Libraries in the Digital Age (LIDA) 2012
Zadar, Croatia, June 18, 2012

Synergies Between Research and Education in Digita...
What’s Hot,
What’s Not

•On Demand
Digital Library

•Involving &
Educating
Students
•Creating
digital library
jobs
•Lack o...
Digital Environment

“The future is digital…digitize and democratize.”

(Darnton, 2009)
The world’s libraries. Connected.
What is a Digital Library?

"Digital libraries are organizations
that provide the
resources, including the
specialized sta...
What is a Digital Library?

"Digital libraries are organized collections
of digital information. They combine
the structur...
What’s Hot

The world’s libraries. Connected.
Expand Our Concept of Research

FOUR KINDS OF EXPERTISE
• Domain (or subject) expertise

“Institutions and scholarly
socie...
Expand Our Concept of Research Data

CARING FOR DATA
• Test (skepticism)
• Correct, enhance, and integrate

“In fact, some...
Embrace Interdisciplinarity

CULTIVATING
INTERDISCIPLINARITY
• Organizational flexibility

“Today’s colleges and
universit...
Models for Sharing Credit

COLLABORATIVE CREDIT
SHARING

“…encourage
engagement…by noting and
appropriately rewarding thei...
On Demand Digital Libraries
ON DEMAND DIGITAL
LIBRARIES
• Brain Hive
“…rental service may not appeal
to schools that want ...
Involving and Educating Students

INVOLVING AND EDUCATING
STUDENTS

“Students have access to
materials that others have no...
Involving and Educating Students

“And of course, scholarship will
eventually be digital. Everything
is digital, and peopl...
Creating Digital Library Jobs

Associate Director for Digital
Library Programmes and
Information Technologies,
Bodleian Li...
What’s Not

The world’s libraries. Connected.
Lack of Funding for Educational Programs

"Unfortunately, education has
had little direct or organized
connection with any...
Lack of Funding for Educational Programs

“Faculty, staff, and students
need strong, reliable training
programs that corre...
Limitations to Adoption

LIMITATIONS TO ADOPTION
• Need evidence of benefits

“…confusion about the varying
requirements o...
Lack of Integration in Research and Practice

"Mostly, the existing rationale
for digital library education, if
offered at...
What’s Next?
• What is available in digital format?
• Who are the users?
• Who are we educating

• Archivists/curators
• L...
What’s Next?

• How do people discover the resources?
• Metadata
• Who creates?
• From whose perspective?
• Are the resour...
References
• Center for Primary Research Training. (2012, May 2). Center for primary research and
training opportunities. ...
References
• Lee, J. (2012). Brain Hive debuts on-demand digital library for schools. Betakit, (June 4).
Retrieved from ht...
Lynn Connaway, Ph.D.
connawal@oclc.org

Questions and
Discussion

The world’s libraries. Connected.
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Synergies between research and education in digital libraries: What’s hot, what’s not.

