Atmosphere slideshow

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Atmosphere slideshow

  1. 1. Atmosphere &Atmosphere & OceansOceans Chapter 7Chapter 7
  2. 2. How is solar radiation distributed on earth?How is solar radiation distributed on earth?  Greatest intensity at equators and less as head towards the polesGreatest intensity at equators and less as head towards the poles  Between 23 1/2 N. and S. of equator most intenseBetween 23 1/2 N. and S. of equator most intense  Between theTropic of Cancer and CapricornBetween theTropic of Cancer and Capricorn  Other latitudes receive less due to angle of rays and absorption byOther latitudes receive less due to angle of rays and absorption by atmosphereatmosphere  Greater latitude the longer distance the rays must travel through theGreater latitude the longer distance the rays must travel through the atmosphereatmosphere  Intensity changes depending on time and angle of sun (i.e. mostIntensity changes depending on time and angle of sun (i.e. most intense at noon)intense at noon)
  3. 3. Which pole gets the most sun?Which pole gets the most sun?  The amount of sun light is also important (N. vs. S. PoleThe amount of sun light is also important (N. vs. S. Pole and summer v.s. winter)and summer v.s. winter)  Maximum daily radiation levels at the S. Pole are slightlyMaximum daily radiation levels at the S. Pole are slightly larger because Earth is closer to the Sun during the S.larger because Earth is closer to the Sun during the S. Hemisphere summerHemisphere summer
  4. 4. http://www.eeb.ucla.edu/test/faculty/nezlin/PhysicalOceanohttp://www.eeb.ucla.edu/test/faculty/nezlin/PhysicalOceano graphy.htmgraphy.htm
  5. 5. What is a heat budget?What is a heat budget?  Gains and losses of heat from the EarthGains and losses of heat from the Earth  Solar Radiation includes: short and long wave lengths ofSolar Radiation includes: short and long wave lengths of radiation, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiationradiation, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation  Basically, you have 100 units in and 100 units out of theBasically, you have 100 units in and 100 units out of the systemsystem
  6. 6. http://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/education/class/yuri/erb.htmlhttp://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/education/class/yuri/erb.html
  7. 7. Where is the heat?Where is the heat?  Earth is heated primarily from below not from solarEarth is heated primarily from below not from solar radiationradiation  This heat exchange does not deal with latitude, earthsThis heat exchange does not deal with latitude, earths surface or timesurface or time  Latitudes less than 45 degrees more radiant heat isLatitudes less than 45 degrees more radiant heat is absorbed than lost to spaceabsorbed than lost to space  This plays an important role in heating the earth’s oceansThis plays an important role in heating the earth’s oceans and setting currents into motion and distributing heatand setting currents into motion and distributing heat globallyglobally
  8. 8. How does the land and sea differ in heat absorption andHow does the land and sea differ in heat absorption and transfer?transfer?  Land has low and oceans have high heat capacityLand has low and oceans have high heat capacity  Why? Due to the low specific heat of soil and rockWhy? Due to the low specific heat of soil and rock compared to watercompared to water  Ocean can absorb and release large amounts of heat withOcean can absorb and release large amounts of heat with little change to the average temperaturelittle change to the average temperature  Continents have large surface temperature changes atContinents have large surface temperature changes at high latitudeshigh latitudes
  9. 9. North vs. SouthNorth vs. South  N. Hemisphere has more land mass and thus moreN. Hemisphere has more land mass and thus more extreme temperatures than S. Hemisphere which showsextreme temperatures than S. Hemisphere which shows little seasonal differenceslittle seasonal differences  Moist, heat laden air from equator rises and transfers toMoist, heat laden air from equator rises and transfers to high latitudeshigh latitudes  Condensing water vapor produces clouds and rainyCondensing water vapor produces clouds and rainy weather at 50-60 degrees N. or S.weather at 50-60 degrees N. or S.  Oceans play a role in stabilizing surface temperatures ofOceans play a role in stabilizing surface temperatures of the Earththe Earth
