c‡Îi f’wgKvi K_v ¯§iY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| wkí cø‡ei d‡j mgvRZvw ¿K wew”Qb I ÿ`ª Drcv`‡bi RvqMvq h ¿wbf©i e„nËi Drcv`‡bi cÿ †bq †mKv‡ji msev`cÎ| †mB Drcv`‡bi AbyKj e¨e¯’v wn‡m‡e e¨w³¯^vZ , e¨w³¯^vaxbZv, z ¿ hyw³ev`x `„wófw½, bvixi ¯^vaxbZv I AwaKvi Ges mvg Í †¯^ivPv‡ii ¯’‡j MYZvw ¿K ivR‰bwZK e¨e¯’v msev`c‡Îi g~j w_g ev cÖavb aviv n‡q `uvovq| msev`c‡Î cÖPvwiZ Z_¨ e¨e¯’vq g¨vm-cÖWvKkb, mgvRcwieZ©b I AMÖgLx hvÎvq eivei AbyKj wQj| KzcgÛzKZvi ~ z z e`‡j cwi”Qb hyw³ev`x `„wófw½, RbMY‡Kw›`ªK ivR‰bwZK e¨e¯’v ev MYZ‡ i mnMvgx ¿ Dcv`vb wn‡m‡e Z_¨ cÖev‡ni gva¨g wn‡m‡e msev`cÎ f’wgKv cvjb K‡i| g~jZ: mvgvwRK, 62
  • 63. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete A_©‰bwZK e¨e¯’v wewbg©v‡Yi Kv‡R Z_¨cÖhyw³ Z_v MYgva¨g‡K mycwiKwíZfv‡e e¨env‡ii `„óv Í c„w_ex‡Z i‡q‡Q| eB wj‡L, msev`cÎ cÖKvk K‡i Ggb GKUv cÖPvi KvVv‡gv Zix Kiv hvq hvi Lei, e¨vL¨v, Z_¨ cwi‡ekb aviv, g~j¨‡eva I `„wófw½ Kvw•LZ mgvR MV‡bi AbyKz‡j bvbv fv‡e KvR K‡i| cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡M wcÖ›U wgwWqv wn‡m‡e msev`cÎ wbi‡cÿ, ¯^vaxb, e¯‘wbô, mr, h_v_©, `vwqZ¡kxj I cwiQ&b Z_¨ cÖev‡ni KvR Kivi bwRi G‡`‡k i‡q‡Q| `y‡h©v‡Mi Suwy K n«vmKiY, Rxeb I m¤ú` i¶vq MYgva¨g wn‡m‡e msev`cÎ †ek BwZevPK f’wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| †m mnvq‡Ki f~wgKv cvjb K‡i wewfb †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU mvaviY I kw³kvjx †hvMv‡hvM ‡bUIqvK© †hgb M‡o Zzj‡Z cv‡i †Zgwb cv‡i SuywKc~Y© KwgDwbwUi gvby‡li gv‡S Kvh©Ki m‡PZbZv M‡o Zzj‡Z| HwZnvwmK we‡k-l‡Y †`Lv hvq †h, hy‡M hy‡M ‡hvMv‡hvM gva¨gmg~n `y‡h©v‡Mi mgq, `~‡h©v‡Mi Av‡M I `y‡h©v‡Mi c‡i ¸i“Z¡c~Y© I AwaKZi Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Q| hLbB GKwU `y‡h©vM AvNvZ nv‡b ZLbB MYgva¨gmg~n H `y‡h©v‡Mi ¶q¶wZi wPÎ Zz‡j a‡i RvZxq miKvi I Av ÍR©vwZK ch©v‡q mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZvi Av‡e`b Rvwb‡q| ZvQvov MYgva¨‡g A‡bK mgq `y‡h©v‡Mi c~‡e©B c~e©vfvm w`‡q miKvi‡K, miKv‡ii mswk-ó wefvM GgbwK RbMY‡KI mZK© K‡i †`Iqvi KvR K‡i _v‡K| eZ©gv‡b miKvimg~n, `vZvms¯’vmg~n, Dbqbms¯’v, GbwRI, gvbevwaKvi cÖwZôvbmn mK‡jB GK ev‡K¨ ¯^xKvi K‡ib Ges wek¦vm K‡ib †h, MYgva¨g mwZ¨Kvi A‡_©B `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK n«vmKiY I `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbvq Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i - `y‡h©v‡Mi wel‡q Av‡jvPbv K‡i, e¨vL¨v we‡k-lY K‡i, SuywKi gvÎv wbi cb K‡i, wewfb †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i gv‡S †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv Ki‡Z mnvqZv K‡i, SuywK wbim‡b `xN©¨‡gqv`x Kvh©µg ev¯Íevq‡bi c‡¶ cÖPvibv Pvwj‡q, Suwy Kc~Y© KwgDwbwU¸‡jv‡Z emevmiZ gvby‡li gv‡S `y‡h©vM wel‡q m‡PZbZv Zix K‡i| g~jZ: `y‡h©vM cÖeY mKj GjvKv‡ZB wgwWqv¸‡jv hv‡Z Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv Kvh©µg‡K mnRZi K‡i †m wel‡q ïay †hvMv‡hvM †ev×vMYB `„wó wbe× K‡ibwb, Dbqb we‡klÁ, mgvR we‡k-lKMYmn mswk-ó mKj gnj welqwU ¸i“Z¡mnKv‡i we‡ePbv Ki‡Qb| M) B‡j±ªwbK wgwWqv I Gi f~wgKv: B‡j±ªwbK wgwWqv wn‡mwe †iwWI I †Uwjwfk‡bi `vcU hLb Pi‡g ZLb c„w_exi wekj `wi`ª Rb‡Mvwôi `vwi`ª we‡gvPb, wbiÿiZv `~ixKiY, ¯^v¯’¨‡mev cÖ`vb, K…wl I wk‡íi Dbqb mn RvZxq Rxe‡bi ¸iæZ¡cY© welq jvjb I weKvg mvab Ki‡Q GB B‡j±ªwbK wgwWqvmg~n| ~ B‡j±ªwbK wgwWqvq gvby‡li KvR‡K mnR Ki‡Z, AvaywbKvqb Ki‡Z ms‡hvwRZ n‡q‡Q me©vaywbK cÖhwy ³| †hgb- wfwWI, †dvb, Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bUmn wWwRUvj cÖhwy ³mg~n| d‡j me©vwaK cÖhyw³ mg„× wgwWqv †h‡Kvb mf¨Zvi MwZ‡K evwo‡q w`‡Z cv‡i| cv‡i Dbq‡bi kx‡l© 63
