Automated material handling org PEC UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY


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Automated material handling org PEC UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY

  2. 2. WHAT IS MATERIAL HANDLING Movement  Storage  Protection  Control (Of material throughout manufacturing)  And distribution process including consumption and disposal.  Includes (raw material ,work in progress ,sub assemblies ,finished assemblies) 
  3. 3. MATERIAL HANDLING ACCOUNTS FOR:  25% of all employees,  55% of all factory space,  87% of production time  15-70% of the total cost of a manufactured product
  4. 4. PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING 1) Planning Principle (needs, desirable option ,consultation, performance) 2) 3) Standardization Principle Work Principle without sacrificing productivity) 4) Ergonomic Principle (safety, eliminate repetitive jobs ) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Unit Load Principle Space Utilization Principle System Integration Principle Automation Principle Environment Principle (energy, impact, hazard) 10) Life Cycle Cost Principle (minimized
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING               Reduce manufacturing cycle time Reduce delays, and damage Promote safety and improve working conditions Maintain or improve product quality Promote productivity Material should move as short a distance as possible Use gravity Move more material at one time Automate material handling Promote increased use of facilities Promote the use of building cube Purchase versatile equipment Develop a preventive maintenance program Maximize the equipment utilization etc.
  6. 6. CONSIDERATIONS IN MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM DESIGN Material characteristics  Flow rate  Routing  Scheduling  Plant layout 
  7. 7. MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS Category 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Physical state Size Weight Shape Condition Safety risk and risk of damage Measures Solid, liquid, or gas Volume; length, width, height Weight /piece, weight/unit volume Long and flat, round, square, etc. Hot, cold, wet, etc. Explosive, flammable, toxic; fragile, etc.
  8. 8. FLOW RATE Quantity of material moved High Low Conveyors Manual handling Hand trucks Short Conveyors AGV train Powered trucks Unit load AGV Long Move Distance
  9. 9. PLANT LAYOUT Layout Type Characteristics Typical MH Equipment Fixed – position Large product size, low production rate Cranes, hoists, industrial trucks Process Variation in product and processing, low and medium production rates Hand trucks, forklift trucks, AGVs Limited product variety, high production rate Conveyors for product flow, trucks to deliver components to stations. Product
  10. 10. ROUTING AND SCHEDULING Routing - pick-up and drop-off locations, move distances, routing variations, conditions along the route (surface, traffic, elevation)  Scheduling - timing of each delivery  Prompt delivery when required  Use of buffer stocks to mitigate against late deliveries 
  11. 11. CATEGORIES OF MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. Material transport equipment - to move materials inside a factory, warehouse, or other facility Storage - to store materials and provide access to those materials when required Unitizing equipment - refers to (1) containers to hold materials, and (2) equipment used to load and package the containers Identification and tracking systems - to identify and keep track of the materials being moved and stored
  12. 12. UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLE (UNITIZING) In general, the unit load should be as large as practical for the material handling system that will move and store it   A unit load is the mass that is to be moved or otherwise handled at one time Reasons for using unit loads in material handling: Multiple items handled simultaneously  Required number of trips is reduced  Loading/unloading times are reduced  Product damage is decreased 
  13. 13. UNIT LOAD CONTAINERS (a) Wooden pallet, (b) pallet box, (c) tote box
  14. 14. MATERIAL TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT Industrial trucks  AGVs  Robots  Monorails and other rail guided vehicles  Conveyors  Cranes and hoists 
  16. 16. WHY USE AUTOMATION IN MATERIAL HANDLING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. To increase labor productivity To reduce labor cost To mitigate the effects of labor shortages To reduce or remove routine manual and clerical tasks To improve worker safety To improve product quality To reduce manufacturing lead time To accomplish what cannot be done manually To avoid the high cost of not automating
  18. 18. 1. AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE What is AGV ? Material handling system that uses independently operated, Self-propelled vehicles, Guided along defined pathways.  Increase efficiency and reduce costs by helping to automate a manufacturing facility or warehouse.  Carry loads or tow objects behind them in trailers. The trailers can be used to move raw materials or finished product.  The AGV can also store objects on a bed. some AGVs use fork lifts to lift objects for storage.  AGVs are employed in nearly every industry, including, paper, metals, newspaper and general manufacturing. 