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  • Flames:http://www.flickr.com/photos/joehastings/408552223/Student: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jiscinfonet/2230315139/Wheels: Microsoft Clip ArtMoney: Microsoft Clip Art
  • Robert Darnton, Harvard University Library DirectorDarnton, R. (2009). On the ropes? Robert Darnton’s case for books. Publishers Weekly, 256(37), http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/print/20090914/451-on-the-ropes-robert-darnton-s-case-for-books-.html
  • Waters, D. J. (2007). What are digital libraries? In D. Kresh (Ed.), The whole digital library handbook (pp. 5-7). Chicago: American Library Association.
  • Lesk, M. (1997). Practical digital libraries: Books, bytes & bucks. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
  • 1. Expand our concept of researchTo realize the benefits of data-intensive social sciences and humanities, institutions and scholarly societies must expand their notions of what kinds of activities constitute research and reconsider how these activities are supported, assessed, and rewarded. Computationally intensive research projects rely upon four diverse kinds of expertise, each described in detail in section two of this report: domain (or subject) expertise, analytical expertise, data expertise, and project management expertise. The active engagement of each of these kinds of experts in the research enterprise is essential. A re-evaluation of hiring practices, job requirements, and tenets of promotion is requisite.For researchers:• Look for opportunities to develop expertise in areas beyond a single discipline, including other related disciplines, data management, data analysis, and project management.• Create opportunities for students to develop these kinds of expertise.Williford, C., & Henry, C. (2012). One culture: Computationally intensive research in the humanities and social studies: A report on the experiences of first respondents to the digging into data challenge. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources.
  • 2. Expand our concept of research data and accept the challenges that digital research data presentThe digital raw materials upon which today’s humanists and social scientists rely are every bit as heterogeneous, complex, and massive as “big data” in the sciences.1 Not only do humanists and social scientists work with big data, their research also produces large data corpora. In fact, some scholars engaged in computationally intensive research see the new data they create as their most significant research outcome. The academy risks losing valuable data unless someone takes steps to care for them in an intelligent manner; to test them with an appropriate degree of skepticism; and, where needed, to correct, enhance, and integrate them with other data in ways that make them meaningful, reliable, and useful to others.For administrators:• Commit to investing in the long-term management and preservation of data.• Create opportunities for humanities and social science faculty, adjunct faculty, staff, and students to develop skills in the management, analysis, and interpretation of these data.For research libraries:• Recruit and develop staff prepared to engage as active partners in computationally intensive research initiatives, particularly by offering expertise in data management, data analysis, or the management of collaborative projects.• Recruit and develop staff prepared to engage as active partners in computationally intensive research initiatives, particularly by offering expertise in data management, data analysis, or the management of collaborative projects.For funding agencies:• Acknowledge the high costs of curating reliable large-scale digital data sets for the humanities and social sciences and create incentives for researchers, institutions, and scholarly societies to accept responsibility for these costs.• Support robust, thoughtful approaches to computationally intensive research in the humanities and social sciences that incorporate disciplinary rigor as well as sound data management, analytical, and project management practices.Williford, C., & Henry, C. (2012). One culture: Computationally intensive research in the humanities and social studies: A report on the experiences of first respondents to the digging into data challenge. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources.
  • 3. Embrace interdisciplinarityThe scholars participating in the first eight Digging into Data projects are active members of multiple academic communities that cross traditionally bounded fields. Their need to work across disciplines mirrors a larger need for organizational flexibility and possible restructuring of institutions of higher learning to promote successful working partnerships between differently trained scholars and academic professionals. Interdisciplinary collaboration benefits not only researchers but also students. Today’s colleges and universities must equip studentswith skills appropriate for a rapidly changing and diverse workforce: the intellectual flexibility that an interdisciplinary perspective cultivates is an excellent foundation for developing these skills.4. Take a more inclusive approach to collaborationAs the subjects of this report attest, humanists and social scientists engaged in computationally intensive work benefit intellectually and professionally from sustained collaborations with others outside their academic departments and institutions. Library, information technology (IT), and other academic staff; graduate and postdoctoral fellows; undergraduates; and even citizen scholars have roles to play in such research projects. These roles need to be articulated and supported. Section three of this report explores this challenge and other challenges arising from collaborative, multidisciplinary research.For researchers: Be willing to collaborate both within and outside your discipline, particularly in cases where researchers in other disciplines use similar methodologies.