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  • 66. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete MÖnY Ki‡Z mÿg nb| Z‡e m¤cÖPvi AvbyôvwbKfv‡e ïiæ nq 1920 mv‡ji 2iv b‡f¤^i Av‡gwiKvi wcUmevM© n‡Z| Gi ci 1922 mv‡j e„‡U‡b †eZvi m¤cÖPvi ïiæ nq| fvi‡Z †eZvi m¤cÖPvi ïiæ nq 1932 mv‡j| 1937 mv‡j fvi‡Zi w`wjø †K›`ª †_‡K †eZv‡I msev` ey‡jwUb cÖPvi K‡i| 1939 mv‡ji 16 wW‡m¤^I XvKv †eZvi m¤cÖPvi ïiæ K‡i| Gi ci 1947 mv‡ji AvM÷ ch© Í weªwUk-fviZ miKvi, 1947 mvj †_‡K 1971 mv‡ji 26 gvP© ch© Í cvwK¯Ívb miKvi Ges 1971 mv‡ji 26 gvP© Gi ci †_‡K MYZvw ¿K evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii mg‡q †eZv‡ii cÖPvi bxwZ wfb wfb wQ‡jv| RvZxq me cwieZ©b I Pvwn`vi cvkvcvwk Av ÍR©vwZK Pvwn`vi cÖwZ jÿ †i‡L cÖ‡qvRbxq cwieZ©b mvab K‡I wek¦ †eZvi e¨e¯’vi mv‡_ evsjv‡`k †eZvi GKB my‡Î Muv_v n‡q Av‡Q| HwZnvwmK we‡køl‡Y †`Lv hvq, evsjv‡`k †eZvi G‡`‡ki bvbv `y‡h©v‡M AMÖbx f’wgKv cvjb K‡i G‡m‡Q| ‡`‡ki †gvU 35wU AvenvIqv ch©‡eÿY †K›`ª i‡q‡Q hvi g‡a¨ 17wU AvenvIqv †K›`ª DcK’jxq A‡j i‡q‡Q| †hgb- nvwZq, †fvjv, cUzqvLvjx, †ÿcycvov, PUªMÖvg, K·evRvi, Lyjbv, †UKbvd, m›`xc, ewikvj, gsjv, †bvqvLvjx, mvZÿxiv, Puv`cyi, †dbx, mxZvKzÛz Ges KzZzew`qv‡Z Aew¯’Z| GmKj ch©‡eÿb †K›`ª †_‡K cÖvß Z_¨ we‡køkY K‡i evsjv‡`k AvenvIqv Awa`ßi Ges Zv cÖwZw`b evsjv‡`k †eZv‡i m¤cÖPvi Kiv n‡q _v‡K| Zvi ciI G‡`‡ki Ici w`‡q cÖjqsKix mKj `‡h©vM AvNvZ nvbvi BwZnv‡mi mv‡_ †eZv‡ii mZK© evZ©v cÖkwe× n‡q‡Q, n‡q‡Q mgv‡jvPbvi m¤§yLxb| Zvi ciæ †eZv‡ii Dci gvby‡li wbf©kxjZvi gvÎv‡K we›`ygvÎ Kg †Z cv‡iwb| KviY `y‡h©vM c~e© I `y‡h©vMKvjxb mg‡q †eZv‡ii Z_¨ cÖevn I AewnZKi‡Yi †Kvb weKí GLb ch© Í †`Lv hv‡”Q bv| 2) †Uwjwfk‡bi f’wgKv: †Uwjwfk‡bi hvÎv ïiæi mgqUv Lye †ekx w`‡bi bq| 1926 mv‡j Rb †eqvW© †Uwjwfkb Avwe¯‹v‡ii ci 1930 mv‡ji g‡a¨ b¨vkbvj eªWKvw÷s K‡c©v‡ikb Ges weªwUk eªWKvw÷s K‡c©v‡ikb h_vµ‡g wbDBqK© Ges jÛ‡b wUwf †÷kb ¯’vc‡bi ga¨ w`‡q †Uwjwfk‡bi c_ Pjv ïiæ| 1936 mv‡j b‡f¤^i gv‡m wewm Av‡jKRv›`ªv cÖvmv` †_‡K me©mvavi‡bi Rb¨ m¤cÖPvi Pvjy K‡i| GwUB wQ‡jv we‡k¦i me©c_g mv_©K †Uwjwfkb m¤cÖPvi| Ö evsj‡`k †Uwjwfkb 1964 mv‡ji 25 wW‡m¤^i AvbyôvwbK fv‡e hvÎv ïiæ K‡i| 1968 mv‡ji 14 GwcÖj XvKvi ivgcyivq †Uwjwfkb feb wbg©v‡bi KvR ïiæ nq hv 1975 mv‡j †kl nq Ges wWAvBwU feb †_‡K g~j fe‡b ¯’vbv ÍwiZ nq| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡k †ek K‡qKwU †emiKvix †Uwjwfkb m¤cÖPvi Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Q| evwYwR¨K Kvh©µ‡gi cvkvcvwk G mKj †Uwjwfkb †K›`ª¸‡jv mvgvwRK I ivwóªq `vwq‡Z¡ Ask wn‡m‡e RvwZi cv‡k me mgq e¯‘wbô f’wgKv cvj‡bi †Póv K‡i hv‡”Q| 66
  • 67. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete eb¨v, Liv, NywY©So, b`xfv½‡bi gZ cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡M †hgb †Uwjwfkb Zvi `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i †Zgwb wmWi Gi gZ AcÖZ¨vwkZ cÖjq©Kix mvB‡K¬v‡Yi mgq †Uwjwkb †ek †Rv‡o‡kv‡iB cÖPvi cÖPvibv Pvwj‡q RvZxq I Av ÍR©vwZK m¤cÖ`v‡qi `„wó AvKl©Y Ki‡Z mÿg n‡q‡Q| wmWi Gi gZ cÖvKwZK `y h©v Mi AvNvZ Avm j Avm j wK Kiv DwPr Avi wK Kiv n Q Zvi a¨ e¨eav bi wnmve wbKv ki g a¨ A bK Mowgj _v K me mgqB| Z e `vwqZ¡kxj MYgva¨gmg~n mvaviYZ: GiKg cwiw¯wZ Z hv K i _v K m wel q m¤¢ve¨ wKQz w`K Av jvPbv Kiv Z cv i| cÖ_ gB G m hvq `y h©v Mi cy e© wgwWqvi fwgKv wK ev wK Ki Z cv i| Zvi ciB nq Zv `y h©vMKvjxb mg q wgwWqvi wbKU cÖZ¨vwkZ fwgKv Ges `y h©v Mi ci wgwWqv wK Ki Z cv i hv RbKj¨v Y fwgKv ivL Z cv i| wb welq¸ jvi we¯ÍvwiZ Av jvPbv Kivi Póv Kiv n jv: 1) `y h©vM c~e© mg q MYgva¨ gi f~wgKv: ‡h †Kvb ai‡bi `y‡h©v‡Mi c~‡e©B MYgva¨‡gi cÖv_wgK `vwqZ¡ n‡jv `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK Kgv‡bv Ges c~e© cÖ¯‘wZi wel‡q j¶ ivLv, G Rb¨ †h hv‡Z wm×v Í MÖnYKvix I bxwZ cÖYqbKvix‡`i‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i Ges SuywKc~Y© KwgDwbwUi †jvKRb hv‡Z