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Wave slideshow

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• 1. Chapter 10 and 11
• 2. What is the most common force of water waves?
• 3. Anatomy of a wave
• 4. Know what these terms mean! Crest Trough Wavelength Wave Height Amplitude Period
• 5. Wave Motion and Wave Speed How do particles move through waves? Orbit is created where particles move up and down or forward and backward How different below the surface? Less energy
• 6. Source: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream//ocean/wave_max.htm
• 7. Deep-Water Waves How is a deep water wave classified? Water must be deeper than half of the wave length Storm center waves move outward Middle of storm center is a mixture of wave heights, lengths and periods Long waves leave storm center and move faster than most waves = Dispersion Waves that group together = wave trains
• 8. Wave Interaction What happened during “The Perfect Storm”? Constructive Interference or amplification Waves can pass through, amplify, or cancel each other out Also can come at angles to each other Wave trains can synchronize, crest and create smaller waves http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpZLGbvIzx0
• 9. Wave Interaction
• 10. Wave Speed Waves speed = celerity S = wavelength/wave period or C = L/T Remember length is distance and period is time!
• 11. Wave Height What affects wave height? Wind speed, duration and fetch Fetch = distance over the water that wind blows to create waves moving in the same direction All three variables must combine to make BIG WAVES
• 12. The Beaufort Scale source: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/D10.html Relate height and period to speed, duration and fetch = Beaufort Scale of sea state
• 13. Wave Steepness How is steepness measured on a wave? Steepness = Height/Length How do waves behave differently in shallow water? Water orbits compress and forward speed of wave reduced Shallow water wave is wave that enters depth 1/20th of wave length Wave crests bend as approach shore due to difference of speed between ends of wave crests (i.e. shallow end slow and deep end fast) = refract
• 14. Shallow Water Wave
• 15. Shallow Water Waves
• 16. Diffraction is when a wave travels toward a barrier and through a small opening = waves radiate outward Important information for the design of harbors and safe mooring Remember Polynesians used wave patterns to travel and locate other islands Length and speed controlled by depth
• 17. The Surf Zone What affects how waves behave in the surf zone? Depth of water and shape of shoreline Look for the three different shore line examples in your book Narrow steep sloped beaches produce bigger waves for surfers!
• 19. Tsunamis What produces tsunamis wave? Earthquakes or sudden movement of earth’s crust Results in extremely long waves (54-108 miles long) At point of origin boat may not feel full force (3-6 ft swell) When path of wave blocked by coast or island the height builds rapidly Leading edge may be a trough or crest
• 21. What is the driving force behind tides? Mainly the gravitational pull of the moon Three types of tides:  Diurnal = one high and one low  Semi-diurnal = high and low twice a day  Mixed = high at different heights and low different heights
• 22. What are the tides in WA?
• 23. http://courses.washington.edu /ocean101/Lex/Lecture17.pdf
• 24. Semi-diurnal tides
• 25. http://library.thinkquest.org/C003124/en/sunmo on.htm
• 26. What are the main forces that come into play? Earth and moon and centrifugal force Earth’s water covering is malleable and pulls or bulges toward the gravitational pull of the moon. As the moon moves position so to follows the tidal bulge At the same time the centrifugal force acting on the Earth pulls opposite the moon producing two bulges at opposite ends and two troughs in between
• 28. What is a flood tide and what is an ebb tide? Flood is a rising tide and ebb tide is a falling tide Low Tide = lowest height reached during the tidal cycle High Tide = greatest height reached during that tidal cycle Minus Tide falls below the mean value
• 29. Tidal Day The point at which the tidal cycle begins is 50 minutes later each day due to the interplay of the earth and moon’s orbits Therefore, a tidal day or cycle is 24hrs and 50 minutes
• 30. Spring Tides and Neap Tides When do spring and neap tides occur? Spring Tides occur when the moon and sun are on the same side of the earth creating more pull or bulge and thus higher tides than normal Neap Tides occur when the moon is in it’s first quarter and it is located at right angles to the earth and sun
• 31. Diurnal Tides When the moon or sun N. or S. of equator one bulge found in Northern and other in Southern Hemisphere thus one high and one low tide Sun moves from Tropic of Cancer to Tropic of Capricorn each year and therefore more diurnal tides during summer and winter solstices
• 32. Are tides short or long waves from what you have learned thus far? Long waves that behave like shallow-water waves Speed of approximately 200 m/sec Tidal friction created between tidal currents and sea floor Tidal waves create tidal turbulence through out water column and thus mixing nutrients from deeper levels to upper levels of the column Tidal waves reflect off of land masses and sometimes become standing waves
• 33. Predicting Tides and Tidal Currents How are tides predicted? Water level stations at coastal locations that measure tidal changes for several years Primary tidal stations run for at least 19 years to coincide with 18.6 period year of the moon Mean tidal levels gathered from the data with astronomical information NOAA source of tide tables Private companies have taken over the dissemination of information
• 34. Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Bouy
• 35. Weather Bouy
• 36. Tidal Bores What is a tidal bore and where do they occur? In shallow bays of high tidal amplitude Bay of Fundy
• 37. Bay of Fundy – High and Low Tides
• 38. Energy from Waves and Tides How can energy be harnessed from waves and tides?  Changing water level to lift an object  Using orbital movement of water  Using rising water to compress air in a chamber Power of all the waves in the ocean 3000 power produced at Hoover dam Scotland and Norway currently use wave power to generate electricity
• 39. What is the cost of capturing the wave energy that usually shapes coasts? Energy from tides only in areas of high tidal range Rance River in France and Annapolis River in Nova Scotia Expensive to produce compared to other sources of power New efforts underway in England, Scotland and Norway http://video.techrepublic.com.com/2422-13792_11- 193651.html In the United States?
• 40. http://203.64.167.162/gec/teacher/chunyu_website/AR2/unit01/ unit1_3.htm
• 41. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=ocean-wave- tidal-power