The Renaissance, Reformation and Exploration Lesson 5 – The Counter Reformation

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The Renaissance, Reformation and Exploration Lesson 5 – The Counter Reformation

  1. 1. The Counter- Reformation Response • Catholicism responded to the Protestant Reformation with: 1. Political Pressure 2. Religious Pressure What were the two types of responses to the Protestant Reformation?
  2. 2. The Counter- Reformation Political Pressure • Through the influence of the Catholic Church, and concern over the stability of the Holy Roman Empire, Emperor Charles V declared war on any Germanic kingdom that converted to Protestant beliefs. • The war achieved little, and eventually the emperor had to sign the Peace of Augsburg, allowing Germanic kingdoms to decide their religious affiliation and force their subjects to convert. What was the result of Emperor Charles V’s war against Protestant kingdoms in Germany.
  3. 3. The Counter- Reformation Political Pressure • Northern German kingdoms (where the Reformation began) remained Protestant, while Southern German kingdoms remained Catholic. • Other countries, like England and Spain, struggled with internal conflict over religious identity. How was Christianity divided in Germany after the Peace of Augsburg?
  4. 4. The Counter- Reformation Political Pressure • England: When Mary became Queen she tried to forcefully return England back to Catholicism. • This persecution of Protestants earned her the name of “Bloody Mary”, and she ultimately failed. • Spain: a religious and political court, called the Inquisition, that would punish heresy. • The Spanish Inquisition was largely successful at keeping order in Spain. What was the end result of religious conflict in England? How did Spain manage to control religious conflict?
  5. 5. The Counter- Reformation Effects of Political Pressure • Political pressure was largely unsuccessful at bringing Protestant kingdoms back to Catholicism. • 2 reasons why: –Protestant kingdoms gained: 1. political freedom (kings/lord did not have to follow the Church) 2. economic wealth (claimed Church lands for themselves). What were the political and economic benefits to becoming a Protestant kingdom?
  6. 6. The Counter- Reformation Religious Pressure • After political attempts to reunite Christianity failed, the Catholic Church began an effort to reform itself, known as the Counter Reformation. • A major part of the Counter Reformation was the Council of Trent, begun by Pope Paul III. After political attempts to reunite Christianity failed, what did the Catholic Church try to do to next? What did Pope Paul III begin that was a major part of the Counter Reformation?
  7. 7. The Counter- Reformation Religious Pressure • Council of Trent: 1. Established more seminaries for the proper training of priests. 2. Ended the sale of indulgences 3. Reaffirmed and clarified Catholic beliefs while rejecting Protestant beliefs 4. Confirmed the creation of new religious orders like the Jesuits. What are the four major features of the Council of Trent?
  8. 8. The Counter- Reformation Religious Pressure • The Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) • This new religious order was an order dedicated to education and the spread of Catholic Christianity. • The Jesuits would become famous for their missionary work throughout the entire world (especially in Asia and the Americas). What is the Society of Jesus and why were they important for the Catholic Church?
  9. 9. The Counter- Reformation Effects of Religious Pressure • The Counter Reformation successfully ended the flow of people leaving the Catholic Church, but saw few return to the Church. • Wars between nation-states and kingdoms continued over religious identity (the Thirty Year’s War) • Europe was primarily split into two camps, Protestant North and Catholic South. The Protestants in the North were even more divided by different denominations. How was the Counter Reformation successful/failure? By the end of the Reformation and Counter Reformation, how was Europe divided?
  10. 10. 1. What were the two types of responses to the Protestant Reformation? 2. What was the result of Emperor Charles V’s war against Protestant kingdoms in Germany. 3. How was Christianity divided in Germany after the Peace of Augsburg? 4. What was the end result of religious conflict in England? 5. How did Spain manage to control religious conflict? 6. What were the political and economic benefits to becoming a Protestant kingdom? 7. After political attempts to reunite Christianity failed, what did the Catholic Church try to do to next? 8. What did Pope Paul III begin that was a major part of the Counter Reformation? 9. What are the four major features of the Council of Trent? 10. What is the Society of Jesus and why were they important for the Catholic Church? 11. How was the Counter Reformation successful/failure? 12. By the end of the Reformation and Counter Reformation, how was Europe divided?

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