m¤¢ve¨ eo ai‡bi SuywK Gwo‡q †h‡Z mg_© nq Ges fwel¨‡Zi †h †Kvb `y‡h©v‡Mi wel‡q mZK© n‡Z cv‡ib| wewfb `y‡h©v‡Mi Drm wPwýZKiY, `y‡h©v‡Mi aiY, Suwy K we‡k-lY, KwgDwbwU‡K `y‡h©vM wel‡q m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi gva¨‡g MYgva¨g Zvi `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i hv‡Z cwiev‡i, KwgDwbwU‡Z Ges mvsMVwbKfv‡e †fvMvw Íi gvÎv Kwg‡q `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK †gvKv‡ejv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| `y‡h©vM wel‡q cye© mZK©xKiY20 e¨e¯’v wb‡q wgwWqv ¸i“Z¡c~Y© KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i hv‡Z m¤¢ve¨ `y‡h©vM Gwo‡q gvbyl wb‡R‡`i i¶v Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Y D‡`¨vMx n‡Z cv‡ib| G iKg A‡bK `„óv Í Av‡Q hv‡Z †`Lv hvq †h, `y‡h©v‡Mi c~‡e©B †h mKj KwgDwbwUi †jvKRb mwVK c~e© mZK©xKiY evZ©v †c‡q †m Abyhvqx cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZi gvÎv Ab¨vb¨ KwgDwbwUi †P‡q A‡bKvs‡k Kwg‡q ivL‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Qb| `y‡h©v‡Mi gvÎv Kwg‡q ivL‡Z Ges `y‡h©vMc~e© e¨e¯’vcbvi Rb¨ wgwWqv wbgwjwLZ KvR¸‡jv ¸i“Z¡mnKv‡i Ki‡Z cv‡ib e‡j †hvMv‡hvM I wgwWqv we‡klÁMY g‡b K‡ib| K) SuywKi Drm I KviY we k-lY: bMivqb cÖwµqv, RbmsL¨v e„w×, wkívqb Ges cwi‡ekMZ wech©q cÖf„wZ eZ©gvb we‡k¦ `y‡h©vM I Suwy K e„wׇZ mnvqZv Ki‡Q| D‡j-wLZ GB Pvi ai‡bi ewk¦K KviYMy‡jv mKj cÖKvi †fvMvw Í evovq Ges fwel¨‡Z gvby‡li wech©q †W‡K Avb‡Z 20 `y‡h©v‡Mi m¤¢vebv I `y‡h©v‡Mi mgq Rbmvavi‡bi m‡PZbZvi Rb¨ cÖvK `y‡h©vM ch©vq, mRvMKiY ch©vq (ms‡KZ- 1 I 3), ûwkqvix ch©vq (ms‡KZ 2 I 4) Ges `yhvM ch©vq (ms‡KZ 5, 6, 8, 9, Ges © 10) mZK©xKiY ms‡KZ cÖ`vb Kiv nq| myÎ- evsjv‡`g AvenvIqv Awa`ßi| 67
  • 68. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i| GKwU wbw`ó GjvKvq ev †f ‡MvwjK A‡j wKfv‡e GB Pvi ai‡bi Dcv`vb wech©‡qi gvÎv evov‡”Q ev evov‡Z cv‡i †m wel‡q wgwWqv we‡k-lY ag©x cÖeÜ, wbeÜ, M‡elYvjä djvdj Ges we‡klÁ gZvgZ cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i| L) mve©Rbxb weÁwß cÖPvi I cÖKvk: ‡`‡ki g‡a¨ m¤¢ve¨ mKj ai‡bi Suwy Ki wel‡q weÁwß cÖPvi I cÖKvk K‡i MYgva¨g ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| MYgva¨g †g mygwfwËK (eb¨v, Lov), FZywfwËK (ZvBdzb, Nywb©So) wec` I `y‡h©vMmg~‡ni Z_¨ cÖPvi Ki‡Z cv‡i| Ggb me Z_¨I cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i hv‡Z, †Kvb †g my‡g †Kvb ai‡bi `y‡h©v‡M †Kvb ai‡bi KwgDwbwU I GjvKvi †jvKRb ‡Kgb gvÎvq ¶q¶wZi m¤§yLxb n‡Z cv‡ib| Ges †m Abyhvqx SuywKc~Y© KwgDwbwUi †jvKR‡bi c~e© cÖ¯‘wZB ev wK n‡Z cv‡i, wKfv‡e †m mKj cÖ¯‘wZ MÖnY Ki‡eb BZ¨vw`| M) c~e© mZK©xKiY ms KZ cÖ`vb: GKwU MÖnY‡hvM¨ I Rb wek¦¯Í c~e© mZK©xKiY ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡g i¶v ‡c‡Z cv‡i nvRvi nvRvi Rxeb I Ag~j¨ m¤ú‡`i aesmjxjv †_‡K| Avi MYgva¨‡gi Rb¨ G KvRwU AZ¨ Í ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| eÁvwbK c~e©vfvm we‡klZ cÖavb cÖavb wec`mg~‡ni wel‡q †eZvi, ‡Uwjwfkb Ges msev`cÎmg~‡n GKB Z_¨ Ges mwVK e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q _v‡K| G‡¶‡Î AcÖ‡qvRbxq AvZsK Ges wg_¨v ¸Re Qov‡Z cv‡i Ggb cÖwZ‡e`b cÖPvi I cÖKvk Kiv hv‡e bv | 1 bs ûwkqvix ms‡KZ G ejv nq e›`i GjvKv ¶Y¯’vqx S‡ov AvenvIqvi Ke‡j wbcwZZ nIqvi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| N›Uvq m‡e©v”P 60 wK.wg. MwZ‡e‡Mi Kvj‰ekvLx S‡oi †¶‡ÎI GB ms‡KZ cÖ`wk©Z nq| 2 bs †b ûwkqvix ms‡KZ: e›`i GjvKvq wbgPv‡ci mgZzj ZxeªZvi GKwU So, hvi MwZ‡eM N›Uvq Abya © 61 wK.wg| GLv‡b 65 dzU ev Zvi Kg `N©¨ †b hvbmg~n‡K wbivc` Avk¨q wb‡Z ejv nq| 3 bs wec` ms‡KZ: e›`i GjvKv S‡o KewjZ| N›Uvq m‡e©v”P GKUvbv 60-88 wK:wg: ch© Í MwZ‡e‡Mi GKwU mvgw`ªK So mnmvB e›`I GjvKvq AvNvZ nvb‡Z cv‡i| 4 bs †b gnv wec` ms‡KZ: e›`i NywY©So KewjZ| evZv‡mi MwZ‡eM N›Uvq 51-61 wK:wg: ch© Í| 5 bs wec` ms‡KZ: e›`i †QvU ev gvSvwi ZxeªZvi SÅveûj GK mvgw`ªK S‡oi Ke‡j wbcwZZ| evZv‡mi GKUvbv m‡e©v”P GKUvbv MwZ‡eM N›Uvq 62-88 wK:wg:| 68