  19. 19. HISTORY Developed by AM Barrett Jr in 1954 (overhead wire to guide a modified towing truck pulley in a grocery warehouse)  1973,Volvo developed AGV to serve assembly platforms for moving car bodies through its final assembly plants.  Today the AGV plays an important role in the design of new factories and warehouses. 
  20. 20. COMPONENTS OF AGV     Vehicle Guided path Control unit Computer interface
  21. 21. AGV TYPES Driver less trains  Pallet trucks  Unit load carriers 
  22. 22. DRIVER LESS TRAINS  Consists of towing vehicle, which is the AGV that pulls.  One or more trailers forming a train.  Heavy payloads.  Large distances like in a warehouse.  With or without intermediate pick-up and drop-off points along its path.
  24. 24. PALLET TRUCKS shift palletized loads along programmed path.  the vehicle is backed into the loaded pallet by act of human operator that steers the truck and uses the forks to lift the load vaguely.  The human operator will then drive the pallet truck to its route, program its destination and the vehicle will then automatically travel to the preprogrammed destination for unloading.  Capacity -several thousand kilograms and some are capable of handling two pallets. 
  26. 26. UNIT LOAD CARRIER These are used to move unit loads from one station to another.  Light load AGVs, up to 250 kg or less. 
  28. 28. VEHICLE GUIDANCE TECHNOLOGY Imbedded guide wires  Paint strips (Optical navigation system)  Magnetic tape navigation systems  Self guided vehicles (Laser triangulation navigation system) 
  29. 29. 1. IMBEDDED GUIDE •Faster and safer •More accurate •Less costly WIRES •Simpler and less programming required
  30. 30. CHOOSING APPROPRIATE PATH IN WIRE GUIDED SYSTEM Frequency select method    Use different frequency generators for different paths. Guide wires leading into the two separate paths at the switch have different frequency At switch vehicle reads identification code of destination frequency and follows it. Path select method Same frequency throughout  At switch power is turned off in all other branches except the one that the vehicle is to travel on. 
  31. 31. Advantages Drawbacks Less costly  More accurate and safer  Less programming   Energy consumption  Embedded system  Less flexible than other types
  32. 32. 2. PAINT STRIPS (OPTICAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM)     Chemical or tape strip is fixed or painted to the floor which contain fluorescent particles that reflect UV light source from vehicle Vehicle has an onboard sensor which allows it to detect the path. Not typically used in plants or warehouses because floor line needs to be cleaned or reapplied as it deteriorates with time. Useful in environment where guide wires in the floor surface is not practical.
  33. 33. Advantage     can be easily removed and relocated if the course needs to change. It also does not involve the expense of cutting the factory or warehouse floor for the entire travel route. "passive" system since it does not require the guide medium to be energized as wire does. less expensive Drawback   Repaint Cannot be used in dirty conditions
  34. 34. 3. MAGNETIC TAPE/GRID NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Magnetic tape is adhered on the surface of the floor  A sensor on underside of vehicle detects the magnetic tape  Can operate off tape path  Similar to wire guidance 
  35. 35. 4. SELF GUIDED (LASER TRIANGULATION NAVIGATION SYSTEM)  Most popular method of AGV navigation.  Operate without continuously defined pathways.  Use combination of dead reckoning (capability of a vehicle to follow a given route in the absence of a defined pathway) and beacons located throughout the plant, which can be identified by on board sensors.  Continuously verify position by comparing the calculated position with one or more known position
  36. 36. HOW ARE THE VEHICLES POWERED? TYPES OF BATTERIES, INDUCTIVE POWER AND FUEL CELLS 1.     2. 3.  Most common batteries Flooded lead acid Sealed batteries NiCad Lithium ion Inductive power – vehicle receives power from plate(s) embedded in the floor. Used in some applications that require less flexibility Fuel cells – performing well in limited scale use in AGVs. The best choice of battery is based on your application. Talk to your AGV supplier to determine which battery is best for your application.
  37. 37. VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Two aspects of vehicle management:  Traffic control - to minimize interference between vehicles and prevent collisions 1. 2.  Forward (on-board vehicle) sensing Zone control Vehicle dispatching 1. 2. 3. On-board control panel Remote call stations Central computer control
  38. 38. 1. ON BOARD SENSING One or more sensors on vehicle  Which detect presence of other vehicles , obstacle , or humans near by.  More effective in straight path ,less effective at turns, convergence points. 
  39. 39. 2. ZONE CONTROL Zone control to implement blocking system. Zones A, B, and D are blocked. Zone C is free. Vehicle 2 is blocked from entering Zone A by vehicle 1. Vehicle 3 is free to enter Zone C.
