Gramatica inglesa

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Gramatica inglesa

  1. 1. PRESENTE SIMPLE Affirmative Negative Interrogative I go I dont go Do I go ? You go You dont go Do you go ? He goes He doesnt go Does he go ? She goes She doesnt go Does she go ? It goes It doesnt go Does it go ? We go We dont go Do we go ? You go You dont go Do you go ? They go They dont go Do they go ? Affirmative subject + 1 > "s" (he, she, it) I go to New York - Voy a New York He goes to New York - El va a New York Negative subject + dont / doesnt + 1 I dont go to New York - No voy a New York He doesnt go to New York - El no va a New York Interrogative Do / Does + subject + 1 ? Do I go to New York ? - ¿Voy a New York ? Does he go to New York ? - ¿Va él a New York ? usos del presente simple Acciones habituales (estilos de vida, hábitos, rutina diaria). Lucas gets up at 9:00 am. Lucas se levanta a las nueve. Paul and I do a lot of things every day. Paul y yo hacemos muchas cosas a diario. Hechos o verdades generales. The sun sets in the west. El sol se pone por el oeste. The Earth goes around the sun. La Tierra gira alrededor del sol. Situaciones permanentes. Maria lives in Buenos Aires. María vive en Buenos Aires. It costs a lot of money to stay at the Hilton. Cuesta mucho dinero alojarse en el Hilton. Primer Condicional. If you heat butter, it melts. Si calientas manteca, ésta se derrite. Contact me if you need any help. Ponte en contacto conmigo si necesitas ayuda. expresiones usuales del presente simple often - generally - usually - always - never every day - every week - every month - every year - sometimes PRESENTE CONTINUO
  2. 2. ...ing (...ando, ...endo) Affirmative Negative Interrogative I am going I am not going Am I going ? You are going You are not going Are you going ? He is going He is not going Is he going ? She is going She is not going Is she going ? It is going It is not going Is it going ? We are going We are not going Are we going ? You are going You are not going Are you going ? They are going They are not going Are they going ? Affirmative subject + am/is/are + 1 > "ing" I am going to New York - Estoy yendo a New York He is going to New York - El está yendo a New York Negative subject + am/is/are + not + 1 > "ing" I am not going to New York - No estoy yendo a New York He is not going to New York - El no está yendo a New York Interrogative Am/Is/Are + subject + 1 > "ing" ? Am I going to New York ? - ¿Estoy yendo a New York ? Is he going to New York ? - ¿Está él yendo a New York ?usos del presente continuoAcciones que ocurren en el momento de hablar.Lucas is getting up now. Lucas se está levantando ahora.My wife is having lunch now. Mi esposa está almorzando ahora.Planes futuros que han sido confirmados.The manager is meeting me tonight. El gerente se va a reunir conmigo esta noche.They are arriving tomorrow morning. Van a llegar mañana por la mañana.Acciones que tendrán lugar en un futuro próximo y sobre las que se ha tomado unaresolución firme.I am going to visit their office in Caracas next week.Voy a visitar su oficina de Caracas la próxima semana.Acciones habituales con sentido negativo que llevan always.Mike is always talking nonsense. Mike siempre está hablando estupideces.He is always annoying his friends. Siempre está molestando a sus amigos.verbos que no suelen utilizarse en presente continuo know - like - want - love - hate - need
  3. 3. expresiones usuales del presente continuo the next - at moment - now - in this week on Sunday - this evening - tomorrow PASADO SIMPLE Affirmative Negative Interrogative I went I didnt go Did I go ? You went You didnt go Did you go ? He went He didnt go Did he go ? She went She didnt go Did she go ? It went It didnt go Did it go ? We went We didnt go Did we go ? You went You didnt go Did you go ? They went They didnt go Did they go ? Affirmative subject + 2 I went to New York - Fui a New York He went to New York - El fue a New York Negative subject + didnt + 1 I didnt go to New York - No fui a New York He didnt go to New York - El no fue a New York Interrogative Did + subject + 1 ? Did I go to New York? - ¿Fui a New York ? Did he go to New York? - ¿Fue él a New York?usos del pasado simpleAcciones pasadas que tuvieron lugar en determinado momentoy que ya han finalizado.My parents didnt work last week. Mis padres no trabajaron la semana pasada.Lina worked in a bank from 1995 to 2002. Lina trabajó en un banco desde 1995 a 2002.Hechos pasados expresados en secuencia.Sheila got up at 7 am, had breakfast, took a shower and went to work at 9 am.Sheila se levantó a las 7, desayunó, se duchó y fue a trabajar a las 9.expresiones usuales del pasado simple yesterday - last night - before - ago - in 2002 on their vacation - last weekend - last month - last year
  4. 4. PASADO CONTINUO ...ing (...ando, ...endo) Affirmative Negative Interrogative I was going I was not going Was I going ? You were going You were not going Were you going ? He was going He was not going Was he going ? She was going She was not going Was she going ? It was going It was not going Was it going ? We were going We were not going Were we going ? You were going You were not going Were you going ? They were going They were not going Were they going ? Affirmative subject + was/were + 1 > "ing" I was going to New York - Estaba (estuve) yendo a New York You were going to New York - Ud. estaba (estuvo) yendo a New York Negative subject + was/were + not + 1 > "ing" I was not going to New York - No estaba (estuve) yendo a New York You were not going to New York - Ud. no estaba (estuvo) yendo a New York Interrogative Was/Were + subject + 1 > "ing" ? Was I going to New York ? - ¿Estaba (estuve) yendo a New York ? Were you going to New York ? - ¿Estaba (estuvo) Ud. yendo a New York ?usos del pasado continuoActividades que ocurrían en determinado momento del pasado y que continuarondespués.At 11 am I was preparing our lunch. A las 11 estaba preparando nuestro almuerzo.Actividades interrumpidas por acciones más cortas.When my friend was taking a shower, the telephone rang.Cuando mi amiga estaba duchándose, sonó el teléfono.While Martha was listening to music, her brother did his homework.Mientras Martha escuchaba música, su hermano hizo sus deberesAcciones simultáneas (ambas en presente continuo).The kids were running and their grandfather was reading an old paper.Los niños estaban corriendo y su abuelo estaba leyendo un antiguo periódico. PRESENTE PERFECTO
  5. 5. Affirmative Negative Interrogative I have gone I havent gone Have I gone ? You have gone You havent gone Have you gone ? He has gone He hasnt gone Has he gone ? She has gone She hasnt gone Has she gone ? It has gone It hasnt gone Has it gone ? We have gone We havent gone Have we gone ? You have gone You havent gone Have you gone ? They have gone They havent gone Have they gone ? Affirmative subject + have / has + 3 I have gone to New York - He ido a New York He has gone to New York - El ha ido a New York Negative subject + havent / hasnt + 3 I havent gone to New York - No he ido a New York He hasnt gone to New York - El no ha ido a New York Interrogative Have / Has + subject + 3 ? Have I gone to New York? - ¿He ido a New York ? Has he gone to New York? - ¿Ha ido él a New York?usos del presente perfecto simplePor regla general, se lo utiliza para describir acciones que empezaron en el pasadoy que aún no han finalizado o que guardan alguna relación con el presente.Con el adverbio just: acciones que acaban de ocurrir.The President has just arrived from the US. El Presidente acaba de llegar desde EEUU.They both have just left for Bogota. Ambos acaban de partir para Bogotá.Con las preposiciones for y since.We have lived in Italy for three years. Hemos vivido en Italia durante tres años.I havent heard from you since 1990!! ¡¡No he tenido noticias tuyas desde 1990!!Con los adverbios yet y already.They havent taken the Basic Exam yet. No han rendido el Examen Básico aún.I have already taken the Intermediate Exam. Ya he rendido el Examen Intermedio.Con el grado superlativo de un adjetivo.OM Smiles is one of the funniest section in OM Personal.OM Smiles es una de las secciones más divertidas de OM Personal.Con las expresiones: Its the first, Its the second, etc.Its the first time I have flown United. Es la primera vez que vuelo por United.Its the second time she has had lunch today. Es la segunda vez que almuerza hoy.expresiones usuales del presente perfecto simple since - for - just - ago - lately