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  • 70. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete N) cye© cÖ¯wZg~jK Z_¨ ev weÁwß: c~e©vfvm cÖ`v‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ KwgDwbwU‡K ûwkqvwig~jK Kvh©µg m¤ú‡K©I Z_¨ cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z K‡i Zviv wec` †_‡K Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZ Gwo‡q _vK‡Z cv‡ib| †mB mv‡_ ¯’vbv Íi, km¨ msi¶Y (wbw`ó mg‡qi c~‡e©B km¨ gvovBKiY), cvwievwiK m¤ú` i¶v, Lv`¨ msi¶Y, `wjj cÎvw`,Mev`x cï wbivc‡` ivLv Ges Ab¨vb¨ Dckgg~jK Kvh©µgmg~‡ni wel‡q Z_¨ cÖ`vb Kiv AwZe Ri“ix| O) SuywK cÖkgb wel q Awacivgk© cÖ`vb: MYgva¨‡gi Av‡iKwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© KvR n‡jv cÖavb cÖavb wm×v Í MÖnYKvix KZ©„c¶‡K cÖfvweZKiY Ges mwVK mg‡q Suwy K Kgv‡bvi wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg/ D‡`¨vM MÖn‡bi wel‡q GKÎxKiY ev mg‡eZ Kiv| A‡bK mgq ivRbxwZwe` I AvgjvMY ivR‰bwZK AMÖvwaKv‡ii Øviv cÖfvweZ nb Ges SuywK cÖkgb wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq D‡`¨vM MÖnY Ki‡Z Zviv †Zgb GKUv AvMÖnx n‡q I‡Vb bv&| G‡¶‡Î MYgva¨‡g AMÖvwaKv‡ii wfwˇZ SuywK cÖkgb wel‡q wm×v Í MÖnY I cÖ‡qvRbxq D‡`¨vM MÖn‡bi Rb¨ Avgjv I ivRbxwZwe`M‡Yi AvMÖnx K‡i Zzj‡Z cv‡i| P) Rb AskMÖnY wel q DrmvnÖ`vb: `y‡h©vM I Suwy K e¨e¯’vcbvi †¶‡Î RvZxq bxwZgvjv I cwiKíbvq Ges Kg©mPx‡Z Suwy Kc~Y© KwgDwbwUi AskMÖnY AZ¨ Í BwZevPK dj †`q| ~ `y:LRbK n‡jI mZ¨ †h, †ekxi fvM †¶‡Î Avgv‡`i †`‡ki wm×v Í cÖ‡bZvMY G welqwU‡K AeÁvi †Pv‡L †`‡L _v‡Kb| MYgva¨g G‡¶‡Î KwgDwbwUi A Íf©yw³Ki‡Y Ges Zv‡`i f~wgKvi ¯^xK…wZ cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cÖfveK wn‡m‡e cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi w`KMy‡jv Zy‡j ai‡Z cv‡i| Gi Rb¨ MYgva¨g KwgDwbwUi †jvKR‡bi gZvgZ cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i Gfv‡e †h, Zviv GB Suwy K †ivaK‡í wK wP Ív Ki‡Qb, Zv‡`i SuywK cÖkg‡b wK Kiv DwPr, GgbwK Zviv wKfv‡e miKvi I †emiKvwi Kg©mPx‡Z A Íf©~³ n‡Z Pvq| ~ 2. `y h©vM g~û Z© MYgva¨ gi f~wgKv: †h †Kvb ai‡bi `y‡h©v‡Mi mgq cÖavb j¶B _v‡K m¤¢eci hZ †ekx Rxeb i¶v Kiv hvq Ges ciewZ© †h †Kvb wec` Gov‡bvi| GQvov Zvr¶wYKfv‡e ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv nq ¶q¶wZi cwigvb wbY©q, Zwor mnvqZv cÖ`vb ( Lv`¨, cvwb, †cvkvK, Avkªq, cÖv_wgK wPwKrmv AbymÜvb, D×vi Ges ¯’vbv Íi )| `y‡h©vM g~n~‡Z© ev `y‡h©vM PjvKvjxb mg‡q miKv‡ii c¶ †_‡K mvavibZ †mB mKj Z_¨ MYgva¨g‡K cÖ`vb Kiv nq hv‡Z miKv‡ii M„wnZ D‡`¨vMmg~n I mvaviY NUbvejxi Z_¨ cvIqv hvq| wK ‘ †ekxifvM †¶‡Î †`Lv hvq †h, ev¯Íe wP‡Îi mv‡_ GmKj Z‡_¨i Am¤ú~Y©Zv A‡bK †¶‡ÎB †_‡K hvq| cÖkvmwbKfv‡e miKv‡ii KZ©ve¨w³ I mswk-ó wefv‡Mi Øviv me wKQy Avq‡Z¡ ivLv Ges cÖK…Z Ae¯’vi m¤c~Y© Z_¨ wgwWqv‡K cÖ`vb Kiv m¤¢e n‡q I‡V bv| †m‡¶‡Î MYgva¨‡gi ¸i“Z¡c~Y© KvR n‡jv mKj AvÂwjK, RvZxq I Av ÍR©vwZK mn‡hvMx‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i mwVK Z_¨ msMÖn Kiv Ges me©mvavi‡bi mwVK Z_¨ 70
  • 71. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Rvbv‡bv| cÖavb cÖavb KZ©ve¨w³MY `y‡h©v‡Mi aib ch©‡e¶Y K‡i cybe©vm‡bi Rb¨ miKvi, cywjk, wgwjUvix, wmwfj wW‡dÝ, †iW‡µvm, GbwRI, BDGb (OCHA, WFP, FAO, UNHCR, UNDP & UNISEF) mn Ab¨vb¨ ms¯’vi Dci wbf©i Ki‡Z cv‡i | Zvr¶wYKfv‡e MYgva¨g `y‡h©vM PjvKvjxb mg‡q †h mKi Kvh©µg Ki‡Z cv‡i Zv n‡jv: K) NUbvµwgK Z_¨vw` RbMY K Rvbv bv: MYgva¨g G‡¶‡Î NUbvi eY©bv cÖ`vb Ges `y‡h©v‡Mi e¨vcKZv, fqvenZv Ges ¶q¶wZi KviYmn eZ©gvb Ae¯’v I †fvMvw Íi wel‡q ev¯Íe wPÎ Zz‡j ai‡Z cv‡i| L) KZ©c ¶i I mnvqZv `vbKvwi