100 Resources To Build The Brain Through Play

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Dr. Lynne's 2014 Workshop on Play: It's more than therapy. We explore the neurocognitive underpinnings of play with an emphasis on brain development ages 2-12.

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  • Pellis Rats raised w three adults who did not play, rats raised w juveniles who did play. In the experimental group — the rats raised in a play-deprived environment — they found a more immature pattern of neuronal connections in the medial prefrontal cortex. Pellis interprets his observation of a more tangled, immature medial prefrontal cortex in play-deprived rats to mean that the rat will be less able to make subtle adjustments to the social world.Sergio Pellis, a neuroscientist at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada.“urge for play” strongest ages 3-7 perhaps because Brain Human is connected and making decisions re: what is needed what is not also a time of social development
  • Play in all its forms, but especially open-ended child-initiated play, is now a minor activity, if not completely eliminated, in the kindergartens assessed. Teacher-directed activities, especially instruction in literacy and math, are taking up the lion’s share of classroom time. Standardized testing and preparation for tests are now a daily activity in most of these kindergartens.
  • FOREBRAIN(below cerebrum)Basal ganglia—involved in motor controlLimbic system—not one structure but several: hippocampus, amygdala, septum, cingulategyrus, and others—middle of septum is one location of "pleasure centers"—amygdala involved in emotions, fear, defensive, and aggressive behaviors—hippocampus interacts with temporal lobe to help establish event memoryThalamus—looks like two eggs or small, joined footballs—implicated in control of sleep and attention—a relay station; receives input from eyes, ear, spinal cord, relays information to cerebral cortexHypothalamus—involved with basic functions like eating, sex, temperature control, sleep, aggression—produces sex, growth and stress—related hormones carried down axons to pituitary gland, released from there into bloodstream to activate and organize distant body systemsMIDBRAINTectum—consists of four bumps, the colliculi—superior (higher up) colliculi related to eye movement and localization of objects—inferior (lower down) colliculi related to sense of hearingTegmentum—includes red nucleus and substantianigra, involved in control of movement—contains part of reticular formation (see below)HINDBRAINCerebellum—appears as a separate structure with a cauliflower—like appearance behind the brain—controls fine motor movement, timing; motor memory, planning of movements, also practice—related memory and detection of errors in non—motor tasksReticular formation—consists of densely packed, reticulated (netlike) cells located in central core of hindbrain—thought to activate thalamus and cortex, therefore often called the "reticular activating system"Pons—connects cerebrum with cerebellum—contains centers regulating sleep, feeding and facial expressionMedulla—first part of the brain above the spinal cord, essentially a continuation of the cord—controls heart and respiration rate, digestive functions, blood pressure
  • Myelinated axons are white in appearance, hence the "white matter" of the brain. The fat helps to insulate the axons from electrically charged atoms and molecules.
  • Brainfacts.orgSociety for neuroscienceNaeyczerotothree
  • 100 Resources To Build The Brain Through Play

    1. 1. Lynne Kenney, PsyD www.lynnekenney.com @drlynnekenney Play: It’s more than therapy 2015
    2. 2. Learning the neurocognitive underpinnings of Play
    3. 3. Where we will travel today  Learn why and how play therapy works in light of current neuroscience research  Explore how play therapy improves executive function  Apply brain research to play therapy techniques  Review clinical decision making, goal setting, diagnostic considerations and justification for play therapy treatment  Review short-term play therapy techniques to maximize behavior change  Clarify the roles of nutrition, sleep, OT, medication and respite in play therapy  Explore why and how to engage the family for long-term success
    4. 4. What Is Play  Play is important to healthy brain development.  Play helps children learn how to work collaboratively, to share, to negotiate, to resolve conflicts, and to enhance EF.  When play is child-driven, children practice decision-making skills, move at their own pace, discover passion interests and use creativity.