  10. 10. How does sea ice and iceburgs affect oceans and theHow does sea ice and iceburgs affect oceans and the atmosphere?atmosphere?  By changes temperature and salinity which affect densityBy changes temperature and salinity which affect density  Ice floes move with the currents and sometimes collideIce floes move with the currents and sometimes collide  6 ft of ice can form in one season6 ft of ice can form in one season  If ice accumulates from one year to the next it can be 10-15If ice accumulates from one year to the next it can be 10-15 ft thickft thick  Through time as the ice freezes and sea water drains outThrough time as the ice freezes and sea water drains out the ice will become fresh enough to drinkthe ice will become fresh enough to drink
  11. 11. Sea IceSea Ice  Fresh sea ice concentrates the salt water underneath dueFresh sea ice concentrates the salt water underneath due to this process and causes this high salinity water to sinkto this process and causes this high salinity water to sink  Year round sea ice is found in the Arctic and AntarcticYear round sea ice is found in the Arctic and Antarctic OceansOceans  It is seasonal around bays and shores of U.S. NE, Canada,It is seasonal around bays and shores of U.S. NE, Canada, Russia, Scandinavia, and AlaskaRussia, Scandinavia, and Alaska
  12. 12. IceburgsIceburgs  Iceburgs float with only 12% of mass above surfaceIceburgs float with only 12% of mass above surface  Formed by ice, snow and fresh water inland and move towardsFormed by ice, snow and fresh water inland and move towards the seathe sea  From Greenland, Antarctica, and AlaskaFrom Greenland, Antarctica, and Alaska  Castle bergs originate in Artic and float as far S. as New EnglandCastle bergs originate in Artic and float as far S. as New England  Titanic probably sunk from one of these wandering iceburgs inTitanic probably sunk from one of these wandering iceburgs in 19121912  Usually not in open oceans but stay in channels and baysUsually not in open oceans but stay in channels and bays
  13. 13.  Polar Ice Caps and Glaciers have trapped gases in bubblesPolar Ice Caps and Glaciers have trapped gases in bubbles in the ice (Including carbon dioxide)in the ice (Including carbon dioxide)  Since 1850 280 ppm to 360 ppmSince 1850 280 ppm to 360 ppm  Now 1.5 –2 ppm increase per yearNow 1.5 –2 ppm increase per year  With increased evaporation may be increasedWith increased evaporation may be increased precipitation and thus ice cap expansionprecipitation and thus ice cap expansion  Polar Ice Caps, Iceburgs and glaciers reflect solar radiation!Polar Ice Caps, Iceburgs and glaciers reflect solar radiation!
  14. 14. What makes up our atmosphere? What gases? What purposeWhat makes up our atmosphere? What gases? What purpose does it serve?does it serve?  Troposphere and Stratosphere (54 miles above earth)Troposphere and Stratosphere (54 miles above earth)  Variable gases: (changes in time and location)Variable gases: (changes in time and location)  Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozoneWater vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone  Permanent gases: (constant percentage)Permanent gases: (constant percentage)  Nitrogen, oxygen, argon, neon, helium, hydrogen, and xenonNitrogen, oxygen, argon, neon, helium, hydrogen, and xenon  Troposphere – precipitation, evaporation, wind systems, cloudsTroposphere – precipitation, evaporation, wind systems, clouds  Stratosphere – absorbs ultraviolet radiationStratosphere – absorbs ultraviolet radiation  Above Stratosphere is mesosphere and thermosphereAbove Stratosphere is mesosphere and thermosphere
  15. 15. http://www.theozonehole.com/ozonelayer.htmhttp://www.theozonehole.com/ozonelayer.htm
