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Group DynamicsGroup Dynamics
Group-Basic fundamental unit of anGroup-Basic fundamental unit of an
organization.2 or more ...
Three Views-Nature of GroupThree Views-Nature of Group
Dynamics:Dynamics:
 1.Normative view:Describes how a group is to b...
Theory of Group Formation:Theory of Group Formation:
 1.Propinquity theory:people associate with one1.Propinquity theory:...
Types of groups;Types of groups;
1.Formal groups1.Formal groups are formed by theare formed by the
organization to carry ...
Types of Informal Groups;Types of Informal Groups;
 1.Friendship groups;permanent in nature1.Friendship groups;permanent ...
Schachter Study;Schachter Study;
 Stanley Schachter & his associates carried out aStanley Schachter & his associates carr...
Stages Of Group Development:Stages Of Group Development:
1.Five stage Model1.Five stage Model; According to this; Accordi...
The Punctuated Equilibrium Model:The Punctuated Equilibrium Model:
According to this model,the process ofAccording to thi...
Group StructureGroup Structure
It helps shape the behavior of itsIt helps shape the behavior of its
members,predict the b...
Roles:Roles:
It is a set of behaviour patterns which anIt is a set of behaviour patterns which an
individual occupying a ...
Group processes;Group processes;
 It refers to the processes within a group-theIt refers to the processes within a group-...
Difficulties/Problems associated withDifficulties/Problems associated with
Informal Groups;Informal Groups;
 Prevent orga...
Dynamics of formal work groups:Dynamics of formal work groups:
It includes-It includes-
committees,commissions,boards,tea...
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Group dynamics

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  1. 1. Group DynamicsGroup Dynamics Group-Basic fundamental unit of anGroup-Basic fundamental unit of an organization.2 or more persons whoorganization.2 or more persons who interact & work with each other to achieveinteract & work with each other to achieve a common purpose.a common purpose. Group Dynamics:The interactions thatGroup Dynamics:The interactions that take place among the members of atake place among the members of a group.group. The term group dynamics was popularisedThe term group dynamics was popularised by Kurt Lewin in 1930s.by Kurt Lewin in 1930s.
  2. 2. Three Views-Nature of GroupThree Views-Nature of Group Dynamics:Dynamics:  1.Normative view:Describes how a group is to be1.Normative view:Describes how a group is to be organised & how its activities are to be carried out.Itorganised & how its activities are to be carried out.It emphasizes on democratic leadership,participation of theemphasizes on democratic leadership,participation of the members,& cooperation among them.members,& cooperation among them.  22ndnd view:-Group dynamics consists of a set of techniquesview:-Group dynamics consists of a set of techniques like roleplays,brainstorming,sensitivity training,teamlike roleplays,brainstorming,sensitivity training,team building,transactional analysis,etc.building,transactional analysis,etc.  33rdrd view:Internal nature of groups.-how groups areview:Internal nature of groups.-how groups are formed,their structure,processes & functioning.Howformed,their structure,processes & functioning.How group affects individual members,other groups & thegroup affects individual members,other groups & the organization as a whole.organization as a whole.
  3. 3. Theory of Group Formation:Theory of Group Formation:  1.Propinquity theory:people associate with one1.Propinquity theory:people associate with one another due to geographical proximity.another due to geographical proximity.  2.Balance Theory:People who have similar2.Balance Theory:People who have similar attitudes toward certain objects & goals tend toattitudes toward certain objects & goals tend to be attracted to each other & form a group.be attracted to each other & form a group.  3.Exchange Theory-Reward-cost outcome serve3.Exchange Theory-Reward-cost outcome serve as the basis of group formation.It states thatas the basis of group formation.It states that affiliation/association takes place when theaffiliation/association takes place when the reward-cost equation has a positive outcome-reward-cost equation has a positive outcome- rewards are greater than the costs incurred.rewards are greater than the costs incurred.
  4. 4. Types of groups;Types of groups; 1.Formal groups1.Formal groups are formed by theare formed by the organization to carry out certainorganization to carry out certain activities.It includesactivities.It includes a) Command group-permanent ina) Command group-permanent in nature.eg:functional groups.nature.eg:functional groups. b) Task group-to carry out specificb) Task group-to carry out specific tasks:temporary in nature.tasks:temporary in nature. 2.Informal groups2.Informal groups are formed by theare formed by the employees themselves.employees themselves.
  5. 5. Types of Informal Groups;Types of Informal Groups;  1.Friendship groups;permanent in nature1.Friendship groups;permanent in nature  2.Interest groups;-relativly temporary & are2.Interest groups;-relativly temporary & are organized around a common activity or interest.organized around a common activity or interest.  Fred Luthans-In addition to formal & informal;Fred Luthans-In addition to formal & informal; Groups can also be classified into small & largeGroups can also be classified into small & large groups;Primary & secondary groupsgroups;Primary & secondary groups  Coalitions,memberships & reference groupsCoalitions,memberships & reference groups  Ingroups & outgroups.Ingroups & outgroups.
