• Mesopotamia was made up of many small
• Each city-state had its own government, laws,
army, and more.
• Each city-state had a monarchy for a
government. Kings were believed to be chosen
by the gods.
• All the city-states in southern Mesopotamia
are part of Sumeria; common culture.
• City-states often would fight with each other
to control natural resources and trade routes.
• Akkadians lived in northern part of
Mesopotamia. They were very similar to the
Sumerians, but they spoke a different
• The Akkadian king, Sargon I, conquered
Sumeria. When one group of people (culture)
conquers another, then they create an empire.
Sargon I created the world’s first empire.
• A government keeps the peace, creates order
in a community (just like a teacher in a
• Hammurabi was the king of Babylon (a city in
• Hammurabi created a set of laws that were
• Specialization can refer to different jobs
people become experts in (specialize).
• Because people specialize in different jobs,
some jobs are considered more important
than others. This is how social classes are
• Mesopotamians were polytheistic, meaning
they believed in more than one god.
• They built massive temples called ziggurats to
please their gods and goddesses.
• Since the king was chosen by the gods, he also
served as a priest in the ziggurat to offer
• The gods often reflected the natural world in some
- Anu: god of the heavens (stars)
-Enlil: god of the wind
-Enki: god of water
-Ninhursag: mother of the gods
• If the gods were pleased then the natural world
worked correctly and people were happy and safe.
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