  40. 40. VEHICLE DISPATCHING 1. On board control panel   Manual vehicle control and programming Lowest level of sophistication Flexibility 2. Remote call station   Press button at load unload stations Programmed destination with on board panel 3. Central computer control  Automatic dispatching Central computer issues commands Current location information of each AGV Radio frequency commonly used for communication    
  41. 41. VEHICLE SAFETY FEATURES      Travelling speed(< human normal walking speed) Automatic stopping of vehicle if it strays more than a short distance(50-150mm) –ACQUISITION DISTANCE Obstacle detection Emergency bumper Warning lights ,bells , alarms etc
  42. 42. bumper
  43. 43. APPLICATIONS Material transport  Storage application: Integration with AS/RS  Assembly line application  Flexible manufacturing system  Office mail delivery  Hospital material transport: meal tray, medical supplies 
  44. 44. ROBOTS
  45. 45. 2. INDUSTRIAL ROBOT DEFINED A general-purpose, programmable machine possessing certain human like characteristics Hazardous work environments  Repetitive work cycle  Consistency and accuracy  Difficult handling task for humans  Multi shift operations  Reprogrammable, flexible  Interfaced to other computer systems 
  46. 46. INDUSTRIAL ROBOT APPLICATIONS 1. Material handling applications   2. Processing operations    3. Material transfer – pick-and-place, palletizing Machine loading and/or unloading Welding Spray coating Cutting and grinding Assembly and inspection
  47. 47. MATERIAL HANDLING APPLICATIONS  This category includes the following: Part Placement  Palletizing and/or depalletizing  Machine loading and/or unloading  Stacking and insertion operations   The robot must have following features to facilitate material handling: The manipulator must be able to lift the parts safely.  The robot must have the reach needed.  The robot’s controller must have a large enough memory to store all the programmed points so that the robot can move from one location to another.  The robot must have the speed necessary for meeting the transfer cycle of the operation. 
  48. 48. 1. PART PLACEMENT o o o o The basic operation in this category is the relatively simple pick-and-place operation. This application needs a low-technology robot of the cylindrical coordinate type. Only two, three, or four joints are required for most of the applications. Pneumatically powered robots are often utilized
  49. 49. 2. PALLETIZING AND/OR DEPALLETIZING The applications require robot to stack parts one on top of the other, that is to palletize them, or to unstack parts by removing from the top one by one, that is depalletize them. o Example: process of taking parts from the assembly line and stacking them on a pallet or vice versa. o
  50. 50. 3. MACHINE LOADING AND/OR UNLOADING: Robot transfers parts into and/or from a production machine.  There are three possible cases: 1. 2. 3. Machine loading in which the robot loads parts into a production machine, but the parts are unloaded by some other means. Example: a press working operation, where the robot feeds sheet blanks into the press, but the finished parts drop out of the press by gravity. Machine loading in which the raw materials are fed into the machine without robot assistance. The robot unloads the part from the machine assisted by vision or no vision.  Example: bin picking, die casting, and plastic molding Machine loading and unloading that involves both loading and unloading of the work parts by the robot. The robot loads a raw work part into the process ad unloads a finished part.  Example: Machine operation
  51. 51. 4. STACKING AND INSERTION OPERATION  In the stacking process the robot places flat parts on top of each other, where the vertical location of the drop-off position is continuously changing with cycle time.  In the insertion process robot inserts parts into the compartments of a divided carton.