  16. 16.  Also, reduction in ozone in the stratosphere allows ultravioletAlso, reduction in ozone in the stratosphere allows ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth’s surfaceradiation to reach the earth’s surface  Since 1970’s reduction in ozone has been seen over AntarcticaSince 1970’s reduction in ozone has been seen over Antarctica  Artic winters are not as coldArtic winters are not as cold  Ozone loss over Artic lessOzone loss over Artic less  Studies in 1990 show how ultraviolet radiation is reducing theStudies in 1990 show how ultraviolet radiation is reducing the production on single-celled planktonic organisms at the seaproduction on single-celled planktonic organisms at the sea surface = basis of food chainsurface = basis of food chain
  17. 17. Ozone HoleOzone Hole
  18. 18. Density of air controlled by what three variables?Density of air controlled by what three variables?  Temperature, amount of water vapor, and atmosphericTemperature, amount of water vapor, and atmospheric pressurepressure  Cold dry air is denser than warm wet airCold dry air is denser than warm wet air  Water molecules less dense than gasesWater molecules less dense than gases  Density decreases with decreasing atmospheric pressureDensity decreases with decreasing atmospheric pressure and elevationand elevation  Atmospheric pressure force of a column of air pressing onAtmospheric pressure force of a column of air pressing on earth’s surfaceearth’s surface
  19. 19. How has our atmosphere changed overHow has our atmosphere changed over the last decade?the last decade?  Humans have increased anthropogenic CO2 levelsHumans have increased anthropogenic CO2 levels  Three active reservoirs: 1) atmosphere, oceans, andThree active reservoirs: 1) atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial systemterrestrial system  Inactive reservoir in earth’s crustInactive reservoir in earth’s crust  Oceans store the most and atmosphere the least amountOceans store the most and atmosphere the least amount of CO2of CO2  Ocean plays major role in atmosphere’s concentration ofOcean plays major role in atmosphere’s concentration of CO2 physically, chemically, and biologicallyCO2 physically, chemically, and biologically
  20. 20. Effects of increased anthropogenic carbon dioxideEffects of increased anthropogenic carbon dioxide  CO2 allows short-wave radiation into the atmosphere butCO2 allows short-wave radiation into the atmosphere but absorbs outgoing long-wave radiationabsorbs outgoing long-wave radiation  Thus increasing infrared radiation absorption byThus increasing infrared radiation absorption by atmosphere and not allowing it to reach earth’s surface =atmosphere and not allowing it to reach earth’s surface = warming of atmosphere or green house effectwarming of atmosphere or green house effect
  21. 21.  How has CO2 increased in our atmosphere in modernHow has CO2 increased in our atmosphere in modern times?times?  From increased use of fossil fuels and deforestationFrom increased use of fossil fuels and deforestation  Increase of approximately 7 billion tons per yearIncrease of approximately 7 billion tons per year
  22. 22. 1997 Kyoto Protocol by United Nations1997 Kyoto Protocol by United Nations on Climate Changeon Climate Change  Legally binding agreement to reduce emissionsLegally binding agreement to reduce emissions  Two conditions had to be met:Two conditions had to be met:  55 nations agree to the protocol55 nations agree to the protocol  Ratifying nations include enough industrial nations to accountRatifying nations include enough industrial nations to account for 55% of total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990for 55% of total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990  Conditions were met when Russia ratified it in 2004Conditions were met when Russia ratified it in 2004  U.S. signed but did not ratify it (i.e. not bound to treaty and isU.S. signed but did not ratify it (i.e. not bound to treaty and is obligated to refrain from acts would defeat the objective of theobligated to refrain from acts would defeat the objective of the treaty)treaty)
  23. 23.  Cycle of CO2 decrease in spring and summer and increaseCycle of CO2 decrease in spring and summer and increase during fall and winter (due to growth and dormancy ofduring fall and winter (due to growth and dormancy of plants)plants)  Warming of 2-4 degrees CWarming of 2-4 degrees C  Higher latitudes affected more by warming (i.e. melting ofHigher latitudes affected more by warming (i.e. melting of polar ice)polar ice)  Melting may cause 1 meter rise in sea levelMelting may cause 1 meter rise in sea level