• Be willing to collaborate both within and outside your institution.For research libraries:• Encourage cross-disciplinary engagement among researchers and students at your library, such as through public programs or workshops related to data-intensive research tools.For funding agencies:• Encourage cross-disciplinary and multi-institutional research initiatives that take advantage of academic professionals’ and institutions’ complementary strengths.Williford, C., & Henry, C. (2012). One culture: Computationally intensive research in the humanities and social studies: A report on the experiences of first respondents to the digging into data challenge. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources.
  • 6. Adopt models for sharing credit among collaboratorsInstitutions of higher learning can more forcefully encourage engagement across disciplinary, institutional, and professional divides by noting and appropriately rewarding their faculty, staff, and students for making substantial contributions to collaborative efforts. Few large-scale digital projects can succeed if individual researchers remain solely responsible for them. If collaborative credit sharing enhances, rather than detracts from, the assessment of an individual’s work, more scholars will be willing to work collaboratively, and, ultimately, both the quality and the long-term impact of digital projects in the humanities and social sciences will grow.For researchers:• Be willing to share credit for collaborative work and to recognize others’ collaborative efforts.For administrators: • Offer incentives for engagement in collaborative research initiatives.• Develop models for the assessment of collaborative work.Williford, C., & Henry, C. (2012). One culture: Computationally intensive research in the humanities and social studies: A report on the experiences of first respondents to the digging into data challenge. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources.
  • “Today [June 4, 2012], Minneapolis-based educational startup Brain Hive announced that it will be launching its on-demand ebook rental service for K-12 schools in fall 2012. The service aims to help schools supplement their library’s collections with a digital collection of more than 3,000 books, graphic novels, and non-fiction ebooks, which will be available for students to rent on ereaders, computers and tablets. The cost is $1 per rental, and the on-demand platform is being tested in 20 U.S. schools prior to an August launch.Schools register online for free, and set their preferences in terms of grade level and age group, either elementary, middle or high school. The administrator can then set a monthly or annual budget, and set certain ebook privileges for their students, for example the maximum number of books a student can check out at one time. The system can be integrated with a library’s existing catalog, and librarians can customize the collection around interests or curriculum. After students start checking out books, administrators get access to metrics so they can see what books and genres are popular amongst the students. ”The biggest holdup to having the high adoption of ebooks has been accessibility to the content and affordability. Lee, J. (2012). Brain Hive debuts on-demand digital library for schools. Betakit, (June 4). Retrieved from http://betakit.com/2012/06/04/brain-hive-debuts-on-demand-digital-library-for-schools8. Re-envision scholarly publicationInstitutions, scholarly societies, libraries, and funding agencies are all positioned to expand the range of available publication outlets for scholars. Many meaningful outcomes of computationally intensive research, such as data-rich visualizations, cannot be distilled into conference presentations, journal articles, or monographs. Taking advantage of current web technologies, leaders in the academic sector can create new models for publication that incorporate rigorous review processes while at the same time inviting diverse data-rich and multimedia contributions to the academic record.Williford, C., & Henry, C. (2012). One culture: Computationally intensive research in the humanities and social studies: A report on the experiences of first respondents to the digging into data challenge. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources.
  • Center for Primary Research and Training Research OpportunitiesThe UCLA Library created the Center for Primary Research and Training to integrate special collections materials more fully into the teaching and research mission of the university. The center provides a substantive educational experience for graduate students by training them in archival methods, while simultaneously making accessible lesser-known collections through the creation of finding aids, or guides. It was launched with a generous lead gift from the Ahmanson Foundation. Recognizing that many faculty in the social sciences, humanities, and visual arts want to give their students experience with primary sources and that many graduate students are looking for original subjects for theses and dissertations, the center pairs students with unprocessed or under-processed collections in their areas of interest. Students have access to materials that others have not yet fully investigated, and their training in archival organization and description results in making those collections more accessible to other researchers. They are compensated at a rate competitive with similar on-campus employment options such as teaching and research assistantships. What the Center Doesenables students to conduct