  6. 6. yet - already - never - ever - recently PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO Affirmative Negative Interrogative I have been going I havent been going Have I been going ? You have been going You havent been going Have you been going ? He has been going He hasnt been going Has he been going ? She has been going She hasnt been going Has she been going ? It has been going It hasnt been going Has it been going ? We have been going We havent been going Have we been going ? You have been going You havent been going Have you been going ? They have been going They havent been going Have they been going ? Affirmative subject + have/has + been + 1 > "ing" I have been going to New York - He estado yendo a New York He has been going to New York - El ha estado yendo a New York Negative subject + havent / hasnt + been + 1 > "ing" I havent been going to New York - No he estado yendo a New York He hasnt been going to New York - El no ha estado yendo a New York Interrogative Have / Has + subject + been + 1 > "ing" ? Have I been going to New York? - ¿He estado yendo a New York ? Has he been going to New York? - ¿Ha estado él yendo a New York?usos del presente perfecto continuoActividades que comenzaron en el pasado y continúan en el presente y resaltan laduración del proceso.Monica and her husband have been living in Barcelona for ten years.Mónica y su esposo llevan viviendo en Barcelona diez años.Acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y pueden o no haber finalizado recientemente yresaltan la duración del proceso.The weather is really bad. It has been raining all night.El tiempo está realmente malo. Ha estado lloviendo toda la noche.Acciones del pasado que acaban de concluir y cuyo estado es evidente.Hmm. Nice smelling!! Have you been cooking your birthday cake?Hmm. ¡¡Qué lindo aroma!! ¿Has estado cocinando tu torta de cumpleaños? PAST PERFECT Affirmative Negative Interrogative
  7. 7. I had gone I hadnt gone Had I gone ? You had gone You hadnt gone Had you gone ? He had gone He hadnt gone Had he gone ? She had gone She hadnt gone Had she gone ? It had gone It hadnt gone Had it gone ? We had gone We hadnt gone Had we gone ? You had gone You hadnt gone Had you gone ? They had gone They hadnt gone Had they gone ? Affirmative subject + had + 3 I had gone to New York - Yo había ido a New York He had gone to New York - El había a New York Negative subject + hadnt + 3 I hadnt gone to New York - Yo no había ido a New York He hadnt gone to New York - El no había ido a New York Interrogative Had + subject + 3 ? Had I gone to New York? - ¿Había ido yo a New York ? Had he gone to New York? - ¿Había ido él a New York?usos del pasado perfecto simpleAcción del pasado que tuvo lugar antes que otra.Her plane had already left when Thelma arrived at the airport.Su vuelo ya había partido cuando Thelma llegó al aeropuerto.Con el adverbio just para expresar una acción que acaba de ocurrir.When Oliver phoned, the kids had just gone to bed.Cuando Oliver llamó por teléfono, los niños acababan de acostarse.Tercer Condicional.If I had known that you were sick, I would have gone to see you.Si hubiese sabido que estabas enfermo, te habría ido a ver. PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO Affirmative Negative Interrogative I had been going I hadnt been going Had I been going ? You had been going You hadnt been going Had you been going ? He had been going He hadnt been going Had he been going ? She had been going She hadnt been going Had she been going ? It had been going It hadnt been going Had it been going ? We had been going We hadnt been going Had we been going ? You had been going You hadnt been going Had you been going ?
  8. 8. They had been going They hadnt been going Had they been going ? Affirmative subject + had + been + 1 > "ing" I had been going to New York - Había estado yendo a New York He had been going to New York - El había estado yendo a New York Negative subject + hadnt + been + 1 > "ing" I hadnt been going to New York - No había estado yendo a New York He hadnt been going to New York - El no había estado yendo a New York Interrogative Had + subject + been + 1 > "ing" ? Had I been going to New York? - ¿Había estado yo yendo a New York ? Had he been going to New York? - ¿Había estado él yendo a New York?usos del pasado perfecto continuoResalta la duración de una acción que ocurrió en el pasado antes que otra.I was very tired when I arrived home. I had been working hard all day.Estaba muy cansado cuando llegué a casa. Había estado trabajando mucho todo el día.Ken had been smoking for 30 years when he finally gave it up.Ken había estado fumando durante treinta años cuando finalmente dejó de fumar.The soccer game had to be stopped. They had been playing for half an hour when a terriblestorm began.El partido de fútbol tuvo que ser detenido. Habían estado jugando durante media hora cuandoempezó una espantosa tormenta. FUTURO SIMPLE Affirmative Negative Interrogative I will go I wont go Will I go ? You will go You wont go Will you go ? He will go He wont go Will he go ? She will go She wont go Will she go ? It will go It wont go Will it go ? We will go We wont go Will we go ? You will go You wont go Will you go ? They will go They wont go Will they go ? Affirmative subject + will + 1 I will go to New York - Iré a New York He will go to New York - El irá a New York Negative subject + wont (will not) + 1 I wont go to New York - No iré a New York He wont go to New York - El no irá a New York Interrogative Will + subject + 1 ?
  9. 9. Will I go to New York ? - ¿Iré a New York ? Will he go to New York ? - ¿Irá él a New York ?usos del futuro simpleAcciones que se van a desarrollar con certeza en el futuro.I will play tennis tomorrow. Jugaré tenis mañana.OM Personal will be six in 2005. OM Personal cumplirá seis años en el 2005.Predicción en el futuro.It will snow tomorrow. Nevará mañana.Promesas."Every Argentinian will have a job in this blessed country." (Carlos Menem)"Todo Argentino tendrá un puesto de trabajo en este bendito país." (Carlos Menem)Ofrecimientos.I will stay with you all night if you really need it.Me quedaré contigo toda la noche si realmente lo necesitas.Suele utilizarse el auxiliar shall (o su contracción ll) para el futuro de la primerapersona del singular y del plural.We shall go to the movies = We will go to the moviesWell go to the movies. Iremos al cine.expresiones usuales del futuro simple tomorrow - the day after tomorrow - in 2010 next Monday - next week - next month - next year FUTURO CONTINUO ...ing (...ando, ...endo) Affirmative Negative Interrogative I will be going I will not be going Will I be going ? You will be going You will not be going Will you be going ? He will be going He will not be going Will he be going ? She will be going She will not be going Will she be going ? It will be going It will not be going Will it be going ? We will be going We will not be going Will we be going ? You will be going You will not be going Will you be going ? They will be going They will not be going Will they be going ?
  10. 10. Affirmative subject + will be + 1 > "ing" I will be going to New York - Estaré yendo a New York He will be going to New York - El estará yendo a New York Negative subject + wont (will not) be + 1 > "ing" I wont be going to New York - No estaré yendo a New York He wont be going to New York - El no estará yendo a New York Interrogative Will + subject + be + 1 > "ing" ? Will I be going to New York ? - ¿Estaré yendo a New York ? Will he be going to New York ? - ¿Estará él yendo a New York ?usos del futuro continuoAcciones que van a tener lugar en el futuro y que, al momentodel tiempo al que nos referimos, seguirán desarrollándose. No siempre se mencionaen la oración el momento del futuro.We will be watching TV. Estaremos viendo televisión.Tonight we will be watching TV. Esta noche estaremos viendo televisión.She will be visiting me. Me estará visitando.She will be visiting me on Sunday. Me estará visitando el domingo.expresiones usuales del futuro continuo tomorrow - the day after tomorrow - in 2010 next Monday - next week - next month - next year FUTURO PERFECTO Affirmative Negative Interrogative NEGATIVE CONTRACTION: WILL NOT = WONT I will have gone I will not have gone Will I have gone ? Affirmativegone You will have You will not have gone subjectWillwill havegone ? + you have + 3 I willwill have gone to New York - Habré ido a New York he have gone ? He have gone He will not have gone Will He will have gone to New York -not have gone a New York have gone ? She will have gone She will El habrá ido Will she Negative gone It will have It will not have gonesubject + wont have +?3 Will it have gone I wont have gone to New York not have gone a New York We will have gone We will - No habré ido Will we have gone ? You will have gone You will not have gone Will you have gone ? He wont have gone to New York - El no habrá ido a New York They will have gone They will not have gone Will they have gone ? Interrogative Will + subject + have + 3 ? Will I have gone to New York? - ¿Habré ido a New York ? Will he have gone to New York? - ¿Habrá ido él a New York?