  24. 24. What else about Global Warming?What else about Global Warming?  DMS (dimethyl sulfide) produced by microscopicDMS (dimethyl sulfide) produced by microscopic organisms at the sea surface may act as a feedbackorganisms at the sea surface may act as a feedback mechanism to help control ocean surface temperaturesmechanism to help control ocean surface temperatures  Acid rain is produced by a mixture of industrial sulfatesAcid rain is produced by a mixture of industrial sulfates and moisture in the air and blocks solar radiation = coolingand moisture in the air and blocks solar radiation = cooling earth’s surfaceearth’s surface  Volcanic eruptions like Mount Pinatubo can cause globalVolcanic eruptions like Mount Pinatubo can cause global coolingcooling  Atmospheric feedback and cycles are complexAtmospheric feedback and cycles are complex
  25. 25. http://webpages.csus.edu/~bm884/http://webpages.csus.edu/~bm884/
  26. 26. Blue ManVideo on Global WarmingBlue ManVideo on Global Warming  http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=845344237787817544http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=845344237787817544
  27. 27. What causes the el nino effect?What causes the el nino effect?  Reverse flow of oceanic currents towards S. Am.Reverse flow of oceanic currents towards S. Am.  Occur every 3-7 yearsOccur every 3-7 years  May persist for 18 months or moreMay persist for 18 months or more  Walker circulation system usual atmospheric circulation patternWalker circulation system usual atmospheric circulation pattern  Sea surface 20 inches higher in Western Pacific oceanSea surface 20 inches higher in Western Pacific ocean  As wind drives away from S. Am.As wind drives away from S. Am.  Upwelling in oceans off S. Am and thus cold water E. EquatorialUpwelling in oceans off S. Am and thus cold water E. Equatorial Pacific OceanPacific Ocean
  28. 28. El NinoEl Nino  With El Nino trade winds weaken or even reverse =With El Nino trade winds weaken or even reverse = Southern OscillationSouthern Oscillation  Warm surface water that normally occupies W. EquatorialWarm surface water that normally occupies W. Equatorial Pacific moves towards the E. Equatorial Pacific over aPacific moves towards the E. Equatorial Pacific over a period of 2-3 monthsperiod of 2-3 months  Sea surface temperatures rise several degrees off S. Am.Sea surface temperatures rise several degrees off S. Am.  El Nino or Christ Child because occurs near ChristmasEl Nino or Christ Child because occurs near Christmas seasonseason
  29. 29. Lack ofTrade WindsLack ofTrade Winds
  30. 30. Consequences of El Nino:Consequences of El Nino:  Warmer than normal winters in N. Am. and CanadaWarmer than normal winters in N. Am. and Canada  E. United States and dry areas of Ecuador have high rainfallE. United States and dry areas of Ecuador have high rainfall  Indonesia, Australia, and Philippines experience droughtIndonesia, Australia, and Philippines experience drought  Less intense hurricane seasonLess intense hurricane season  1982-1983 El Nino estimated damages of $8 billion1982-1983 El Nino estimated damages of $8 billion  Led to study calledTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA)Led to study calledTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA)  Also 70 stationary buoys deployed in the internationalTropicalAlso 70 stationary buoys deployed in the internationalTropical AtmosphereAtmosphere
  31. 31. Strongest El Nino in 1997-1998Strongest El Nino in 1997-1998 where 8 degrees C above normalwhere 8 degrees C above normal  Peru usually 4-5 inches rain received 138 inches!Peru usually 4-5 inches rain received 138 inches!  Pacific NW and Midwest winters were mild that yearPacific NW and Midwest winters were mild that year  ENSO index is used for predicting events by:ENSO index is used for predicting events by:  Sea surface temperatureSea surface temperature  Sea-level pressureSea-level pressure  Surface air temperatureSurface air temperature  Trade windsTrade winds  CloudinessCloudiness  Allowed advance warning for 1997-1998 eventAllowed advance warning for 1997-1998 event