  53. 53. 3. RAIL-GUIDED VEHICLES Self-propelled vehicles that ride on a fixed-rail system  Vehicles operate independently and are driven by electric motors that pick up power from an electrified rail  Fixed rail system  Overhead monorail - suspended overhead from the ceiling  On-floor - parallel fixed rails, tracks generally protrude up from the floor   Routing variations are possible: switches, turntables, and other special track sections
  55. 55. CONVEYORS
  56. 56. 4. CONVEYOR SYSTEMS Large family of material transport equipment designed to move materials over fixed paths, usually in large quantities or volumes 1. Non - powered  2. Materials moved by human workers or by gravity Powered  Power mechanism for transporting materials is contained in the fixed path, using chains, belts, rollers or other mechanical devices
  57. 57. CONVEYOR TYPES 1. 2. 3. 4. Roller Skate - wheel Belt In- floor towline
  58. 58. 1. ROLLER CONVEYOR     Pathway consists of a series of rollers that are perpendicular to direction of travel Loads must possess a flat bottom to span several rollers Powered rollers rotate to drive the loads forward Un-powered roller conveyors also available
  59. 59. 2. SKATE-WHEEL CONVEYOR Similar in operation to roller conveyor but use skate wheels instead of rollers  Lighter weight and unpowered  Sometimes built as portable units that can be used for loading and unloading truck trailers in shipping and receiving 
  60. 60. 3. BELT CONVEYOR Continuous loop with forward path to move loads  Belt is made of reinforced elastomer  Support slider or rollers used to support forward loop  Two common forms:  Flat belt (shown)  V-shaped for bulk materials 
  61. 61. 4. IN-FLOOR TOW-LINE CONVEYOR Four-wheel carts powered by moving chains or cables in trenches in the floor  Carts use steel pins (or grippers) to project below floor level and engage the chain (or pulley) for towing  This allows the carts to be disengaged from towline for loading and unloading 
  62. 62. POWERED CONVEYOR OPERATIONS AND FEATURES  Types of motions 1. 2. Continuous - conveyor moves at constant velocity Asynchronous - conveyor moves with stop-and-go motion   They stop at stations, move between stations Another classification of conveyors: 1. 2. 3. Single direction Continuous loop Recirculating
  63. 63. (a) Single direction conveyor (b) Continuous loop conveyor
  65. 65. 5. CRANES AND HOISTS Handling devices for lifting, lowering and transporting materials, often as heavy loads  Cranes   Hoists   Used for horizontal movement of materials Used for vertical lifting of materials Cranes usually include hoists so that the craneand-hoist combination provides Horizontal transport  Vertical lifting and lowering 
  66. 66. BRIDGE CRANE
  67. 67. GANTRY CRANE------TYPES---- Double gantry  Half gantry  Cantilever gantry  Half gantry
  68. 68. JIB CRANE
  69. 69. ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS 1. 2. 3. Charting techniques in material handling Vehicle based system Conveyor analysis
  70. 70. ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS  Analysis of vehicle-based systems From-to charts and network diagrams  Types of systems: industrial trucks, AGVS, rail-guided vehicles, and asynchronous conveyor operations 
  71. 71. CHARTING TECHNIQUES IN MATERIAL HANDLING (FROM –TO CHART) TO FRO M 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 9/50 5/120 6/205 0 2 0 0 0 0 9/80 3 0 0 0 2/85 3/170 4 0 0 0 0 8/85 5 0 0 0 0 0 FROM –TO CHART showing flow rates, (loads per hr/travel distance) Flow diagram showing material deliveries between load/unload stations
  72. 72. ANALYSIS VEHICLE BASED SYSTEM       Tc = delivery cycle time (min/del) TL = time to load (min)—0.75 min Tu = time to unload (min)---0,5 min Ld = distance b/w load to unload (110m) Le = distance b/w unload to load (80 m) v = vehicle velocity (50 m/min) Guide path UN LOAD AGV 20 Tc = TL +[Ld/v ]+ [Le/v] + Tu 55 40 Tc= 0.75 + [110/50]+[80/50]+ 0.5 Tc= 5.05 min Tc ideal value because it ignores  Traffic congestion  Reliability problems etc 20 LOAD Direction of AGV
  73. 73. 1. RATE OF DELIVERIES PER VEHICLE  1) 2) 3)  Possible time loss include Availability ( A) -proportion of total shift time that te vehicle is operational and not broken down or being repaired) Traffic congestion ( Tf)- blocking, waiting in queue etc Many vehicles Tf decreases ,value ranges from 0.85 to 1 Efficiency (E)-of manual drivers if any(worker efficiency) if not apply is taken as unity (1) AT = available time (min/hr per vehicle) AT = 60× A × Tf × E  Rdv = rate of deliveries per vehicle (del/hr per vehicle) Rdv = AT Tc 1
  74. 74. 2. NUMBER OF VEHICLES REQUIRED    Rf = specified delivery schedule or total delivery requirements (del/ hr per vehicle) WL = Work load(min/hr) n = number of vehicle required n = WL AT n = Rf Rdv 2 From 1 and 2
  75. 75. LIMITATIONS OF AUTOMATED MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS Additional investment  Lack of flexibility  Vulnerability to downtime whenever there is breakdown  Additional maintenance staff and cost  Cost of auxiliary equipment.  Space and other requirements 
  76. 76. END THANK YOU