  11. 11. usos del futuro perfectoAcciones que ya se están desarrollando o que se van a desarrollar en el futuro, peroque cuando llegue ese momento futuro que se menciona la acción ya habrá finalizado.By tomorrow I will have finished my book.Para mañana, habré terminado este libro.Before winter, you will have sold your old car.Antes del invierno, habrás vendido tu antiguo automóvil.Before we arrive home, Mom will have prepared our breakfast.Antes de que lleguemos a casa, mamá habrá preparado nuestro desayuno.We will not have finished these reports by 7 pm!!¡¡No habremos finalizado estos informes para las 7 de la tarde!!expresiones usuales del futuro perfecto by 10 pm - by Monday - by tomorrow - by 2010 by next week - by next month - by next year FUTURO PERFECTO CONTINUO ...ing (...ando, ...endo) Affirmative Negative InterrogativeI will have been going I will not have been going Will I have been going ?You will have been going You will not have been going Will you have been going ?He will have been going He will not have been going Will he have been going ?She will have been going She will not have been going Will she have been going ?It will have been going It will not have been going Will it have been going ?We will have been going We will not have been going Will we have been going ?You will have been going You will not have been going Will you have been going ?They will have been going They will not have been going Will they have been going ?Affirmative subject + will have been + 1 > "ing"I will have been going to New York - Habré estado yendo a New YorkHe will have been going to New York - El habrá estado yendo a New YorkNegative subject + wont (will not) have beeen + 1 > "ing"I wont have been going to New York - No habré estado yendo a New YorkHe wont have been going to New York - El no habrá estado yendo a New YorkInterrogative Will + subject + have been + 1 > "ing" ?Will I have been going to New York ? - ¿Habré estado yendo a New York ?Will he have been going to New York ? - ¿Habrá él estado yendo a New York ?usos del futuro perfecto continuo
  12. 12. Acontecimientos o acciones pertenecientes a un período de tiempo entre ahora yalgún momento del futuro, que puede ser incompleto.I will have been waiting here for five hours by 10 pm.Habré estado esperando aquí durante cinco horas cuando sean las 10 de la noche.By the time you finish our OM Basic Course, you will have been learning AmericanEnglish for six months.Para cuando finalices nuestro OM Curso Básico, habrás estado aprediendo Ingñés Americanodurante seis meses.By 2100 OM Personal will have been teaching on the Internet for a century.Para el 2100 OM Personal habrá estado enseñando en Internet durante un siglo.expresiones usuales del futuro perfecto continuo By the time you ... - By 2020 ... - By 8:00 am tomorrow ... CONDICIONAL Affirmative Negative Interrogative I would go I wouldnt go Would I go ? You would go You wouldnt go Would you go ? He would go He wouldnt go Would he go ? She would go She wouldnt go Would she go ? It would go It wouldnt go Would it go ? We would go We wouldnt go Would we go ? You would go You wouldnt go Would you go ? They would go They wouldnt go Would they go ? Affirmative subject + would + 1 I would go to New York - Yo iría a New York He would go to New York - El iría a New York Negative subject + wouldnt + 1 I wouldnt go to New York - Yo no iría a New York He wouldnt go to New York - El no iría a New York Interrogative Would + subject + 1 ? Would I go to New York ? - ¿Iría yo a New York ? Would he go to New York ? - ¿Iría él a New York ?usos del condicional simpleComentarios acerca de algo que no es real en el presente peroque puede ser posible.I would visit her if I had time. (I havent got time but I might have some time)Yo la visitaría si tuviese tiempo. (Realmente no tengo tiempo pero podría tenerlo)Comentarios acerca de una situación que no es real en estos momentos y que nunca
  13. 13. podría serlo.If I were you, I would give up smoking. (but I could never be you).Si estuviera en tu lugar, dejaría el cigarrillo. (pero nunca podría estar en tu lugar)Segundo Condicional (Condicional tipo II).If I were a plant, I would love the rain.Si fuera un árbol, me encantaría la lluvia.If you really loved me, you would buy me a Mercedes XL600.Si realmente me amaras, me comprarías un Mercedes XL600.Would your father go to see the match if I gave him a free ticket?¿Iría tu padre a ver el partido si le diese una entrada gratis?expresiones usuales del condicional simple If I were ... - If she were ... CONDICIONAL CONTINUO ...ing (...ando, ...endo) Affirmative Negative InterrogativeI would be going I would not be going Would I be going ?You would be going You would not be going Would you be going ?He would be going He would not be going Would he be going ?She would be going She would not be going Would she be going ?It would be going It would not be going Would it be going ?We would be going We would not be going Would we be going ?You would be going You would not be going Would you be going ?They would be going They would not be going Would they be going ?Affirmative subject + would be + 1 > "ing"I would be going to New York - Yo estaría yendo a New YorkHe would be going to New York - El estaría yendo a New YorkNegative subject + wouldnt (would not) be + 1 > "ing"I wouldnt be going to New York - Yo no estaría yendo a New YorkHe wouldnt be going to New York - El no estaría yendo a New YorkInterrogative Would + subject + be + 1 > "ing" ?Would I be going to New York ? - ¿Estaría yo yendo a New York ?Would he be going to New York ? - ¿Estaría él yendo a New York ?usos del condicional continuoHechos o situaciones incompletas o contínuas, probablemente como resultado de unacondición irreal.
  14. 14. I would be working in New York by now if I spoke American English.(but I dont speak American English at all, so I am not working in New York).Estaría trabajando en Nueva York en estos momentos si hablara Inglés Americano. (pero nohablo Inglés Americano, por lo tanto no estoy trabajando en Nueva York).Mabel would be living with Fernando if she wasnt living with her parents.(but Mabel is living with her parents, so shes not living with him).Mabel estaría viviendo con Fernando si ella no estuviese viviendo con sus padres. (pero Mabelestá viviendo con sus padres, por lo tanto no está viviendo con él).I wouldnt be eating this horrible cake if I wasnt extremely hungry.(but Im starvng now, so Im eating it).No estaría comiendo esta espantosa torta si no tuviese tanto apetito.(pero me estoy muriendo de hambre, por lo tanto la estoy comiendo).expresiones usuales del condicional continuo If I had... I would... - I wouldnt... if I had... CONDICIONAL PERFECTO SIMPLE Affirmative Negative Interrogative I would have gone I wouldnt have gone Would I have gone ? You would have gone You wouldnt have gone Would you have gone ? He would have gone He wouldnt have gone Would he have gone ? She would have gone She wouldnt have gone Would she have gone ? It would have gone It wouldnt have gone Would it have gone ? We would have gone We wouldnt have gone Would we have gone ? You would have gone You wouldnt have gone Would you have gone ? They would have gone They wouldnt have gone Would they have gone ? Affirmative subject + would have + 3 I would have gone to New York - Yo habría ido a New York He would have gone to New York - El habría ido a New York Negative subject + wouldnt have + 3 I wouldnt have gone to New York - Yo no habría ido a New York He wouldnt have gone to New York - El no habría ido a New York Interrogative Would + subject + have 3 ? Would I have gone to New York? - ¿Habría ido yo a New York ? Would he have gone to New York? - ¿Habría ido él a New York?usos del condicional perfecto simpleTercer Condicional o Condicional Tipo III.If I had known that you were sick, I would have gone to see you.Si hubiese sabido que estabas enfermo, te habría ido a ver.If she had studied at OM Personal, she would have passed her FCE examination.