  32. 32. La NinaLa Nina  When sea surface temperatures drop below normal = LaWhen sea surface temperatures drop below normal = La NinaNina  2000-2001 La Nina event where decreased rain fall and2000-2001 La Nina event where decreased rain fall and snow in NWsnow in NW  Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) = cycle 17-26 yearsPacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) = cycle 17-26 years  Influence on sea surface temperatures when warm or coolInfluence on sea surface temperatures when warm or cool cycle occurscycle occurs
  33. 33. El nino vs. La ninaEl nino vs. La nina
  34. 34. How do the wind bands work?How do the wind bands work?  Wind is deflected to the right in the Northern H. and to the leftWind is deflected to the right in the Northern H. and to the left in the Southern H.in the Southern H.  Three convection cells in each Hemisphere representing warmThree convection cells in each Hemisphere representing warm air rising and cooling and sinking back down to the surface ofair rising and cooling and sinking back down to the surface of the earththe earth  Trade winds are between the 30 degrees N. and S. latitudesTrade winds are between the 30 degrees N. and S. latitudes  Westerlies between 30 and 60 degreesWesterlies between 30 and 60 degrees  Polar Easterlies 60 degrees and N. or S.Polar Easterlies 60 degrees and N. or S.
  35. 35. The Jet StreamThe Jet Stream  Where is this found and how does it have an affect on our weather?Where is this found and how does it have an affect on our weather?  Winds of the upper trophosphereWinds of the upper trophosphere  The polar jet stream between the polar easterlies and westerlies bestThe polar jet stream between the polar easterlies and westerlies best knownknown  Flows 180 miles an hr and can oscillate 1250 miles N. or S. as weatherFlows 180 miles an hr and can oscillate 1250 miles N. or S. as weather changeschanges  Oscillations are caused by strong high pressure systems to S. and lowOscillations are caused by strong high pressure systems to S. and low pressure systems to the N. Doldrums or Intertropical convergence zonepressure systems to the N. Doldrums or Intertropical convergence zone  Horse Latitudes = High pressure areas at 30 degrees N. and S.Horse Latitudes = High pressure areas at 30 degrees N. and S.
  36. 36. How will the land affect theHow will the land affect the winds?winds?  Create extreme temperature changes from night to day and summer to winterCreate extreme temperature changes from night to day and summer to winter  Indian Ocean as extreme exampleIndian Ocean as extreme example  Hot air from the land and moist air from the oceans create monsoonsHot air from the land and moist air from the oceans create monsoons  Cool dry air flows from the land in the winter months creating a dry seasonCool dry air flows from the land in the winter months creating a dry season  Next image shows day and night time temperatures can create breezes along aNext image shows day and night time temperatures can create breezes along a shorelineshoreline  Rainshadows are created as moist air from the oceans rise up as encounters warmRainshadows are created as moist air from the oceans rise up as encounters warm land and cools and then condenses creating rain on the windward side of mountainland and cools and then condenses creating rain on the windward side of mountain ranges (i.e. Olympic Rain Forest)ranges (i.e. Olympic Rain Forest)  Olympic Mountain Rain Forest as much as 200 inches of rain per year!Olympic Mountain Rain Forest as much as 200 inches of rain per year!
  37. 37. What creates fog?What creates fog?  When clouds are found close to the groundWhen clouds are found close to the ground  Advection Fog = warm water vapor moves over cold waterAdvection Fog = warm water vapor moves over cold water  Sea Smoke = cold dry air from land moves over warmer seaSea Smoke = cold dry air from land moves over warmer sea and creates ribbons of fogand creates ribbons of fog  Radiant Fog = warm days and cool nights and holdsRadiant Fog = warm days and cool nights and holds enough moisture during the day and condenses at nightenough moisture during the day and condenses at night (i.e. in valleys and bays especially)(i.e. in valleys and bays especially)
  38. 38. Sea FogSea Fog

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