MÖ ci MwnZ Kvh©µg m¤ú K© Rvbv bv: ¶wZMÖ¯’ GjvKv mgy‡ni Rvbgvj i¶vi Rb¨ miKv‡ii M„wnZ c`‡¶cmg~n I GLv‡b †hgb ejv †h‡Z cv‡i †Zgwb Ab¨vb¨ G¨v‡RwÝmg~‡ni M„wnZ D‡`¨vM Ges Ab¨vb¨ cwiKíbv, Kvh©µg, D‡`¨vMmg~n hv Avµv ͇`i Rvbgvj i¶vi Rb¨ KZ…c‡¶i c¶‡_‡K †bIqv cÖ‡qvRb Zv Zz‡j aiv | © M) AvU K cov I wew Qb n q hvIqv jvKRb m¤ú K© Z_¨ cÖPvi: `y‡h©v‡M Avµv Í GjvKvi gvbyl Zv‡`i cwievi †_‡K `y‡h©vMgyn‡Z© wew”Qb A_ev AvU‡K co‡Z cv‡i| †hgb- Qv‡`i bx‡P, ~ Mv‡Qi Pvcvq, wØcv‡j| G mgq Avµv Í H mKj †jvKRb I Zv‡`i cwievi, AvZ¥xq ¯^Rbiv nZvkvq f~‡M _v‡Kb| G‡¶‡Î MYgva¨g GB mKj †jvKR‡bi wel‡q me©‡kl Ae¯’vi msev` cwi‡ekb K‡i wbKU AvZ¥xqmn mswk-ó KZ…c‡¶i `„wó AvKl©Y Ki‡Z cv‡i| © N) eu P hvIqv I wU K _vKv jvKR bi cÖ qvRb¸ jv nvBjvBU Kiv: A‡bK †¶‡Î KZ…©c¶ I mnvqZv `vbKvwi ms¯’v ev D×viKgx©MbY eo ai‡bi `y‡h©v‡Mi mgq cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z wM‡q A‡bK †eu‡P hvIqv, AvU‡K cov, wew”Qb n‡q cov †jvKRb I Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRb¸‡jv cy:Lvbyc~:Lfv‡e `„wó‡MvPi Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv| G †¶‡Î wgwWqvi `vwqZ¡ n‡jv mKj Avµv Í I †eu‡P hvIqv gvby‡li mwVKfv‡e †mev I Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq mnvqZv mgvbfv‡e cv‡”Qb wKbv Zv wbwðZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ cÖPvi K‡i mnvqZv Kiv| ¶wZMÖ¯Í RbM‡Yi Rb¨ mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv e¨vcKfv‡e msMÖ‡ni Rb¨ ¯’vbxq, RvZxq I Av ÍR©vwZK ch©v‡q MYgva¨g mn‡hvMxi f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| O) Kvh©µg MÖn Yi wel q RbMY K civgk© `Iqv: `y‡h©vM gyn‡Z© RbMY Zvr¶wYKfv‡e A‡bK ~ Kvh©µg MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i hv‡Z bZzb K‡i †Kvb Rvbgv‡ji ¶q¶wZ bv nq| A_ev Rvbgv‡ji ¶q¶wZi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q Ggb m¤ú`v`x i¶v Ki‡Z Ges c~e© cÖ¯‘wZg~jK Kvh©µg †hgb- ¯’vbv Íi, RbMY‡K †Kv_vq hvIqv cÖ‡qvRb - †Kv_vq hvIqv wbivc` bq, Lvevi cvwb weï×KiY c×wZ I Kjv‡K kj wel‡q Z_¨vw` cÖPvi Kiv| 71
  • 72. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete P) Avcb R bi mv _ ms hvM NUv bv: Avµv Í I ¶wZMÖ¯Í †jvKR‡bi Ae¯’v m¤ú‡K© Zv‡`i eÜz evÜe, cwiev‡ii m`m¨MY hviv †`‡k ev †`‡ki evB‡i wewfb ¯’v‡b Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q Zv‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Kwi‡q w`‡Z mnvq‡Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| †h †Kvb eo ai‡bi `y‡h©v‡M Avµv Í GjvKvi mv‡_ mvavibZ †`‡ki Ab¨vb¨ A‡ji †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v ¶q¶wZ ev †hvMv‡hvM wew”Qb n‡q co‡Z cv‡i| MYgva¨g G‡¶‡Î †eu‡P hvIqv †jvKRb‡K Zv‡`i cwiev‡ii mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Kwi‡q w`‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i| Q) ÎvY weZi Y byb¨Zg standard i¶vi wel q ¸i Z¡ cª`vb: `y‡h©v‡M ÎvY weZiY Kvh©µ‡gi Av ÍR©vwZK ÷vÛ©vW Zix K‡i‡Q UNHCR, GQvovI Av ÍR©vwZK GBW KwgDwbwU GKwU gvb wba©vib K‡i‡Q| Av ÍR©vwZK GBW KwgDwbwU †h ÷vÛ©vW Zix K‡i‡Q Zv SPHERE, the humanitarian charter and minimum standards in disaster response. GB Av ÍR©vwZK ÷vÛ©vW MvBW jvB‡b `y‡h©v‡Mi †Kvej †_‡K †eu‡P hvIqv †jvKR‡bi cvwb, cq:wb¯‹vkb, Avkªq, Lv`¨, cwi‡ekMZ ¯^v¯’¨mn Ab¨vb¨ wel‡qi D‡j-L i‡q‡Q| Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e fvj †mev wbwðZ Ki‡Z MYgva¨gmg~‡ni `y‡h©v‡M mnvqZv`vbKvwi ev cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvKvix ms¯’v I G¨v‡Rwݸ‡jv‡K G wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq gwbUwis Ki‡Z cv‡i| †eu‡P hvIqv †jvKR‡bi Rb¨ GB ms¯’v¸‡jv Av‡` Av ÍR©vwZK ÎvY weZib bxwZgvjv Abymib Ki‡Q wKbv Zv wbwðZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| R) `y h©vM KvwU q DV Z bv DV ZB c~Yivq `y h©v M Avµv Í I ¶q¶wZ ivaK í cÖ qvRbxq hvMv hvM: †`Lv hvq †h, †Kvb A‡j GKUv `y‡h©vM n‡q †M‡j ci ci Zv wØZxq evi AvNvZ †n‡b _v‡K| †hgb- Av¸b jvMv A_ev f~wgK‡¤úi ci mybvgx, d¬vk d¬vW Ges ZvBdz‡bi ci A_ev eb¨vi c‡iB electrocution or epidemics. GKwU `y‡h©v‡Mi ci wØZxqevi `y‡h©v‡Mi AvNvZ KZ fqven n‡Z cv‡i Zv Abyfe KivUv AZ¨ Í ¸i“Z¡cY© GRb¨ †h ~ cÖ‡qvRbxq D‡`¨v‡Mi gva¨‡g c~Yivq ¶q¶wZi nvZ †_‡K i¶v Kiv m¤¢e| eÁvwbK Z_¨vw` Ges we‡klÁ gn‡ji wbKU †_‡K hvPvB evQvB K‡i wgwWqv cÖKvk I cÖPvi Ki‡Z cv‡i| G‡¶‡Î Wv³vi, BwÄwbqvi, miKvwi KZ…©c¶ Ges Av ÍR©vwZK G¨v‡RwÝmg~‡ni civgk© msMÖn K‡i wgwWqv h_vh_fv‡e Kv‡R jvMv‡Z cv‡i| 3. `y h©v MvËi MYgva¨ gi f~wgKv: `y‡h©v‡MvËiKv‡j mvaviYZ: c~Ye©vmb, AeKvVv‡gvMZ c~bwbg©vb KvR GKB mv‡_ Pvwj‡q hvIqv nq| GRb¨ `y‡h©v‡Mi GB ch©v‡q c~be©vmb Kvh©µg, c~YM©Vb I wbg©vb Kvh©µg `y‡h©vM wbim‡bi †¶‡Î mgvbfv‡e ¸i“Z¡c~Y© e‡j g‡b Kiv nq| G‡Z K‡i fwel¨‡Z `y‡h©v‡M Avµv Í nIqvi 72
  • 73. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete gvÎv K‡g Av‡m| hw` G welq¸‡jv‡K Ae‡njv Kiv nq Z‡e KwgDwbwU¸‡jv fwel¨‡Z c~bivq Suwy Ki g‡a¨ covi AvksKv †_‡KB hvq| G‡¶‡Î Mbgva¨g hv Ki‡Z cv‡i Zv n‡jv: K) mK ji wbKU mn hvwMZvi Av e`b Rvbv bv: `y‡h©v‡MvËi mg‡q A_©‰bwZK, cÖhyw³MZ Ges e¯‘MZ m¤ú`vw` mÂvjb Kiv GKwU ¸i“Z¡cY© KvR| ¯’vbxq, cÖv‡`kxK ev RvZxq ch©v‡qi ~ KZ…c‡¶i wbKU ch©vß m¤ú`vw` H gyn~‡Z© bvI _vK‡Z cv‡i hv g~jZ c~Ye©vmb I c~YM©Vb © Kv‡Ri Rb¨ `ª“Z cÖ‡qvRb| cÖ‡qvRbxq mnvqZvi Rb¨ ¯’vbxq I Av ÍR©vwZK mvnvh¨ ms¯Ívi wbKU mswk-ó wel‡q e¯‘wbô Z_¨ Ges cÖ‡qvRb cwigvc Kiv AZ¨ Í Ri“ix| G‡¶‡Î wgwWqv e¯‘wbôZvi mv‡_ mKj `‡ji, g‡Zi, `vZvi wbKU mn‡hvwMZvi Rb¨ Av‡e`b ivL‡Z cv‡i| L) c~Ye©vmb I c~YM©Vb cwiKíbv m¤ú K© hvMv hvM Kiv: ¶wZMÖ¯’ GjvKvi Rb¨ miKvi, RvwZmsN, ev Av ÍR©vwZK Dbqb ms¯’v¸‡jv c~YM©Vb I c~Ye©vmb m¤ú‡K© wK cwiKíbv Ki‡Q Zv RbMY‡K mwVKfv‡e Rvbv‡bvi `vwqZ¡ wb‡Z cv‡i Mbgva¨g| GQvov c~Ye©vmb I c~YM©Vb Kvh©µ‡gi Rb¨ †h mKj cwiKíbv cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q †m wel‡q MYgva¨g weZ‡K©i m„w÷I Ki‡Z cv‡i Gfv‡e †h, H cwiKíbv `y‡h©v‡Mi †Kvej †_‡K †eu‡P hvIqv †jvKR‡bi cÖ‡qvRb‡K mwVKfv‡e c~ib K‡i wKbv| GB cwiKíbvi mv‡_ mKj Dbqb †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i, fy³‡fvMx Rb‡Mvwôi I KwgDwbwUi AskMÖnb mwµq n‡e wK bv ev ev¯Íe A‡_©B GB cwiKíbvq RbMY mwZ¨Kv‡ii DcKvi Av‡` cv‡e wKbv| M) ¶q¶wZ KvwU q DV Z RbMY K Drmvn`vb: Dbqb Kvh©µg ev¯Íevqb I c~Yi“×vi †K kjc‡Î `y‡h©v‡Mi †Kvej †_‡K †eu‡P hvIqv †jvKR‡bi gZvg‡Zi cÖwZdjb _vKvUv AZ¨ Í ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| G mg‡q AZ¨ Í Pv‡ci g‡a¨ †_‡K `ª“Z AeKvVv‡gvMZ c~Ywbg©vb Kvh©µg h_vm¤¢e `ªyZ ev¯Íevqb Ki‡Z wM‡q miKv‡ii mswk-ó KZ…©c¶ ev Dbqb ms¯’v¸‡jv D³ welqwUi cÖwZ ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv †_‡K `„wó Gwo‡q †h‡Z cv‡ib| MYgva¨g HmKj Avµv Í †jvKR‡bi AskMÖn‡bi Rb¨ Drmvn `vb Ki‡Z cv‡i, gZvgZ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ Drmvn cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| †jvKRb I KwgDwbwUi cÖ‡qvRb I myweavgZ Kvh©µg ev¯Íevqb wKfv‡e KZUzKz n‡j fvj nq †m cwiKíbv Kivi Rb¨ `y‡h©v‡M Avµv Í I †eu‡P hvIqv †jvKR‡bi gZvgZ wb‡Z MYgva¨g gZvgZ †K›`ª ¯’vcb K‡i Z_¨ msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges †m¸‡jv cÖKvk K‡i KZ©„c¶‡K mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i| `y‡h©v‡Mi SuywK Kgv‡bv I cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Rb¨ Pvc m„wóKiY, c~YMVb I c~Ye©vmb Kvh©µ‡gi cwiKíbv I mnvqZvi my‡hvM¸‡jv‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q GKwU mgw ^Z SuywK wbimb I cÖwZ‡iva e¨e¯’v ev¯Íevqb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i hv‡Z K‡i fwel¨‡Z †h †Kvb `y‡h©v‡Mi gyn~‡Z© †fvMvw Í †iva Kiv hvq| MYgva¨g G‡¶‡Î †UKmB Dbq‡bi wP Ív gv_vq †i‡L cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ w`‡q mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i| cv‡i mgw Z Suwy K wbimb cwiKíbv ^ ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ DrmvwnZKiY I Awacivgk©‡Ki f~wgKvq AeZxY© n‡Z| 73