  15. 15. Si hubiese estudiado en OM Personal, habría aprobado su examen de First Certificate.If I had known that Buenos Aires was so cheap, I would have gone there.Si hubiese sabido que Buenos Aires es tan barato, habría ido allí.expresiones usuales del condicional perfecto simple if I had ... - if I were ... - if he were ... CONDICIONAL PERFECTO CONTINUO ...ing (...ando, ...endo) Affirmative Negative InterrogativeI would have been going I would not have been going Would I have been going ?You would have been going You would not have been going Would you have been going ?He would have been going He would not have been going Would he have been going ?She would have been going She would not have been going Would she have been going ?It would have been going It would not have been going Would it have been going ?We would have been going We would not have been going Would we have been going ?You would have been going You would not have been going Would you have been going ?They would have been going They would not have been going Would they have been going ?Affirmative subject + would have been + 1 > "ing"I would have been going to New York - Yo habría estado yendo a N.Y.He would have been going to New York - El habría estado yendo a N.Y.Negative subject + wouldnt (would not) have been + 1 > "ing"I wouldnt have been going to New York - No habría estado yendo a N.Y.He wouldnt have been going to New York - El no habría estado yendo a N.Y.Interrogative Would + subject + have been + 1 > "ing" ?Would I have been going to New York ? - ¿Habría yo estado yendo a N.Y. ?Would he have been going to New York ? - ¿Habría él estado yendo a N.Y. ?usos del condicional perfecto continuoEste tiempo verbal hace referencia al resultado incompleto de la acción de la cláusula if yexpresa este resultado como una acción continua o no finalizada.Tercer Condicional o Condicional Tipo III.If the weather had been better (but it wasnt), my sister-in-law would have beensitting in the garden when I arrived (but she wasnt and so I didnt see her).Si el tiempo hubiese estado mejor (pero no fue así), mi cuñada habría estado sentada en eljardín cuando yo llegué (pero no lo estaba y, por lo tanto, no la ví).If the youngsters had known it was dangerous, they would not have been climbingsuch a mountain.Si los jóvenes hubiesen sabido que era peligroso, no habrían estado escalando semejante
  16. 16. montaña.If I had had more money, I would have been travelling all around Europe with myfriends that summer.Si hubiese tenido más dinero, habría estado recorriendo toda Europa con mis amigos eseverano.expresiones usuales del condicional perfecto continuo if I had had ... - if he had known ... MODALES SIMPLES Affirmative Negative Interrogative I can go I cant go Can I go ? I could go I couldnt go Could I go ? I may go I may not go May I go ? I might go I might not go Might I go ? I must go I mustnt go Must I go ? I should go I shouldnt go Should I go ? Affirmative subject + modal + 1 I can go to New York - Puedo ir a New York (posibilidad física, conocimiento) I could go to New York - Podría ir a New York (alternativa) I may go to New York - Puedo ir a New York (permiso) I might go to New York - Podría ir a New York (posibilidad) I must go to New York - Debo ir a New York (obligación) I should go to New York - Debería ir a New York (obligación moral, consejo) Negative subject + modal + not + 1 I cant go to New York - No puedo ir a New York I couldnt go to New York - No podría ir a New York I may not go to New York - No puedo ir a New York I might not go to New York - No podría ir a New York I mustnt go to New York - No debo ir a New York I shouldnt go to New York - No debería ir a New York Interrogative modal + subject + 1 ? Can I go to New York ? - ¿Puedo ir a New York ? Could I go to New York ? - ¿Podría ir a New York ? May I go to New York ? - ¿Puedo ir a New York ? Might I go to New York ? - ¿Podría ir a New York ? Must I go to New York ? - ¿Debo ir a New York ? Should I go to New York ? - ¿Debería ir a New York ?
  17. 17. MODALES CONTINUOS Affirmative Negative Interrogative I can be going I cant be going Can I be going ? I could be going I couldnt be going Could I be going ? I may be going I may not be going May I be going ? I might be going I might not be going Might I be going ? I must be going I mustnt be going Must I be going ? I should be going I shouldnt be going Should I be going ?Affirmative subject + modal + be + 1 > "ing"I can be going to New York - Puedo estar yendo a NY (posib. física, conocimiento)I could be going to New York - Podría estar yendo a NY (alternativa)I may be going to New York - Puedo estar yendo a NY (permiso)I might be going to New York - Podría estar yendo a NY (posibilidad)I must be going to New York - Debo estar yendo a NY (obligación)I should be going to New York - Debería estar yendo a NY (oblig. moral, consejo)Negative subject + modal + not be + 1 > "ing"I cant be going to New York - No puedo estar yendo a NYI couldnt be going to New York - No podría estar yendo a NYI may not be going to New York - No puedo estar yendo a NYI might not be going to New York - No podría estar yendo a NYI mustnt be going to New York - No debo estar yendo a NYI shouldnt be going to New York - No debería estar yendo a NYInterrogative modal + subject + be + 1 > "ing" ?Can I be going to New York ? - ¿Puedo estar yendo a NY ?Could I be going to New York ? - ¿Podría estar yendo a NY ?May I be going to New York ? - ¿Puedo estar yendo a NY?Might I be going to New York ? - ¿Podría estar yendo a NY ?Must I be going to New York ? - ¿Debo estar yendo a NY ?Should I be going to New York ? - ¿Debería estar yendo a NY ? CONDICIONALES : 4TIPOSconditional type 0 >> ZERO CONDITIONALIF + SIMPLE PRESENT + SIMPLE PRESENT
  18. 18. Used for scientific facts or general truths (usado para expresar verdades científicas, hechos que nuncacambian o situaciones que siempre ocurren). Algunos gramáticos incluyen este tipo de condicional dentro deFIRST CONDITIONAL o Conditional Type I.If you heat butter, it melts.Si calientas manteca, ésta se derrite.If you put water in a cooler, it freezes.Si colocas agua en el congelador, ésta se congela.If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.Si calientas agua a 100 grados, ésta hierve.If you cross an international date line, the time changes.Si cruzas una línea de tiempo internacional, la hora cambia.If you drop ice in water, it floats.Si tiras hielo al agua, éste flota.If iron gets wet, it rusts.Si el hierro se moja, se oxida.conditional type I >> FIRST CONDITIONALUsed to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future. It is generally used for thingswhich may happen (utilizado para cosas que pueden ocurrir en presente o futuro).a) IF + SIMPLE PRESENT + SIMPLE FUTUREIf you study hard, you will pass your exams.Si estudias intensamente aprobarás tus exámenes.If we do not protect the panda bears, they will soon become extinct.Si no protegemos a los osos panda, pronto se extinguirán.b) IMPERATIVE + OR / AND + SIMPLE FUTUREUsed for threats and promises (usado para expresar amenazas y promesas)Dont say a word about this, or I will kill you.No cuentes una palabra de esto o te mato.Finish your job, and you will have a bonus.Termina tu tarea y tendrás una gratificación.c) IMPERATIVO + IF / IN CASE + SIMPLE PRESENTContact me if you need any help.Ponte en contacto conmigo si necesitas ayuda.Call them in case you need help.Llámalos en caso de necesitar ayuda.NOTE: In cases b and d above, you can replace IF (si) by UNLESS (a menos que)conditional type II >> SECOND CONDITIONALUsed to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future. It isgenerally used for things which dont or wont happen. It is generally used for things which may happen(utilizado en presente o futuro para expresar situaciones hipotéticas, que normalmente son irreales oimposibles).IF + SIMPLE PAST + SIMPLE CONDITIONALIf FIRST verb in the sentence is TO BE, WERE is used for all persons.
  19. 19. (Si el PRIMER verbo de la oración es TO BE, se usa WERE para todas las personas)If I were rich, I would buy a castle.Si fuera rico, compraría un castillo.If I were him, I would go and see a doctor.Si fuera él -en su lugar- consultaría con un médico.If elephants had wings, they would be able to fly.Si los elefantes tuvieran alas, podrían volar.NOTE: You can replace IF (si) by UNLESS (a menos que) in the examples above.conditional type III >> THIRD CONDITIONALUsed to talk about unreal situations in the past, that is, things which did not happen in the past.(utilizado para expresar situaciones irreales – que nunca sucedieron – en el pasado y, en general, dentro deun contexto de crítica, queja o remordimiento). En español tienes una construcción similar por lo cual estecondicional no debería resultar complicado.IF + PAST PERFECT + CONDITIONAL PERFECTIf FIRST verb in the sentence is TO BE, WERE is used for all persons.(Si el PRIMER verbo de la oración es TO BE, se usa WERE para todas las personas)If I had known that you were sick, I would have gone to see you.Si hubiese sabido que estabas enfermo, te habría ido a ver.The real situation was that I didnt know you were sick. So I say If I had known... When you are talking aboutthe past, you use the Past Perfect (I had known) after IF.If you had saved your money, you could have bought a laptop.Si hubieses ahorrado tu dinero, podrías haberte comprado una computadora.The real situation was that you didnt save your money. So they say If you had saved... When you are talkingabout the past, you use the Past Perfect (I had known) after IF.If you hadnt been late for work so often, they wouldnt have fired you.Si no hubieses llegado tarde al trabajo tan seguido, no te habrían despedido.The real situation was that you wasnt early for work. So they say If you hadnt been late... When you aretalking about the past, you use the Past Perfect (I had known) after IF.NOTE: You can replace IF (si) by UNLESS (a menos que) in the examples above. Estilo indirecto - Reported Speech El Estilo indirecto o Reported speech es una estructura que se emplea cuando queremos decir o hacer mención sobre algo que alguien ha dicho previamente. Direct speech Reported speech (estilo directo) (estilo indirecto) "I always drink coffee". She She said that she always said. drank coffee. "Yo siempre bebo café." Ella dijo. Ella dijo que ella siempre bebía café. Para hacer mención sobre lo que alguien ha dicho usamos verbos como explain, promise, say, tell, suggest... Aunque los más utilizados son say y tell.
