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Productivity slideshow Productivity slideshow Presentation Transcript

  • Ocean Productivity
    Chapter 15
  • What are the different environmental zones?
    Pelagic Zone – water environment
    Benthic Zone - seafloor
    Neritic Zone – coastal or continental shelf
    Oceanic Zone – deep water zone
    Photic Zone – surface where enough light for plants to grow (50-100ft)
    Aphotic Zone – without light
  • How is the coast line divided up into zones?
    Supralittoral or Splash Zone (above high tide)
    Littoral or Intertidal Zone (between high and low tide)
    Sublittoral or Subtidal Zone (below low tide)
  • Coastal Zones
  • Life in the zones is affected by temperature, dissolved gases, substrate and nutrient changes
    Coastal areas and photic zones vary more by latitude than the deeper zones which remain fairly constant
  • How do animals stay buoyant? What features allow them to do that?
    Shape, fat, size, and ability to change shape when diving
    Water’s density helps animals stay afloat
    Animals do not need to focus on structural features but features for swimming
    Some secrete gases to stay afloat (i.e. algae and sea jellies)
    Sea snail rides gas bubble float
    Chambered nautilus uses nitrogen gas to fill chambers in shell
    Cuttle fish also regulate gas to stay afloat
  • Most fish have swim bladders and adjust gas as dive
    Whales and seals store low density fat in bodies
    Sharks store oil in liver and muscles
  • Fluid Balance
    Must constantly expend energy to prevent dehydration
    Body higher concentration of water molecules than sea
    Fish drink sea water and deposit salt across gills
    Sharks and rays have similar salinity as ocean
    Some animals adapt from fresh to salt water and back again
    What animal in the NW does this?
  • Bioluminescence
    an interaction between the compound lucifern and the enzyme luciferase creates light
    Dinoflagellates are agitated by the movement of the water
    Squid, shrimp and some fish also create this chemical reaction
  • http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/02sab/background/biolum/media/biolum.html
  • Color
    or lack there of (i.e. jelly fish blend in with back ground)
    Tropical water fish have bright patterns to confuse predators
    Animals that sting, are foul tasting or have poisonous flesh are bright
    Fish that swim near the surface have dark backs and white bellies to avoid predators
  • Barriers and Boundaries
    Can you think of some barriers in the ocean?
    Salinity, temperature, light, density of water
    As water deepens and becomes more homogenous not as many boundaries
    Gulf Stream, continents, ridges, and sea mounts can act as barriers
  • Who are the primary producers?
    Phytoplankton
    Chlorophyll is trapped by photosynthesis to produce energy
    Synthesis of inorganic material into organic matter
    Sugars are then broken down with oxygen to produce respiration
    Biomass or the organisms weight or grams of carbon (material produced)
    Weight of organic carbon in grams under a square meter of sea surface (gC/m2)
  • http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/ocean.productivity/
  • Primary productivity = rate at which biomass is produced
    Standing crop = total living material in an area at one time
    Equals growth, reproduction, grazing and death
    Seaweeds represent only 5-10 percent of total photosynthetic material in oceans
  • How can light intensity vary at the surface of the oceans?
    Latitude and seasons
    Artic one peak
    Temperate two peaks with grazing in between
    Tropics do not see large peaks due to low nutrient levels
    Only near equator where up welling does phytoplankton increase
  • How do nutrients affect primary production at different latitudes?
    Depends on the availability of light
    Arctic regions depend more on length of light
    Middle latitude nutrients reduced by winter storms
    When surface water density decreases with warmer waters of spring then nutrients increase
  • Grazing organisms release nutrients for a second peak in primary production
    Production limited in tropics and subtropics due to lack of surface mixing
    Nitrogen is essential for the formation of proteins and phosphorous which is required in energy actions, cell membranes and nucleic acids
    Nitrogen in the form of nitrates and phosphorous in the form of phosphates are removed by phytoplankton
  • Human activities from fertilizers and combustion of fossil fuels have increased nutrients in coastal areas
    As nutrients broken down the oxygen is depleted
    Over supply of nitrates in Mississippi River delta area has created a dead zone
    Many other coastal areas are seeing similar problems around the world
  • http://www.eoearth.org/article/Nitrogen
  • How can primary production be measured?
