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  • 1. Chapter 10 and 11
  • 2. What is the most common force of water waves?
  • 3. Anatomy of a wave
  • 4. Know what these terms mean!
    • Crest
    • Trough
    • Wavelength
    • Wave Height
    • Amplitude
    • Period
  • 5. Wave Motion and Wave Speed
    • How do particles move through waves?
    • Orbit is created where particles move up and down or forward and backward
    • How different below the surface?
    • Less energy
  • 6. Source: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream//ocean/wave_max.htm
  • 7. Deep-Water Waves
    • How is a deep water wave classified?
    • Water must be deeper than half of the wave length
    • Storm center waves move outward
    • Middle of storm center is a mixture of wave heights, lengths and periods
    • Long waves leave storm center and move faster than most waves = Dispersion
    • Waves that group together = wave trains
  • 8. Wave Interaction
    • What happened during “The Perfect Storm”?
    • Constructive Interference or amplification
    • Waves can pass through, amplify, or cancel each other out
    • Also can come at angles to each other
    • Wave trains can synchronize, crest and create smaller waves
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpZLGbvIzx0
  • 9. Wave Interaction
  • 10. Wave Speed
    • Waves speed = celerity
    • S = wavelength/wave period or C = L/T
    • Remember length is distance and period is time!
  • 11. Wave Height
    • What affects wave height?
    • Wind speed, duration and fetch
    • Fetch = distance over the water that wind blows to create waves moving in the same direction
    • All three variables must combine to make BIG WAVES
  • 12. The Beaufort Scale source: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/D10.html
    • Relate height and period to speed, duration and fetch = Beaufort Scale of sea state
  • 13. Wave Steepness
    • How is steepness measured on a wave?
    • Steepness = Height/Length
    • How do waves behave differently in shallow water?
    • Water orbits compress and forward speed of wave reduced
    • Shallow water wave is wave that enters depth 1/20 th of wave length
    • Wave crests bend as approach shore due to difference of speed between ends of wave crests (i.e. shallow end slow and deep end fast) = refract
  • 14. Shallow Water Wave
  • 15. Shallow Water Waves
  • 16.
    • Diffraction is when a wave travels toward a barrier and through a small opening = waves radiate outward
    • Important information for the design of harbors and safe mooring
    • Remember Polynesians used wave patterns to travel and locate other islands
    • Length and speed controlled by depth
  • 17.  
  • 18. The Surf Zone
    • What affects how waves behave in the surf zone?
    • Depth of water and shape of shoreline
    • Look for the three different shore line examples in your book
    • Narrow steep sloped beaches produce bigger waves for surfers!
  • 19. The Music of Surfing
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urtbRmPuLpk
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fP1QK0XCt1U
    • http://video.tiscali.it/canali/truveo/1673452417.html
  • 20. Tsunamis
    • What produces tsunamis wave?
    • Earthquakes or sudden movement of earth’s crust
    • Results in extremely long waves (54-108 miles long)
    • At point of origin boat may not feel full force (3-6 ft swell)
    • When path of wave blocked by coast or island the height builds rapidly
    • Leading edge may be a trough or crest
  • 21. Tsunami Videos
    • http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/video/stormsurge.mov
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6XWVBi0dOo
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gbq412haY1c
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlPqL7IUT6M
  • 22. What is the driving force behind tides?
    • Mainly the gravitational pull of the moon
    • Three types of tides:
    • Diurnal = one high and one low
    • Semi-diurnal = high and low twice a day
    • Mixed = high at different heights and low different heights
  • 23. What are the tides in WA?
  • 24. http://courses.washington.edu/ocean101/Lex/Lecture17.pdf
  • 25. Semi-diurnal tides
  • 26. http://library.thinkquest.org/C003124/en/sunmoon.htm
  • 27. What are the main forces that come into play?
    • Earth and moon and centrifugal force
    • Earth’s water covering is malleable and pulls or bulges toward the gravitational pull of the moon. As the moon moves position so to follows the tidal bulge
    • At the same time the centrifugal force acting on the Earth pulls opposite the moon producing two bulges at opposite ends and two troughs in between
  • 28.  
  • 29.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rn_ycVcyxlY
  • 30. What is a flood tide and what is an ebb tide?
    • Flood is a rising tide and ebb tide is a falling tide
    • Low Tide = lowest height reached during the tidal cycle
    • High Tide = greatest height reached during that tidal cycle
    • Minus Tide falls below the mean value
  • 31. Tidal Day
    • The point at which the tidal cycle begins is 50 minutes later each day due to the interplay of the earth and moon’s orbits
    • Therefore, a tidal day or cycle is 24hrs and 50 minutes
  • 32. Spring Tides and Neap Tides
    • When do spring and neap tides occur?
    • Spring Tides occur when the moon and sun are on the same side of the earth creating more pull or bulge and thus higher tides than normal
    • Neap Tides occur when the moon is in it’s first quarter and it is located at right angles to the earth and sun
  • 33. Diurnal Tides
    • When the moon or sun N. or S. of equator one bulge found in Northern and other in Southern Hemisphere thus one high and one low tide
    • Sun moves from Tropic of Cancer to Tropic of Capricorn each year and therefore more diurnal tides during summer and winter solstices
  • 34.  
  • 35. Are tides short or long waves from what you have learned thus far?
    • Long waves that behave like shallow-water waves
    • Speed of approximately 200 m/sec
    • Tidal friction created between tidal currents and sea floor
    • Tidal waves create tidal turbulence through out water column and thus mixing nutrients from deeper levels to upper levels of the column
    • Tidal waves reflect off of land masses and sometimes become standing waves
  • 36. Predicting Tides and Tidal Currents
    • How are tides predicted?
    • Water level stations at coastal locations that measure tidal changes for several years
    • Primary tidal stations run for at least 19 years to coincide with 18.6 period year of the moon
    • Mean tidal levels gathered from the data with astronomical information
    • NOAA source of tide tables
    • Private companies have taken over the dissemination of information
  • 37. Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Bouy
  • 38. Weather Bouy
  • 39. Tidal Bores
    • What is a tidal bore and where do they occur?
    • In shallow bays of high tidal amplitude
    • Bay of Fundy
  • 40.  
  • 41. Bay of Fundy – High and Low Tides
  • 42. Energy from Waves and Tides
    • How can energy be harnessed from waves and tides?
        • Changing water level to lift an object
        • Using orbital movement of water
        • Using rising water to compress air in a chamber
    • Power of all the waves in the ocean 3000 power produced at Hoover dam
    • Scotland and Norway currently use wave power to generate electricity
  • 43. What is the cost of capturing the wave energy that usually shapes coasts?
    • Energy from tides only in areas of high tidal range
    • Rance River in France and Annapolis River in Nova Scotia
    • Expensive to produce compared to other sources of power
    • New efforts underway in England, Scotland and Norway
    • http://video.techrepublic.com.com/2422-13792_11-193651.html
    • In the United States?
  • 44.
  • 45. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=ocean-wave-tidal-power