  20. 20. No es necesario cambiar el tiempo del verbo si el verbo de la oración principalestá en presente. En el ejemplo anterior podríamos decir: She said that she always drink coffee. Para introducir lo que ha dicho, usamos that aunque muchas veces se puede omitir esta palabra. Al convertir una oración de "Direct Speech" a "Reported Speech" tenemos en cuenta que el verbo principal retrocede un tiempo verbal. Tabla de cambios que sufre el verbo: Direct speech Reported speech present simple past simple I am happy He said he was happy I sleep He said he slept past continuos present continuos He said he was feeling I am feeling happy happy I am sleeping He said he was sleeping past perfect past simple He said he had been I was happy happy I slept He said he had slept past perfect present perfect He said he had been I have been happy happy I have slept He said he had slept past perfect continuos present perfect continuos He said he had been I have been feeling happy feeling happy I have been sleeping He said he had been sleeping simple conditional future He said he would be I will be happy happy I will sleep He said he would sleep simple conditional perfect future perfect He said he would have I will have been happy been happy I will have sleep He said he would have slept
  21. 21. Verbos modales Direct speech Reported speech CAN COULD I can sleep He said he could sleep MAY MIGHT I may sleep He said he might sleep WILL WOULD I will sleep He said he would sleep MUST HAD TO I must sleep He said he had to sleep Cambios que pueden sufrir algunas partículas de lugar y tiempo: now at that moment, then tonight that night today that day last night the night before this morning that morning this week that week next week the following week next year the year after here there Reported Speech: questions En las oraciones interrogativas usamos el mismo orden gramatical: el sujeto va después del verbo pero no es necesario usar el auxiliar "do" o "did". Direct speech Reported speech "Where do Susan and Ann He asked me where Susan work? " and Ann worked. Él me preguntó dónde trabajaban Mary y "¿Dónde trabajan Susan y Ann?" Tom. La voz pasiva - The Passive VoicePodemos enfocar la acción del verbo en el sujeto (voz activa) o en el objeto (voz pasiva).Ejemplos:
  22. 22. Voz Activa: The porter carries the bags. (el portero lleva los bolsos)Voz Pasiva: The bags are carried by the porter. (los bolsos son llevados por el portero)Reglas gramaticalesLa voz pasiva se forma utilizando el verbo to be + el verbo principal en participio (pastparticiple).Para transformar una oracion activa a pasiva tenemos en cuenta los siguientes puntos:El objeto de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto de la pasivaEl verbo principal se sustituye por el auxiliar "to be", en su mismo tiempo, junto al verboprincipal en participio.El sujeto de la oración principal pasa a ser complemento agente de la pasivaSi hacemos mención en la oración al sujeto que realiza la acción (sujeto agente), éste iránormalmente introducido por la preposición by:Tabla de cambios verbales en la transformación de Voz Activa a Voz PasivaTomando en cuenta los puntos anteriormente mencionados, en este esquema vemos loscambios que sufre el tiempo verbal de una oracion activa al ser transformada a oracionpasiva.Usamos como ejemplo: to write a letter (escribir una carta)write (presente/present) / wrote (pasado/past) / written (participio/participle)Tiempo verbal de Frase activa Frase pasiva la frase activa present I write a letter The letter is writtenpresent continuos Im writing a letter The letter is being written past I wrote a letter The letter was written past continuos I was writing a letter The letter was being written present perfect Ive written a letter The letter has been written past perfect I had written a letter The letter had been written future I will write a letter The letter will be written Im going to write a The letter is going to be future II letter written modals I have to write a letter The letter has to be written modals I should write a letter The letter should be written modals I must write a letter The letter must be writtenUsos de la voz pasiva- Usamos la voz pasiva cuando queremos dar importancia a "lo que pasó" más que a quiénhizo la acción.ejemplo:Her money was stolen. (su dinero fue robado)- También usamos la voz pasiva para mantener un mismo sujeto en varias frases:ejemplo:I met that woman. I was surprised at how attractive she was... (Me encontré con esa mujer.Me quedé sorprendido de lo hermosa que era.)En este ejemplo la persona se mantiene ella misma como sujeto.
  23. 23. También usamos la voz pasiva para describir procesos científicos.ejemplo:The water is heated to a temperature of from 60° to 80° C. (El agua es hervida a unatemperatura de entre 60 a 80 grados). El artículo en inglés - El artículo determinadoLos artículos en inglés, a diferencia del castellano, no tienen género. En muchas ocasiones la noción de masculino, femenino o neutro coincide en castellano, pero no siempre es así. Así por ejemplo, en castellano decimos: El coche "género masculino", en inglés es The car"género neutro: it", aunque podemos observar que en formas coloquiales podemos referirnos al coche adjudicándole género femenino: "My car let me down last night, she broke down". The article definite/El artículo determinadoThe corresponde a los siguientes artículos en español el, la, los, las. Tanto se utiliza para las formas singulares como para formas plurales. Ejemplos: The boy (el niño) masculino-singular The boys (los niños) masculino-plural The girl (la niña) femenino-singular The girls (las niñas) femenino-plural The book (el libro) neutro-singular The books (los libros) neutro-pluralEste artículo puede ir precedido de las preposiciones of, to. En inglés no hay contracción de preposición y artículo. "Del" y "al" se traducen por: of the (del) to the (al). Ejemplos: Days of the week (días de la semana) Im going to the garden (me voy al jardín) Usos del artículo The - ¿En qué casos utilizamos The? • Cuando sabemos de quién o de qué estamos hablando. Utilizamos "the" para indicar algo o alguien en particular, por ello se llama definido. Hablamos de algo o alguien concreto que tanto el emisor como el receptor del mensaje conocen porque ya ha salido anteriormente en la conversación o porque los dos lo conocen previamente. Ejemplo: Do you remember the day we went to New York? (¿Recuerdas el día que fuimos a Nueva York?) • Cuando está claro a lo que nos referimos. Ejemplo: Where is the shop your mother works in? (¿Dónde esta la tienda en que trabaja tu madre?) • Para referirnos a nombres de lugares que se refieran a repúblicas, estados o reinados. Ejemplo: We visited the United States (Visitamos los Estados Unidos)
  24. 24. • Con los nombres plurales de mares, océanos, canales y rios. Ejemplo: The Pennines (Las montañas Penines) • Cuando nombramos lugares de ocio o lugares emblemáticos. Ejemplo: We visited the Eiffel tower (Visitamos la torre Eiffel)• Uilizamos The con la partícula "same", de la misma manera que se utiliza en español. Ejemplo: Your dress is the same as mine. (Tu vestido es como el mio) • Utilizamos The con la partícula "of" Ejemplo: The house of Commons (la casa de los comunes-parlamento) • Para hacer referencia a los puntos cardinales north, south, east, west. Ejemplo: The south of France (El sur de Francia) • Con los adjetivos en grado superlativo: Ejemplo: My dog is the best dog in the world (Mi perro es el mejor perro del mundo) • Con el verbo go+to: lugares de ocio (teatro, cine), consultores médicos, consultores legales (abogados, etc), lugares que sierven de punto de encuentro (aeropuertos, centro ciudad...), tiendas especializadas (farmacias, panaderías, etc) Cuando No usamos el artículo The • Cuando hablamos de algo en general.• Nunca utilizaremos the cuando nos referimos a la television, o cuando nos referimos a las pasadas o futuras horas de las comidas, los días de la semana, los meses del año, las estaciones, los años. Ejemplos: I don’t like what is on tv tonight (No me gusta lo que dan por la tele esta noche) They will call me next week (Me llamarán la semana que viene) • Delante de nombres de personas aunque estos estén precedidos de títulos.• Con el verbo go + to: work, school, university, college, hospital, prision, church, bed • Con el verbo go sin preposición: home • En general no se utiliza el artículo con nombres de lugares, aunque hay algunas excepciones como hemos visto en el apartado anterior.• En general no se utliliza el artículo con nombres de ciudades, aunque hay algunas excepciones como hemos visto en el apartado anterior. • www.blenglish.com
  25. 25. Sintaxis de la pregunta cuando who y what actúan como objeto Question word + Auxilar + Sujeto + verbo en infinitivo Who did you ring? (¿a quién llamaste?) Sintaxis de la pregunta cuando who y what actúan como sujeto Question word +verbo + objeto Who rang you? (¿quién te llamó?) ejemplo1: Fred saw Julia sujeto verbo objeto Who saw Julia? Fred --> pregunta de sujeto Julia?) Who did Fred see? Julia --> pregunta de objeto (¿A quién vió Fred?) ejemplo2: Oración principal Dany asked the teacher. (Dani preguntó al profesor1) Preguntamos por el sujeto Who asked the teacher profesor? Dani)2) Preguntamos por el objeto Who did Dany ask? the teacher Dani?Al profesor) ejemplo3:
  26. 26. INDEFINITE ARTICLE / ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO DEL INGLÉS El significado de a o an es el mismo y se utilizan para indicar algo o alguien en s Nunca lo utilizaremos para referirnos a más de una cosa. A o an, corresponde a los siguientes artículos en español: un, una. Usos del artículo a/an Se utiliza para hablar del oficio de alguien. Ejemplo: Maria is a journalist. (Maria es periodista) O para definr algo o a alguien o decimos algo de alguna cosa o de algu Ejemplos: A dog is an animal (El perro es un animal) James is a nasty person (James es mala persona) REGLAS GRAMATICALES • A se utiliza con nombres que comienzan por consonante. a book (un libro) a pen (un bolígrafo) a chair (una silla) • Usamos a antes de una palabra comenzada por la letra pronunciada como el sonido figurado "yu". Ejemplo: • An se usa con nombres que comienzan por vocal. an animal (un animal) an answer (una contestación) an example (un ejemplo) Excepcion: An hotel Adjetivos: Los comparativos y superlativos Adjectives: Comparatives and Superlatives Grados del adjetivo:Al igual que en en español, cuando queremos hacer comparaciones contrastamos cualidades o atributos por medio de adjetivos en sus diversos grados: 1. El grado positivo: es la cualidad en el grado más simple: fast (rápido) 2. El grado comparativo: - comparativo de superioridad: faster than ... más rápido que .... - comparativo de inferioridad: less fast than ... menos rápido que .... - comparativo de igualdad: as fast as .... tan rápido como ...