  6. 6. Schachter Study;Schachter Study;  Stanley Schachter & his associates carried out aStanley Schachter & his associates carried out a study to determine the effect of groupstudy to determine the effect of group cohesiveness & group influence on productivity.cohesiveness & group influence on productivity.  Schachters study found that highly cohesiveSchachters study found that highly cohesive groups could exert either a positive or negativegroups could exert either a positive or negative influence on performance,while less cohesiveinfluence on performance,while less cohesive groups were not so influencial.groups were not so influencial.  It can be concluded that if productivity is to beIt can be concluded that if productivity is to be maximised,the management should build amaximised,the management should build a cohesive group & should entrust the leadershipcohesive group & should entrust the leadership of this group to the person who is most capableof this group to the person who is most capable of leading the group.of leading the group.
  7. 7. Stages Of Group Development:Stages Of Group Development: 1.Five stage Model1.Five stage Model; According to this; According to this model,all groups pass through five stages:model,all groups pass through five stages: Forming-Initial meeting together.Forming-Initial meeting together. Storming-Resolving differences.Storming-Resolving differences. Norming-Agreeing purpose & conduct.Norming-Agreeing purpose & conduct. Performimg-Achieving the purpose.Performimg-Achieving the purpose. Adjourning/Mourning;Completion,endingAdjourning/Mourning;Completion,ending or evolution.or evolution.
  8. 8. The Punctuated Equilibrium Model:The Punctuated Equilibrium Model: According to this model,the process ofAccording to this model,the process of group formation is characterized by longgroup formation is characterized by long periods of inertia,punctuated orperiods of inertia,punctuated or interspersed with brief periods of activity.interspersed with brief periods of activity. These periods of activity primarily takeThese periods of activity primarily take place when the members become awareplace when the members become aware of the time & the approaching projectof the time & the approaching project deadline.deadline.
  9. 9. Group StructureGroup Structure It helps shape the behavior of itsIt helps shape the behavior of its members,predict the behavior & guide themembers,predict the behavior & guide the performance of the group as a hole.performance of the group as a hole. Groups are characterised by certainGroups are characterised by certain structural variables such as formalstructural variables such as formal leadership,roles,norms,group status,groupleadership,roles,norms,group status,group size & composition of the groupsize & composition of the group
  10. 10. Roles:Roles: It is a set of behaviour patterns which anIt is a set of behaviour patterns which an individual occupying a certain position inindividual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display.:society is expected to display.: Role IdentityRole Identity Role Perception.Role Perception. Role expectationsRole expectations Role conflict.Role conflict.
  11. 11. Group processes;Group processes;  It refers to the processes within a group-theIt refers to the processes within a group-the communication patterns,the behaviour of thecommunication patterns,the behaviour of the leader,power dynamics & conflict within the group.leader,power dynamics & conflict within the group.  1.Social loafing:When individuals work collectively or as1.Social loafing:When individuals work collectively or as a group,they tend to expend less effort than what theya group,they tend to expend less effort than what they would have put in individually.would have put in individually.  2.Synergy;When a group can create output greater than2.Synergy;When a group can create output greater than the sum of inputs.the sum of inputs.  3.Social facilitation effect;The performance of an3.Social facilitation effect;The performance of an individual can vary,depending on whether the task isindividual can vary,depending on whether the task is performed in front of others or in private.performed in front of others or in private.
  12. 12. Difficulties/Problems associated withDifficulties/Problems associated with Informal Groups;Informal Groups;  Prevent organizational change.Prevent organizational change.  Role conflict.Role conflict.  Increased scope for rumorsIncreased scope for rumors  Pressure to conform to group normsPressure to conform to group norms  Management faces 3 major problem whenManagement faces 3 major problem when dealing with informal groups:dealing with informal groups:  1.Problems arising out of conflict between the1.Problems arising out of conflict between the formal & informal status systems.formal & informal status systems.  2.Employees perception of distributive justice2.Employees perception of distributive justice  3.Problems of status incongruity.3.Problems of status incongruity.
  13. 13. Dynamics of formal work groups:Dynamics of formal work groups: It includes-It includes- committees,commissions,boards,teams &committees,commissions,boards,teams & task forces.task forces. Committees can perform variousCommittees can perform various functions-a service,advisory orfunctions-a service,advisory or administrative functionsadministrative functions Positive & Negative attributes ofPositive & Negative attributes of committees.committees.
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