  • 74. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -10 Dcmsnvi eZ©gvb we‡k¦i ev¯—eZvi Av‡jv‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q †h, GKw`‡K wKQy gvbyl Z‡_¨i gnvmo‡K (ivRc‡_) m`v wePiY Ki‡Q Ab¨w`‡K nvRvi nvRvi gvbyl Z_¨ k~Y¨Zvq f~M‡Q cÖhyw³i mnR cÖvwßi my‡hvM bv _vKvq| Z_¨ cÖhyw³i GB Afvebxq DrK‡l©i myev‡` Z‡_¨i Aeva I eûgyLx †mªvZavivq cÖevngvb mgvR‡K ejv n‡P&Q ÓZ_¨-mgvRÓ ev (information society)| GKzk kZ‡K G‡m Avgv‡`i Óg¨vbyqvjÓ Rxebe¨e¯’vq µgk wWwRUvj my‡hvM-myweav hy³ nIqvi cUf~wg‡Z G hyM‡K ejv n‡”Q ÓwWwRUvj hyMÓ| G hy‡Mi mgvR, ms¯‹…wZ, A_©bxwZ GgbwK ivRbxwZI ZvB AbjvBb mf¨Zvq Avoó| Avi gv‡K©wUs †_‡K ïi“ K‡i AbjvBb †gwWK¨vj wUªU‡g›U, B‡j±ªwbK †fvU MÖnb c×wZ me wKQy‡ZB GLb mg‡qi mv‡_ Zvj wgwj‡q wWwRUvj c×wZ‡Z GwM‡q Pj‡Q| †kvbv hv‡”Q A`yi fwel¨‡Z Avgv‡`i ivR‰bwZK ms¯‹…wZ‡Z hy³ n‡e †h MYZvw ¿K ms¯‹…wZ Zvi bvg ÓwWwRUvj †W‡gvµ¨vwmÓ| Avi GB †W‡gvµ¨vwmi g~j PvwjKvkw³ n‡e Z_¨ A_©bxwZ| Ab¨w`‡K GK Kv‡ji km¨-k¨vgwjgvq †Niv meyR k¨vgj †Kvgj evsjvgv‡qi wb®úvc - wb‡`©vl —vbMvy‡jv A_©‰bwZK `b¨Zv Avi cÖ‡qvRbxq wk¶vi NvUwZ _vKvq h_vh_ Z‡_¨i Afv‡e Rjevqy cwieZ©b I Gi d‡j m„ó SuywKi welq¸‡jv‡K AvRI wbQK fv‡M¨i wjLb e‡j g‡b K‡i| AvMvwgi fqvenZv m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e, ¯’vbxq D‡`¨v‡M Lvc-LvB‡q †bqvi gZ †K kj¸‡jv AvqZ¡ Ki‡ZB n‡e| Dc‡i D‡j-wLZ welqMI‡jvi Av‡jv‡K ejv hvq †h, `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbvq wgwWqvi f~wgKv h_vh_fv‡e cvj‡bi Rb¨ †K kj wn‡m‡e we‡klÁ msjv‡ci Av‡qvRb Ges we‡klÁ‡`i AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kivi gva¨‡g `y‡h©v‡Mi KviYmg~n, SuywK I †fvMvw Íi gvÎv wPwýZ Kiv Ges mgvav‡bi c_ †eo Ki‡Z cv‡i| MYgva¨g gZvgZ †K›`ª ¯’vcb K‡i `y‡h©vM m¤úwK©Z mKj Kv‡Ri wbix¶‡bi KvR m¤úvw`Z Ki‡Z cv‡i| †ckvMZ MYgva¨gKg©xMY SuywK e„w×KiY factors ¸‡jv wbY©q Ki‡Z M‡elYv cwiPvjbv, cÖeÜ iPbv, wbeÜ iPbv K‡i msev`c‡Î cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Avi djvdj¸‡jv †eZvi, †Uwjwfk‡b cÖPvi Ki‡Z cv‡i| `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv Kvh©µ‡gi mv‡_ mswk-ó KZ©ve¨w³‡`i mv¶vrKvi cÖPvi K‡i RbM‡bi gv‡S Awacivg‡k©i KvR †Rvo`vi Ki‡Z cv‡i| mKj †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i GK †dviv‡g Avb‡Z cv‡i MYgva¨g| G mKj Kvh©µgB `y‡h©v‡M Avµv ͇`i Rb¨ A‡bK DcKv‡i †hgb Avm‡Z cv‡i †Zgwb A‡bK Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i i¶v n‡Z cv‡i wgwWqvi mgqgZ ZrciZvq| 74
  • 75. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Z_¨m~Î: 1. Community Based Disaster Risk Management and the Media kit PDRSEA-3, Bangkok, Thailand -2006 2. Cyclone 91, an Environmental and Perceptional Study Edited by Raana Haider, A. Atiq Rahman, Saleemul huq, BCAS. 3. Climate Change in Nigeria, a Communication Guide by NEST. 4. A Total Disaster Risk Management, Asian disaster prepeardness center (Thailand Urban mitigation Project). 5. The role of media in modern agriculture, an article published in Niriskha, written by Mohammad Abdul Mannan. 6. Climate Change, Awareness and action education kit, Ontario Supplement. 7. Communication Strategy of Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project, External Unit, CARE Bangladesh. 8. Disaster Reduction Technology list on implementation strategies, a contribution from Japan Kobe, 2005. 