  27. 27. 3. El grado superlativo: the fastest ... el más rápido Formación del comparativo y del superlativo:Para formar el comparativo o superlativo aplicaremos diferentes reglas según los siguientes grupos: 1. Para adjetivos cortos o de una slaba: - La comparación: Para formar el comparativo añadimos al adjetivo la terminación -er: Por ejemplo, al adjetivo fast (rpido) le añadimos -er: faster (más rpido) Ejemplos: A train is faster than a bicycle.(Un tren es más rápido que una bicicleta.) The sea is larger than a lake. (El mar es más grande que un lago.) - El superlativo: Para formar el superlativo añadiremos al adjetivo -est, además el adjetivo irá precedido del artculo The. Por ejemplo, al adjetivo old (viejo) le añadimos -est: the oldest (el ms viejo/mayor) Ejemplos: My father is the oldest. (Mi padre es el más mayor) My house is the largest. (Mi casa es la más grande) 2. Para los adjetivos acabados en "y", "er", "le", "ow" de dos slabas: - La comparación: Para formar comparaciones se añade la terminacin -er. Y si acaban en y, esta se sustituirá por la i latina. Por ejemplo, el adjetivo easy (fácil) acabará con -ier: easier (más fácil) Ejemplos: This work is easier than yours (Este trabajo es más fácil que el tuyo.) Im cleverer than her (Soy más inteligente que ella.) My car is slower than yours (Mi coche es más lento que el tuyo.) - El superlativo: Para formar el superlativo añadiremos -est. Y si acaban en y, esta se sustituir por la i latina. Además siempre irá precedido por el artculo The. Por ejemplo el adjetivo ugly (feo) acabará con -iest: the ugliest (el más feo) Ejemplos: This man is the ugliest. (Este hombre es el más feo.) 3. Para adjetivos largos de dos o más sílabas
  28. 28. - La comparación: Para formar comparaciones, el adjetivo irá precedido de la palabra more. Por ejemplo, el adjetivo modern (moderno) será more modern (más moderno) Ejemplos: This house is more modern. (Esta casa es más moderna.) - El superlativo: Para formar el superlativo, el adjetivo irá precedido por : The + most El adjetivo beautiful (hermoso) será: The most beautiful (el más hermoso). Ejemplos: This woman is the most beautiful. (Esta mujer es la más hermosa). Los adjetivos irregulares: Son los adjetivos que tienen una sintaxis particular para comparaciones y superlativos: adjetivo comparación superlativo good better The best bad worse The worst far further-farther The furthet-farthest old older / eldest oldest / eldest many/much more most little less leastOtros ejemplos:Im stronger. (Soy más fuerte.)Im stronger than you. (Soy más fuerte que tú.)This car is more comfortable than yours. (Este coche es más cómodo que el tuyo.)Shes got the same dress than yours. (Tiene el mismo vestido que tú.)Youre as fast as him. ( Eres tan rápido como él.)Youre not as good as him! (¡No eres tan bueno como él!)Hes the richest man in the town. (Es el hombre más rico de la ciudad.)Shes the most beautiful actress I know. (Ella es la actriz más hermosa que conozco.) LISTA de ADJETIVOS COMPARATIVO-SUPERLATIVOable abler ablest balmy balmier balmiest bleary blearier bleariestachy achier achiest bare barer barest blind blinder blindestacute acuter acutest batty battier battiest blithe blither blithestairy airier airiest beady beadier beadiest blond blonder blondestample ampler amplest beastly beastlier bloody bloodier bloodiestangry angrier angriest beastliest blotchy blotchierapt apter aptest beefy beefier beefiest blotchiestarty artier artiest big bigger biggest blowzy blowzier blowziestashy ashier ashiest bitter bitterer bitterestbad worse worst black blacker blackest blue bluer bluestbaggy baggier baggiest bland blander blandest blunt blunter bluntestbald balder baldest blank blanker blankest blurry blurrier blurriestbalky balkier balkiest bleak bleaker bleakest boggy boggier boggiest
  29. 29. bold bolder boldest chintzy chintzier crisp crisper crispestbonny bonnier bonniest chintziest crispy crispier crispiestbony bonier boniest choice choicer choicest croaky croakier croakiestbossy bossier bossiest choosy choosier choosiest cross crosser crossestbotchy botchier botchiest croupy croupier croupiestbouncy bouncier choppy choppierbounciest choppiest cruel crueler cruelestbrainy brainier brainiest chubby chubbier crummy crummierbrambly bramblier chubbiest crummiestbrambliest chummy chummier crunchy crunchierbrash brasher brashest chummiest crunchiestbrassy brassier brassiest chunky chunkier crusty crustier crustiestbratty brattier brattiest chunkiest cuddly cuddlier cuddliestbrave braver bravest civil civiler civilest curly curlier curliestbrawny brawnier clammy clammier curt curter curtestbrawniest clammiest curvy curvier curviestbreathy breathier classy classier classiest cushy cushier cushiestbreathiest clean cleaner cleanest cute cuter cutestbreezy breezier breeziest cleanly cleanlier cleanliest daffy daffier daffiestbrief briefer briefest daft dafter daftestbright brighter brightest clear clearer clearest dainty daintier daintiestbriny brinier briniest clever cleverer cleverest damp damper dampestbrisk brisker briskest clingy clingier clingiest dandy dandier dandiestbristly bristlier bristliest cliquy cliquier cliquiest dank danker dankestbroad broader broadest cloddy cloddier cloddiest dark darker darkestbroody broodier broodiest close closer closest dead deader deadest cloudy cloudier cloudiest deadly deadlier deadliestbrown browner brownest clumpy clumpier deaf deafer deafestbrusk brusker bruskest clumpiest dear dearer dearestbubbly bubblier bubbliest clumsy clumsier deep deeper deepestbulgy bulgier bulgiest clumsiest deft defter deftestbulky bulkier bulkiest coarse coarser coarsest demure demurerbumpy bumpier bumpiest cold colder coldest demurest comely comelier dense denser densestbunchy bunchier comeliest dewy dewier dewiestbunchiest comfy comfier comfiest dicey dicier diciestburly burlier burliest common commoner dim dimmer dimmestbushy bushier bushiest commonest dingy dingier dingiestbusy busier busiest cool cooler coolest dippy dippier dippiestcagy cagier cagiest corky corkier corkiest dire direr direstcalm calmer calmest corny cornier corniest dirty dirtier dirtiestcampy campier campiest costly costlier costliest dizzy dizzier dizziestcanny cannier canniest coy coyer coyest dopey dopier dopiestcatchy catchier catchiest cozy cozier coziest dotty dottier dottiestcatty cattier cattiest crabby crabbier crabbiest dowdy dowdier dowdiestchalky chalkier chalkiest crackly cracklier downy downier downiestchancy chancier chanciest crackliest drab drabber drabbest crafty craftier craftiest drafty draftier draftiestchaste chaster chastest craggy craggier craggiest dreamy dreamierchatty chattier chattiest cranky crankier crankiest dreamiestcheap cheaper cheapest crass crasser crassest dreary drearier dreariestcheeky cheekier crawly crawlier crawliest dressy dressier dressiestcheekiest crazy crazier craziest droopy droopier droopiestcheery cheerier cheeriest creaky creakier creakiestcheesy cheesier cheesiest creamy creamier drowsy drowsier creamiest drowsiestchewy chewier chewiest creepy creepier creepiest dry drier driestchilly chillier chilliest crinkly crinklier crinkliest ducky duckier duckiest
