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Intro toearthslideshow

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  • 1. Introduction to theIntroduction to the EarthEarth
  • 2. An explosion, The Big Bang, occurred approximatelyAn explosion, The Big Bang, occurred approximately 13.7 billion years ago13.7 billion years ago If you can imagine an extremely small balloonIf you can imagine an extremely small balloon expanding, this is one way of explaining itexpanding, this is one way of explaining it A billion years after The Big Bang gravity began toA billion years after The Big Bang gravity began to pull matter togetherpull matter together http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aym8_S3BXKwhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aym8_S3BXKw
  • 3. Source: http://www.liveastronomy.net/Big_Bang.htmlSource: http://www.liveastronomy.net/Big_Bang.html
  • 4. Stars formed billions of years before the sun. In fact,Stars formed billions of years before the sun. In fact, the sun came from an exploding starthe sun came from an exploding star Our early Earth came together as particles of all sizesOur early Earth came together as particles of all sizes added layers. With the added layers and spinning, theadded layers. With the added layers and spinning, the denser particles of iron and nickel migrated towarddenser particles of iron and nickel migrated toward the corethe core For more information go to theFor more information go to the www.nasa.govwww.nasa.gov webweb site for space explorationsite for space exploration
  • 5. Hundreds of thousands of stars and stellar dust swirl inHundreds of thousands of stars and stellar dust swirl in the center of our galaxy in this image taken by NASA'sthe center of our galaxy in this image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space TelescopeSpitzer Space Telescope
  • 6. Now the BIG question is where did the oceans comeNow the BIG question is where did the oceans come from?from? Most of us would not guess that the water in theMost of us would not guess that the water in the oceans came from volcanic activity and cometsoceans came from volcanic activity and comets entering the earth’s atmosphereentering the earth’s atmosphere If you look at the composition of gas from theIf you look at the composition of gas from the Hawaiian volcanoes you find 70% water, 15% carbonHawaiian volcanoes you find 70% water, 15% carbon dioxide, 5% nitrogen, and 5% sulfer dioxidedioxide, 5% nitrogen, and 5% sulfer dioxide
  • 7. Source: http://www.isla.hawaii.edu/volcano/ashe.shtmlSource: http://www.isla.hawaii.edu/volcano/ashe.shtml
  • 8. Watch some eruptions!Watch some eruptions! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3aqFCT87_Ehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3aqFCT87_E http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaChWgbn18Yhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaChWgbn18Y Mt. St. Helens eruption:Mt. St. Helens eruption: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bgRnVhbfIKQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bgRnVhbfIKQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1gpnu-fdUUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1gpnu-fdUU
  • 9. Gases from earth’s interior formed atmosphere:Gases from earth’s interior formed atmosphere: water vapor, hydrogen gas, hydrogen chloride,water vapor, hydrogen gas, hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogencarbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen The only exception is oxygen which was notThe only exception is oxygen which was not produced in large amounts until plants came alongproduced in large amounts until plants came along Small icy comets vaporize in the outer atmosphereSmall icy comets vaporize in the outer atmosphere create clouds that absorb ultraviolet radiation.create clouds that absorb ultraviolet radiation. Basically, most of the gases we have in ourBasically, most of the gases we have in our atmosphere came from the earth’s interioratmosphere came from the earth’s interior
  • 10. Source: http://solarsystem.nasa.govSource: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov Icy Comet NEATIcy Comet NEAT
  • 11. What other planets have evidence of oceans on them?What other planets have evidence of oceans on them? Jupiter’s moons Europa and Callisto may have oceansJupiter’s moons Europa and Callisto may have oceans under ice covered surfaceunder ice covered surface Europa’s oceans believed to have magnesium sulfateEuropa’s oceans believed to have magnesium sulfate instead of sodium chlorideinstead of sodium chloride Europa’s may contain twice amount of water as earth’sEuropa’s may contain twice amount of water as earth’s Callisto’s ocean 6.2 mile deep ocean most likelyCallisto’s ocean 6.2 mile deep ocean most likely environment for life outside of earthenvironment for life outside of earth Also evidence that Mars once had an ocean in N.Also evidence that Mars once had an ocean in N. hemispherehemisphere
  • 12. Jupiter’s moons Europa and CallistoJupiter’s moons Europa and Callisto
  • 13. ““Gamma-ray data from NASA's Mars Odyssey indicates that anGamma-ray data from NASA's Mars Odyssey indicates that an ocean once covered one third of Mars' surface. If liquid water wasocean once covered one third of Mars' surface. If liquid water was indeed present, Mars might have been habitable for life in its past.”indeed present, Mars might have been habitable for life in its past.” Source: http://euro.astrobio.net/pressrelease/2942/the-ancient-Source: http://euro.astrobio.net/pressrelease/2942/the-ancient- oceans-of-marsoceans-of-mars
  • 14. Radioactive isotopes like uranium-238, carbon 14,Radioactive isotopes like uranium-238, carbon 14, potassium-40 and oxygen-18 decay in a slow andpotassium-40 and oxygen-18 decay in a slow and steady predictable fashionsteady predictable fashion This decaying rate or half-life can be measured to ageThis decaying rate or half-life can be measured to age fossils, rocks and even climate and sea level changesfossils, rocks and even climate and sea level changes From this dating method scientists can state that theFrom this dating method scientists can state that the Earth is 4.5 to 4.6 billion years oldEarth is 4.5 to 4.6 billion years old
  • 15. The first basic forms of life (i.e. bacteria ) evolved 3.5The first basic forms of life (i.e. bacteria ) evolved 3.5 billion years ago.billion years ago. The first plants came along 458 million years ago.The first plants came along 458 million years ago. The first mammals evolved 200 million years ago.The first mammals evolved 200 million years ago. And, last but not least humans came along 100And, last but not least humans came along 100 thousand years ago.thousand years ago.