9. Risk scenarios and local Resources - Sandra Zuniga. B. 10. The role of media to reduce poverty, an article, written by Mohammad Abdul Mannan, published in the weekly Mredubhashan, issue 31, November 10, 2003, Dhaka. 11. Communication issues in Bangladesh, by M. Golam Rahman. 12. Where land meets the Sea Edited by M. rafiqul Islam. 13. The role of Bangladesh bater to secure the coastal fisherman- A research report by Md. Abdul Mannan, Mass line Media Center, Oct. 2002. 14. A ready Reference on climate change & vulnerability assessment workshops, CARE Bangladesh, 2003. 15. Network for Information response and prepardness activities on disasters, a quarterly newsletter of NIRAPAD issue-7, March 2004. 16. So mnbkxj Ni wbg©vY welqK †cvmAvi e¨envi wb‡`©wkKv, Aviwfwmwm cÖKí, †Kqvi evsjv‡`k, XvKv, wW‡m¤^i-2004| 17. my‡cq cvwbi mÜv‡b, ‡kL †mwjg Av³vi ¯^cb I kwn`yj Bmjvg, DËiY, Zvjv, mvZw¶iv, Ryb-2004| 75
  • 76. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete 18. Rjevqy cwieZ©b RwbZ SuwK cÖkgb (Z…Yg~j bvU¨`j cÖwk¶Y mnvwqKv), m¤úv`bv- nvmvb Zv‡iK I g‡bvR gÛj, i“cv i, Lyjbv| — 19. `w¶Y-cwðg DcK’‡ji Rjve×Zv- Kzkj ivq, wmwWwc, Lyjbv, wW‡m¤^I 2004| 20. DcK’jxq grm¨Rxwe‡`i wbivcËvq †eZv‡ii f~wgKv, M‡elYv cÖwZ‡e`b, †gvnv¤§` Avãyj gvbvb, g¨vm-jvBb wgwWqv †m›Uvi, A‡±vei 2002, XvKv| 21. DcK’jxq Awaevmx I N~wY©SoKvjxb cÖ¯w‘ Z: MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv g~j¨vqb, mwn` Dj¨vn wjcb, wbix¶v, 133Zg msL¨v, GwcÖj 2005| 22. K…wl welqK Z_¨ m¤cÖmvi‡Y MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv, gvnv¤§` Avãyj gvbvb, wbix¶v, 115Zg msL¨v, A‡±vei 2003| 23. `vwi`ª¨ we‡gvP‡b MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv, gvnv¤§` Avãyj gvbvb, wbix¶v, 119 Zg msL¨v, †deª“qvix 2004| 24. f~wgK¤ú I MYgva¨g, Wt †i‡Rvqvb wmwÏwK, wbix¶v, 130Zg msL¨v, Rvbyqvix 2005| 25. eb¨v-2004 I MYgva¨g, iwe Avigvb, wbix¶v, 125Zg msL¨v, AvM÷ 2004| 26. Rxe‡bi Rb¨ cwi‡ek, cwi‡ek m‡PZbZv welqK cyw¯—Kv, AvBGdGmwc, †Kqvi evsjv‡`k, XvKv| 27. weï× cvwb I ¯^v¯’¨ Rxeb, Av‡m©wbK welqK m‡PZbZv welqK cyw¯—Kv, AvBGdGmwc, †Kqvi evsjv‡`k, XvKv| 28. eb¨v 2004, `w¶Y-cwðg DcKzjI c-vweZ, m¤úv`bv- Avkivdzj Avjg UzUz, Lyjbv, †m‡Þ¤^I 2004| 29. Study on Isolated Shallow Aquifer for potable water supply in south-western part of Bangladesh. By Uttaran, Tala, Satkhira, October 2003. 30. Addresing issues of salinity in potabe water in national policies: whither adaptations to climate change. By Ahsan Uddin Ahmed, March-2003. 31. A report on Knowledge Attituades-Behaviour (KAB) study, Advocacy Unit of RVCC project, Care angladesh, September 2002, Khulna. 32. Rievqy cwieZ©b welqK Bbdi‡gkb c¨v‡KR, wmwWwc/Aviwfwmwm cÖKí, GwcÖj 2004| 33. An easy reading book on climate change for students of class vi- vii and class viii-ix (two parts) by AOSED, Khulana, April-2004. 34. A process document on school awareness program on climate change, by AOSED, Khulna, March -2005. 76
  • 77. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete 35. Pot song on environment, composed by Elias Fakir, Rupantar, Khulna-2001. 36. The new P-process steps in stragetic communication, the health communication partnership, December 2003. 37. Theories of Mass Communication, by Melvin L. De Fleur & Sandra S. Ball Rokeach. 38. National family planning programme: communication and information support, Thailand, August 1999. 39. Human Rights in Bangladesh 2001, Edited by Hameeda Hossain, Dhaka-2002. 40. Climate change information kit. Updated in July 2002 based on the IPCC climate change 2001 . Edited by Michael Williams. 41. RvZxq msev`cÎ cÖ_g Av‡jv, B‡ËdvK, †WBjx ÷vi, hyMv Íi Gi 16 b‡f¤^i †_‡K 30 †b‡f¤^i Gi mKj msL¨v we‡kølY| 77