  30. 30. dull duller dullest frizzy frizzier frizziest grisly grislier grisliestdumb dumber dumbest frosty frostier frostiest gritty grittier grittiestdumpy dumpier dumpiest frothy frothier frothiest grizzly grizzlier grizzliest frumpy frumpier groggy groggier groggiestdusky duskier duskiest frumpiestdusty dustier dustiest full fuller fullest groovy groovier grooviestearly earlier earliest funky funkier funkiestearthy earthier earthiest funny funnier funniest gross grosser grossesteasy easier easiest furry furrier furriest grouchy grouchieredgy edgier edgiest fussy fussier fussiest grouchiesteery eerier eeriest fuzzy fuzzier fuzziest grubby grubbierempty emptier emptiest gabby gabbier gabbiest grubbiestfaint fainter faintest game gamer gamest gruff gruffer gruffestfair fairer fairest gamy gamier gamiest grumpy grumpierfalse falser falsest gaudy gaudier gaudiest grumpiestfancy fancier fanciest gaunt gaunter gauntest grungy grungierfar farther farthest gauzy gauzier gauziest grungiestfar further furthest gawky gawkier gawkiest guilty guiltier guiltiestfast faster fastest gentle gentler gentlest gummy gummierfat fatter fattest germy germier germiest gummiestfatty fattier fattiest ghastly ghastlier gushy gushier gushiestfaulty faultier faultiest ghastliest gusty gustier gustiestfeeble feebler feeblest giddy giddier giddiest gutsy gutsier gutsiestfew fewer fewest glad gladder gladdest hairy hairier hairiestfierce fiercer fiercest glairy glairier glairiest hammy hammierfiery fierier fieriest glassy glassier glassiest hammiestfilmy filmier filmiest gleamy gleamier handsome handsomerfilthy filthier filthiest gleamiest handsomestfine finer finest glib glibber glibbest handy handier handiestfirm firmer firmest gloomy gloomier happy happier happiestfishy fishier fishiest gloomiest hard harder hardestfit fitter fittest glossy glossier glossiest hardy hardier hardiestflabby flabbier flabbiest gluey gluier gluiest harsh harsher harshestflaky flakier flakiest glum glummer glummest hasty hastier hastiestflashy flashier flashiest godly godlier godliest haughty haughtierflat flatter flattest good better best haughtiestfleecy fleecier fleeciest goodly goodlier goodliest hazy hazier haziestfleet fleeter fleetest gooey gooier gooiest heady headier headiestflighty flightier flightiest goofy goofier goofiest healthy healthierflimsy flimsier flimsiest gory gorier goriest healthiestflip flipper flippest gouty goutier goutiest hearty heartier heartiestfloppy floppier floppiest grabby grabbier grabbiest heavy heavier heaviestfluffy fluffier fluffiest hefty heftier heftiestfoamy foamier foamiest grainy grainier grainiest high higher highestfoggy foggier foggiest grand grander grandest hip hipper hippestfolksy folksier folksiest grassy grassier grassiest hoarse hoarser hoarsestfond fonder fondest grave graver gravest hokey hokier hokiestfoolhardy foolhardier gray grayer grayest holy holier holiestfoolhardiest greasy greasier greasiest homely homelierfoul fouler foulest great greater greatest homeliestfoxy foxier foxiest greedy greedier greediest homey homier homiestfrail frailer frailest hot hotter hottestfrank franker frankest green greener greenest huffy huffier huffiestfreaky freakier freakiest grey greyer greyest huge huger hugestfree freer freest grim grimmer grimmest humble humblerfresh fresher freshest grimy grimier grimiest humblestfriendly friendlier grippy grippier grippiest hungry hungrierfriendliest gripy gripier gripiest hungriest
  31. 31. husky huskier huskiest nimble nimbler nimblesticky ickier ickiest manly manlier manliest nippy nippier nippiesticy icier iciest marshy marshier noble nobler noblestidle idler idlest marshiest noisy noisier noisiestill iller illest mature maturer maturest nosy nosier nosiestinky inkier inkiest numb number numbestitchy itchier itchiest mealy mealier mealiest nutty nuttier nuttiestjaunty jauntier jauntiest mean meaner meanest obscure obscurerjazzy jazzier jazziest measly measlier obscurestjerky jerkier jerkiest measliest odd odder oddestjolly jollier jolliest meaty meatier meatiest oily oilier oiliestjouncy jouncier jounciest meek meeker meekest old elder eldestjuicy juicier juiciest mellow mellower old older oldestjumpy jumpier jumpiest mellowest oozy oozier ooziestkeen keener keenest mere merer merest pale paler palestkind kinder kindest merry merrier merriest palmy palmier palmiestkindly kindlier kindliest messy messier messiest paltry paltrier paltriestkingly kinglier kingliest mighty mightier mightiest pasty pastier pastiestknobby knobbier patchy patchier patchiestknobbiest mild milder mildest pearly pearlier pearliestknotty knottier knottiest milky milkier milkiest pebbly pebblier pebbliestkooky kookier kookiest minty mintier mintiest peppy peppier peppiestlacy lacier laciest minute minuter minutest perky perkier perkiestlame lamer lamest misty mistier mistiest pert perter pertestlank lanker lankest moist moister moistest pesky peskier peskiestlanky lankier lankiest moldy moldier moldiest petty pettier pettiestlarge larger largest moody moodier moodiest phlegmy phlegmierlate later latest phlegmiestlax laxer laxest mopy mopier mopiest phony phonier phoniestlazy lazier laziest mossy mossier mossiest picky pickier pickiestleafy leafier leafiest mouldy mouldier piggy piggier piggiestleaky leakier leakiest mouldiest pimply pimplier pimpliestlean leaner leanest mousy mousier mousiest pink pinker pinkestleery leerier leeriest mouthy mouthier pithy pithier pithiestlengthy lengthier mouthiest plain plainer plainestlengthiest mucky muckier muckiest plucky pluckier pluckiestlight lighter lightest muddy muddier muddiest plump plumper plumpestlikely likelier likeliest plumy plumier plumiestlinty lintier lintiest muggy muggier muggiest plush plusher plushestlithe lither lithest pointy pointier pointiestlittle littler littlest murky murkier murkiest poky pokier pokiestlively livelier liveliest mushy mushier mushiest polite politer politestloamy loamier loamiest musty mustier mustiest poor poorer poorestlofty loftier loftiest naive naiver naivest porky porkier porkiestlonely lonelier loneliest narrow narrower portly portlier portliestlong longer longest narrowest posh posher poshestloony loonier looniest nasty nastier nastiest pretty prettier prettiestloose looser loosest natty nattier nattiest prickly pricklier prickliestlordly lordlier lordliest naughty naughtier prim primmer primmestloud louder loudest naughtiest prissy prissier prissiestlousy lousier lousiest near nearer nearest profound profounderlovely lovelier loveliest neat neater neatest profoundestlow lower lowest needy needier neediest prosy prosier prosiestlowly lowlier lowliest nervy nervier nerviest proud prouder proudestlucky luckier luckiest new newer newest pudgy pudgier pudgiestlumpy lumpier lumpiest newsy newsier newsiest puffy puffier puffiestmad madder maddest nice nicer nicest pulpy pulpier pulpiestmangy mangier mangiest nifty niftier niftiest punchy punchier
  32. 32. punchiest scraggly scragglier sleety sleetier sleetiestpuny punier puniest scraggliest slender slendererpure purer purest scrappy scrappier slenderestpushy pushier pushiest scrappiest slick slicker slickestquaint quainter quaintest scratchy scratchier slight slighter slightestquaky quakier quakiest scratchiest slim slimmer slimmestqueasy queasier scrawny scrawnier slimy slimier slimiestqueasiest scrawniest slippery slipperierquick quicker quickest screechy screechier slipperiestquiet quieter quietest screechiest sloppy sloppier sloppiestquirky quirkier quirkiest scrimpy scrimpier sloshy sloshier sloshiestrainy rainier rainiest scrimpiest slouchy slouchierrangy rangier rangiest scrubby scrubbier slouchiestrank ranker rankest scrubbiest slow slower slowestrare rarer rarest scruffy scruffier scruffiest sludgy sludgier sludgiestraspy raspier raspiest slushy slushier slushiestratty rattier rattiest scurvy scurvier scurviest sly slier sliestraw rawer rawest secure securer securest sly slyer slyestready readier readiest seemly seemlier small smaller smallestreal realer realest seemliest smart smarter smartestred redder reddest severe severer severest smeary smearierreedy reedier reediest shabby shabbier smeariestremote remoter