  • 16. So if you look at a meter stick, it would look like this:So if you look at a meter stick, it would look like this: 1)first forms of life at 24 cm1)first forms of life at 24 cm 2) first plants at 90 cm2) first plants at 90 cm 3) first mammals at 95.7 cm and3) first mammals at 95.7 cm and 4) humans at 99.98 cm. In other words, humans have4) humans at 99.98 cm. In other words, humans have come along after billions of years of evolution!come along after billions of years of evolution!
  • 17. Early Human CaveEarly Human Cave DrawingsDrawings
  • 18. Earth has been shaped mainly due to gravity and theEarth has been shaped mainly due to gravity and the centrifugal force of the earth spinningcentrifugal force of the earth spinning In order for humans to know where they are goingIn order for humans to know where they are going on this big spherical globe, they have come up with aon this big spherical globe, they have come up with a system of mapping by using latitude and longitudesystem of mapping by using latitude and longitude measurementsmeasurements
  • 19. LongitudeLongitude Longitude lines are also called meridians. Some ofLongitude lines are also called meridians. Some of you may be familiar with Meridian Road at Hawksyou may be familiar with Meridian Road at Hawks Prairie? This road does follow a meridian orPrairie? This road does follow a meridian or longitudinal linelongitudinal line When you get in an airplane and fly you are goingWhen you get in an airplane and fly you are going over longitudinal degrees (every 15 degrees isover longitudinal degrees (every 15 degrees is another time zone)another time zone)
  • 20. Longitudinal lines rotate with a turning earth. Due toLongitudinal lines rotate with a turning earth. Due to this there must be a reference point or 0 degrees inthis there must be a reference point or 0 degrees in reference to the position of the sunreference to the position of the sun It is noon Universal or Zulu time when the sun isIt is noon Universal or Zulu time when the sun is above 0 degrees at Greenwhich, England (this is theabove 0 degrees at Greenwhich, England (this is the prime meridian)prime meridian) If you go half way around the world to 180degreesIf you go half way around the world to 180degrees you will be at the international-date-lineyou will be at the international-date-line
  • 21. LatitudeLatitude Latitude lines or parallels run North and South of theLatitude lines or parallels run North and South of the Equator which is your zero degrees reference point.Equator which is your zero degrees reference point. When marking latitude you need to clarify if you areWhen marking latitude you need to clarify if you are in the Northern or Southern Hemispherein the Northern or Southern Hemisphere One degree latitude equals 60 nautical miles (111 km).One degree latitude equals 60 nautical miles (111 km). Each degree is divided into 60 minutes of an arc andEach degree is divided into 60 minutes of an arc and each minute is divided into 60 secondseach minute is divided into 60 seconds One minute equals one nautical mile (1.85 km) ForOne minute equals one nautical mile (1.85 km) For your lab you will only need to record degrees andyour lab you will only need to record degrees and minutesminutes
  • 22. In this weeks lab you will be learning how to read charts. ChartsIn this weeks lab you will be learning how to read charts. Charts show the ocean and sky featuresshow the ocean and sky features
  • 23. Even though captains and oceanographers useEven though captains and oceanographers use modern equipment such as satellite, radars andmodern equipment such as satellite, radars and Global Positioning System (GPS) the sextant is stillGlobal Positioning System (GPS) the sextant is still used to cross reference the modern technology.used to cross reference the modern technology. There are 24 navigational satellites and 5 groundThere are 24 navigational satellites and 5 ground based stations. Each satellite transmits a uniquebased stations. Each satellite transmits a unique digital code. With satellite information, GPS anddigital code. With satellite information, GPS and modern charts with Loran lines, researchers can bemodern charts with Loran lines, researchers can be sure to return to the same site for continuedsure to return to the same site for continued measurements and future researchmeasurements and future research
  • 24. Getty ImagesGetty Images “A computer-generated artists impression released by the European Space“A computer-generated artists impression released by the European Space Agency depicts an approximation of 12,000 objects in orbit around theAgency depicts an approximation of 12,000 objects in orbit around the Earth”Earth”
  • 25. For more information on time zones go to the U.S.For more information on time zones go to the U.S. Navy webNavy web site:site:http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/world_tzones.phttp://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/world_tzones.p hphp For more information on ocean exploration go toFor more information on ocean exploration go to NOAA at:NOAA at: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/history/timeline/timelihttp://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/history/timeline/timeli ne.htmlne.html

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