    5. 5. Play Is Evolutionarily Driven  The play-as-preparation hypothesis  Training for the unexpected  Relaxation  Developing neuronal connections  Self-control and constraint  Learning social rules  Forming alliances  Practicing needed skill sets for success and survival
    6. 6. Play is Instinctual
    7. 7. Stuart Brown's TED Talk- Play is fundamental
    8. 8. Play is Brain Development  Emergent literacy and math skills  Scribbling, shape formation, letter formation, number concepts  Narrative story telling, verbalizing, organization, vocabulary  Self-regulation  Managing intensity, identifying & managing energy states  Problem Solving & Decision Making
    9. 9. Play is Developmental
    10. 10. Woolfson
    11. 11. Patterns Are Innate  A pattern is consistent repetition  What does a pattern look like?  What might a pattern sound like?  Why patterns are important for brain development.
    12. 12. Sounds and Pattern Games  Patterns  Pattern plus sound  Pattern plus sound plus movement  Speed  Synchrony  Coordination  Listening
    13. 13. Bim Bum  Bim Bum Bim Bum Bitty Bitty Bum  Bitty Bum Bitty Bitty Bum Bim Bum  Bim Bum Bitty Bitty Bum Bitty Bum Bitty Bitty Bum Bim Bum  Clap, Snap, Tap
    14. 14. Patterns Reading and Rhyming
    15. 15. Rhyming To Visual Patterns  Green eggs and ham  I’m Sam I am  I like to laugh and sing and play  My feelings matter every day
    16. 16. Neural Connections
    17. 17. www.urbanchildinstitute.org Source: Corel, JL. The postnatal development of the human cerebral cortex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1975
    18. 18. Grey and White  The CNS has two kinds of tissue: grey matter and white matter, Grey matter, which has a pinkish-grey color in the living brain, contains the cell bodies, dendrites and axon terminals of neurons, so it is where all synapses are. White matter is made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter to each other.
    19. 19. Brain Facts  100,000,000,000 (100 billion) neurons  Neurons multiply at a rate 250,000 neurons/minute during early pregnancy  The total surface area of the cerebral cortex (gray matter folds) is about 2.5 ft2  There are 1,000 to 10,000 synapses for a "typical" neuron, 100 trillion in all
    20. 20. Connections  Neurons can connect with up to a hundred thousand other cells. This number of connections is a truly enormous number: 10 thousand trillion.  One neuron can have as many as 100,000 dendrites.  In a human, there are more than 100 trillion synapses just in the cerebral cortex alone
    21. 21. How Do We Build Brain Connections?  Exposure  Experience  Doing, thinking, mirroring  Practice ~ and a lot of it www.unc.edu
    22. 22. To Build Neurons You Need  Whole Real Food  Omega-3’s and fatty acids  Amino acids  Water  Exercise or movement  Exposure to life experience
    23. 23. EF and Play  Attention, focus, distractibility  Cognitive control, shift and flexibility  Memory, input, manipulation, output  Emotional regulation and modulation  Problem solving, decision making  Impulse control and management  Organization, planning, and time management  Motor management planning, pacing, initiation, maintaining, stopping
    24. 24. Music, Learning and Therapy
    25. 25. Music  Daniel Levitin and post-doctoral researcher Mona Lisa Chanda, McGill University, reviewed 400 published scientific papers  Effects on brain chemistry and associated mental and physical health benefits  Management of mood  Stress reduction  Boosting immunity  As an aid to social bonding Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 4, 179-193, 1 April 2013
    26. 26. Audition The Listening Program Integrated Listening Therapeutic Listening In Time Healing at the Speed of Sound (Campbell & Doman)
    27. 27. The Cup Game  Start with cup upside down  Clap Clap  Tap top of cup right, left right  Clap once  Pick up the cup and set it down  Clap once  Grasp upside down cup with your right hand turn sideways, tap opening  Tap bottom of cup on table  Lift cup with right hand tap bottom of cup into left palm  Hold bottom of cup in left palm now tap table with right hand, as you place cup on table upside down
    28. 28. Movement For Learning
    29. 29. Gill Connell & Cheryl McCarthy
    30. 30. Play and Skill Development Activities