remotest shabbiest smelly smellier smelliest shady shadier shadiest smoggy smoggierrich richer richest shaggy shaggier smoggiestripe riper ripest shaggiest smoky smokier smokiestrisky riskier riskiest shaky shakier shakiest smooth smootherritzy ritzier ritziest shallow shallower smoothestrocky rockier rockiest shallowest smudgy smudgierroomy roomier roomiest shapely shapelier smudgiestrosy rosier rosiest shapeliest smug smugger smuggestrotten rottener rottenest sharp sharper sharpest snaky snakier snakiestrough rougher roughest shifty shiftier shiftiest snappy snappierrowdy rowdier rowdiest shiny shinier shiniest snappiestruddy ruddier ruddiest shoddy shoddier snarly snarlier snarliestrude ruder rudest shoddiest sneaky sneakierrunny runnier runniest short shorter shortest sneakiestrunty runtier runtiest showy showier showiest sneezy sneezier sneeziestrusty rustier rustiest shrewd shrewdersad sadder saddest shrewdest snide snider snidestsafe safer safest shrill shriller shrillest snippy snippier snippiestsage sager sagest shy shyer shyest snobby snobbiersaggy saggier saggiest sick sicker sickest snobbiestsaintly saintlier saintliest sickly sicklier sickliest snoopy snoopiersalty saltier saltiest sightly sightlier sightliest snoopiestsandy sandier sandiest silky silkier silkiest snooty snootier snootiestsane saner sanest silly sillier silliest snowy snowier snowiestsappy sappier sappiest silty siltier siltiest snug snugger snuggestsassy sassier sassiest simple simpler simplest soapy soapier soapiestsaucy saucier sauciest sincere sincerer sincerest sober soberer soberestscabby scabbier scabbiest sketchy sketchier soft softer softest sketchiest soggy soggier soggiestscaly scalier scaliest skinny skinnier skinniest solid solider solidestscanty scantier scantiest slangy slangier slangiest soon sooner soonestscarce scarcer scarcest slaphappy slaphappier sooty sootier sootiestscary scarier scariest slaphappiest soppy soppier soppiestschmaltzy schmaltzier sleek sleeker sleekest sore sorer sorestschmaltziest sleepy sleepier sleepiest sorry sorrier sorriest
  33. 33. sound sounder soundest still stiller stillest tasty tastier tastiestsoupy soupier soupiest stingy stingier stingiest taut tauter tautestsour sourer sourest stinky stinkier stinkiest tawdry tawdrier tawdriestspare sparer sparest stocky stockier stockiestsparse sparser sparsest stodgy stodgier stodgiest tawny tawnier tawniestspeedy speedier stony stonier stoniest teary tearier teariestspeediest stormy stormier teeny teenier teeniestspicy spicier spiciest stormiest tense tenser tensestspiffy spiffier spiffiest stout stouter stoutest terse terser tersestspiky spikier spikiest straggly stragglier testy testier testiestspindly spindlier straggliest tetchy tetchier tetchiestspindliest straight straighter thick thicker thickestspiny spinier spiniest straightest thin thinner thinnestsplashy splashier strange stranger thirsty thirstier thirstiestsplashiest strangest thorny thornier thorniestsplotchy splotchier streaky streakier thready threadiersplotchiest streakiest threadiestspongy spongier stretchy stretchier thrifty thriftier thriftiestspongiest stretchiest throaty throatiersporty sportier sportiest strict stricter strictest throatiestspotty spottier spottiest stringy stringier stringiest tidy tidier tidiestsprightly sprightlier tight tighter tightestsprightliest strong stronger strongest tinny tinnier tinniestspringy springier tiny tinier tiniestspringiest stubborn stubborner tipsy tipsier tipsiestspry sprier spriest stubbornest toothy toothier toothiestspry spryer spryest stubby stubbier stubbiest touchy touchier touchiestspunky spunkier stuffy stuffier stuffiest tough tougher toughestspunkiest stumpy stumpier trendy trendier trendiestsquabby squabbier stumpiest tricky trickier trickiestsquabbiest stupid stupider stupidest true truer truestsquare squarer squarest sturdy sturdier sturdiest trusty trustier trustiestsquashy squashier sudsy sudsier sudsiest twangy twangiersquashiest sulky sulkier sulkiest twangiestsquatty squattier sultry sultrier sultriest tweedy tweediersquattiest sunny sunnier sunniest tweediestsqueaky squeakier supple suppler supplest ugly uglier ugliestsqueakiest sure surer surest unhealthy unhealthiersquirmy squirmier surly surlier surliest unhealthiestsquirmiest svelte svelter sveltest unruly unrulier unrulieststagy stagier stagiest swampy swampier vague vaguer vagueststaid staider staidest swampiest vile viler vileststale staler stalest swanky swankier wacky wackier wackieststarchy starchier swankiest wan wanner wanneststarchiest swarthy swarthier warm warmer warmeststark starker starkest swarthiest wary warier warieststarry starrier starriest sweaty sweatier wavy wavier wavieststately statelier stateliest sweatiest waxy waxier waxieststeady steadier steadiest sweet sweeter sweetest weak weaker weakeststealthy stealthier swift swifter swiftest wealthy wealthierstealthiest tacky tackier tackiest wealthieststeamy steamier talky talkier talkiest weary wearier wearieststeamiest tall taller tallest weedy weedier weedieststeely steelier steeliest tame tamer tamest weepy weepier weepieststeep steeper steepest tan tanner tannest weighty weightierstern sterner sternest tangy tangier tangiest weightieststicky stickier stickiest tardy tardier tardiest weird weirder weirdeststiff stiffer stiffest tart tarter tartest wet wetter wettest
  34. 34. wheezy wheezier zany zanier zaniestwheeziest zippy zippier zippiestwhiny whinier whiniestwhite whiter whitestwide wider widestwild wilder wildestwily wilier wiliestwindy windier windiestwintry wintrier wintriestwiry wirier wiriestwise wiser wisestwispy wispier wispiestwitty wittier wittiestwobbly wobblierwobbliestwoodsy woodsierwoodsiestwoody woodier woodiestwoolly woollier woolliestwoozy woozier wooziestwordy wordier wordiestworldly worldlierworldliestwormy wormier wormiestworthy worthier worthiestwriggly wrigglierwriggliestwry wrier wriestyeasty yeastier yeastiestyoung younger youngest Nombres: Singular y Plural - Nouns: Singular and Plural Reglas gramaticales A la mayoria de nombres se les agrega una "s" al final para formar el plural. camera / cameras pen / pens cup / cups car / cars Reglas generales para formar el plural Palabras que terminan en consonante + y: la "y" cambia a "i" y añadimos"es" party - parties city - cities Palabras que terminan en vocal + y: añadimos una "s". boy - boys toy - toys Palabras que terminan en SS, S, SH, CH, X, O: añadimos ES
  35. 35. glass - glasses bus - buses brush - brushes watch - watches box - boxes tomato - tomatoes Palabras que terminan en F, FE: cambiamos la F o FE por VES leaf - leaves wife - wives Plurales irregulares Muchos sustantivos se pluralizan de un modo irregular, existen dos casos: Caso 1 Cuando el singular y plural no cambian. fish (pez o pescado) singular fish (peces o pescados) plural sheep (oveja) singular sheep (ovejas) plural Caso 2 Cuando el plural varía de modo irregular. Por lo tanto, no existe regla la cual se pueda seguir y hay que aprenderse las formas irregulares de cada uno.SINGULAR SIGNIFICADO PLURAL SIGNIFICADO man hombre men hombres woman mujer women mujeres child niño children niños person persona people personas tooth diente teeth dientes foot pie feet pies mouse ratón mice ratones Expresar cantidades: Contables e Incontables Express quantities: Countables and UncountablesEs necesario entender correctamente la diferencia entre incontable y contable para poder expresar correctamente las cantidades. Podemos separar los nombres en dos grupos: los incontables y los contables. Los contables son aquellos nombres de cosas, gente, etc que nosotros podemos

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