    Counting phytoplankton cells
    Chlorophyll levels and pigment present
    Exposing chlorophyll to certain wave length of light causes pigment to fluoresce = intensity measures the biomass
    Amount of oxygen in sea water can measure gross and net primary production and respiration
    Radioisotope carbon-14 measures amount in cells after a period of time
    Satellite images can measure sea surface chlorophyll levels
  • How is this measured or reflected?
    Highest commercial fish productivity is associated with areas of upwelling and along coasts where phytoplankton populations are in high numbers
    Phytoplankton provides first step in food chain
    See areas of convergence, divergence, upwelling and downwelling with the distribution of primary production
    (i.e. equatorial Pacific = upwelling and divergence; Antartica = divergence; North Atlantic and Pacific gyres = convergence)
  • Upwelling vs. Downwelling
  • Global Upwelling
  • Upwelling areas 2x productive as coastal areas and 6x more productive than open ocean
    Upwelling represents a small portion of ocean
    Total primary production shows organic carbon or production spread thin over a large area
  • Open ocean same as deserts for productivity
    Estuaries are the most productive! Why?
    Light reaches bottom and high detritus levels/nutrients to support high biomass per acre
  • What is the difference between a food chain, web and trophic level?
    Food Chain follows one line of connection from primary producer to carnivore
    Food Web is the complex interrelationship of many food chains
    Trophic levels focus on the transfer of energy
  • International Arctic Research Centerhttp://www.iarc.uaf.edu/highlights/2005/coupled_marine_ecosystem/index.php
  • Trophic Levels
    As move up food chain the size and numbers increase while the biomass decreases. Collectively the lower on the food chain the higher the biomass
    Diversity also decreases
    Open ocean energy transfer is 10% (i.e. human eats 10 kg salmon = salmon eat 100 kg of fish = fish eat 1000 kg of carnivorous zooplankton = carnivorous plankton eat 10,000 kg of herbivorous plankton = 100,000 kg was needed of phytoplankton to feed 1 kg on top)
    90% energy loss at each level goes to metabolic needs and organic material that is not ingested
  • Source: http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_26.html
  • Changes in the food web
    Krill is the main diet for many animals in Antarctica (i.e. penguins, fish, seals, and whales
    Recently seen decrease in krill last 40 years
    Global Warming may to be to blame due to lack of sea ice which grows algae on underside for krill in the winter
  • http://www.iarc.uaf.edu/highlights/2005/coupled_marine_ecosystem/index.php
  • Food Chains and Humans
    What level in the food chain do humans tend to harvest food from oceans?
    High on the food chain
    Inefficient especially in open oceans
    More efficient in high productivity areas along coasts
    Best harvest is low on the food chain
  • Chemosynthetic communities
    Where are they found?
    East Pacific Rise, Mariana and Okinawa troughs, N. Fuji basin, mid Atlantic Ridge, and along Gorda and Juan de Fuca Ridges
    What kind of animals do you find there?
    Anemones, worms, barnacles, limpets, crab and fish
  • http://scienceblogs.com/deepseanews/2007/09/microbial_metagenomic_studies.php
  • Tube worms can be 10 ft long and grow 3.3 ft per year
    No mouth or digestive system only internal body cavity is filled with bacteria
    Synthesis or digestion is all done by the bacteria it’s self
    Both clams and tube worms have red flesh and red blood based on hemoglobin
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/species/Giant_tube_worm
  • Chemosynthesis
    Chemosynthesis = bacteria derive energy form dissolved chemicals in sea
    Form of primary production that is not dependent on sunlight
    Example of other communities:
    Gulf of Mexico a crystalline mound of methane gas and hydrogen sulfide where worms lived 1800 ft down
    Off Louisiana and Texas oil and gas seep up to surface where clams, mussels and large tube worms live at 1600-3000 ft down
    N. Atlantic off mid-Atlantic Ridge Lost City of bacteria, sponges and coral 2300-2600 ft down
  • http://pathways.fsu.edu/faculty/geeo/
  • What is an extremophile? Do you know one?
    Thriving in conditions no other life can live
    Growing at 235 degrees F and depths of 12,000 ft = Pyrolobusfumarii
    Uses hydrogen and sulfur compounds for energy
    Also found in extreme cold 39 degrees F
    Found in salt ponds for evaporation of seawater
  • http://www.microcourse.info/tiki/tiki-print.php?page=Life%20at%20high%20temperature