    31. 31. Play Skills  Pretend/imagine  Role play  Parallel play  Interactive play  Self-directed play  Other-directed play  Maintaining engagement for x amount of time  Introducing themes  Responding to another in play (other initiated)  Repetitive play ~ shifting themes and content
    32. 32. Activities  Action Figures  Age appropriate videos  Arts and crafts  Board Games  Books  Building sets  Coloring Books  Dolls  Music  Musical Instruments  Party Supplies  Pretend Play/ Dress Up  Puzzles  Sporting Goods  Stuff Animals  Trains/Automobiles
    33. 33. Sand Tray Exploration  Description of the process  Miniature choice  Unconscious background  Self-directed exploration  Narration  Meaning  www.childtherapytoys.com  www.goodtherapy.org  www.creativecounseling101.com
    34. 34. @pamdyson
    35. 35. Wendy Young ~ Kidlutions.com
    36. 36. Play and Skill Development Story Telling
    37. 37. Imaginary in Motion
    38. 38. Play and Skill Development Memory Inhibition Problem Solving
    39. 39. The Space Between N E E D I M P U L S E B E H A V I O R Practice, relating, skill sets
    40. 40. Memory  Whole brain activity  Hippocampus  Saliency  Novelty  Test twice  Mental pictures
    41. 41. Improving Memory  Pay attention  Chunk  Visualize and associate  Automaticity  Move to Think  Layer cognition on movement patterns  Play thinking games  Add rhythm and timing
    42. 42. Problem Solving ~ Understanding  Can you state the problem in your own words?  What are you trying to find or do?  Read the data, environment or clues  What is working or not working?  What do you know?  What don’t you know?
    43. 43. Problem Solving ~ Plan and Execute  Read the landscape  Know where you need to end up  Make a plan on how to get there  Look for patterns  Solve what you do know first  Guess then test  Review and revise
    44. 44. Emotion Coaching
    45. 45. Self-Regulation Domains  Perception ~ sensory  Recognizing internal energy state  Recognizing escalation or de-escalation  Initiating, maintaining and changing energy  Labeling, naming or expressing a feeling  Utilizing calming skills
    46. 46. Escalation Management  Recognizing escalation  Asking for help (I feel revved up, angry, annoyed)  Stopping escalation  Making a choice to use a calming skill  De-escalating  Initiating calm  Maintaining calm  Using calming skills (breathing, music, motor movement, yoga, meditation  Using energy release skills (jump ropes, trampoline, jumping jacks)
    47. 47. Mindfulness
    48. 48. Introduce “Being Present”
    49. 49. Mindful Play  Slow down  Be Present  Get at eye level  Experience floor level  Listen with your eyes  Elaborate only when needed  Experience silence www.playingwithwords365.com
    50. 50. Yoga
    51. 51. Meditation and Mindfulness
    52. 52. Calming Resources  SEL www.kimochis.com  Physical Movement www.sparkpe.org  Repetitive Movement balavisx.com  Rhythmic Breathing Take Five  Music/Stories Listening www.stressfreekids.com  Art Drawing Mandalas  Listen to a Raisin – Meditate  Vision Therapy
    53. 53. Domains of Creative Arts  Music engagement  Visual arts therapy  Movement-based creative expression  Expressive writing  Planning  Organization  Cognitive intention  Inhibition  Focus/attention  Rhythm/timing
    54. 54. Creative Arts  Non-stressful  Expressive  Attached  Present  Mindful  Moving away from defensive brain
    55. 55. Creative Arts Activities
    56. 56. Play Therapy Resources  www.playtherapysupply.com  www.counselingtoys.com  www.creativecounseling101.com  www.therapyshoppe.com  store.schoolspecialty.com  www.lianalowenstein.com  www.pinterest.com/kidlutions/play- therapy
    57. 57. Social Skills
    58. 58. Communication Communication Messaging Meaning For Understanding Non-verbal Verbal Gestural Facial  Observing  Reaching  Turning away  Facial expressions  Gestures  Pointing  Body movements
    59. 59. Pragmatics  Greeting  Informing  Requesting  Talking turns in conversation  If this, then what  Staying on topic  Informing the uninformed listener  Asking for help when not understanding  Rephrasing when misunderstood  Telling a story or experience in a clear sequence
    60. 60. Math
    61. 61. Play To Learn
    62. 62.  Mirror or Skip Count (Balls)  Slide and Glide (Blocks)  Over and Up (Blocks)  How do numbers fit together?  What makes a family?  Advanced techniques The Method

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