research using the immensely rich holdings of UCLA Library Special collections, perhaps relieving them of the financial burden of conducting research elsewhere encourages broader and more innovative uses of original sources at UCLA encourages feedback from doctoral candidates and their faculty committees that will help the UCLA Library understand how scholarly resources can be developed for optimal use in the future promotes special collections as fundamental to UCLA's mission by emphasizing that scholarly research ultimately depends on the availability of primary sources enhances access to collections and backlogs, thus surfacing "hidden collections" and making holdings more visible online, following established standards for what constitutes adequate access utilizes the energy, ambition, and subject knowledge of students to fill gaps in expertise on the part of full-time staff, which is particularly important in an era of reduced staffing better informs UCLA administrators and faculty as well as members of the wider community about special collections holdings and the obligations and responsibilities an institution assumes when it undertakes stewardship of special collections materials Center for Primary Research Training. (2012, May 2). Center for primary research and training opportunities. Retrieved from UCLA Library: Department of Special Collections web site: http://www.library.ucla.edu/specialcollections/researchlibrary/9613.cfm
  • These are some insights offered by Visualizing Emancipation, the latest digital-humanities project from the Digital Scholarship Lab at the University of Richmond. Mr. Ayers, who is a senior research fellow at the lab, worked with Scott Nesbit, an associate director there, to create an interactive timeline chronicling what Mr. Ayers says is “the migration of four million people across an area the size of continental Europe.” After receiving a $48,155 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities in 2010, the pair, along with a team of graduate and undergraduate students, started combing through primary texts to digitally map every instance of “emancipation events,” as indicated by runaway slave notices or articles about returned slaves.The result is a detailed map that combines those emancipation events, troop locations, and instances of African-Americans helping the Union, among other details.The undergraduates who contributed to the project—about a dozen in all—were crucial to the map’s success, said Mr. Nesbit, who believes that those data visualizations represent new opportunities for undergraduate humanities research.“The thing that excites me is the way the undergraduates are able to manage these very small tasks of interpretation,” Mr. Nesbit said. “If we framed the data correctly and gave these students a coherent enough chunk of text, they can understand a very small part of the world in ways that are new to scholarship.”Chen, A. (2012). Interactive map traces slaves’ path to emancipation. The Chronicle of Higher Education, (2012, June 12). Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/interactive-map-traces-slaves-path-to-emancipation/36729?sid=wc&utm_source=wc&utm_medium=en
  • Now, these are different posts in different institutions but there is the common ground that you might expect as research libraries look at creating digital infrastructure, engage with research data needs, explore new modes of scholarly communication, and so on. Each is challenging and interesting and offers a wonderful opportunity to be centrally involved in advancing how libraries support changing research and learning practices.However, I was struck by something else they have in common. Responsibility for the integrated library system (or library management system) appears to be a part of each post, yet it is not foregrounded in the position description. For these libraries, maybe, the ILS is a necessary part of doing business, but is not the site of major development. Designing and developing digital infrastructure now includes the ILS but is no longer led by it. Or maybe there is some other reason .... ?9. Make greater, sustained institutional investments in human infrastructure and cyberinfrastructureComputationally intensive research demands a sustainable, redundant network for the preservation of information, as well as trained research professionals to manage this network intelligently. The network’s infrastructure should facilitate sophisticated knowledge management and extraction for both anticipated and unanticipated future research. Gateways into that infrastructure will need continual refinement. With investments in innovation and the refinement of user tools, researchers will be able to engage a broader public in their work. Maintaining a digital infrastructure in which collaborative research can flourish will require major commitments from individuals, institutions, governments, and other funders of higher education.It is time for each of these stakeholders to make these commitments.Dempsey, L. (2011, August 17). The ILS, the digital library and the research library [Web log]. Retrieved from http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/002188.html
  • “The impetus for explosive growth of activities associated with digital libraries came from two sides: a wide recognition of the enumerated social and technical trends and associated problems, and more importantly, availability of substantial funding to address the problems. The amount of funding for digital libraries in the last decade is hard to establish, however, it is in the range of several $100 millions internationally” (Saracevic & Dalbello, 2001, p. 3). “Unfortunately, education has had little direct or organized connection with any of these rapid and substantive developments. There was little or no funding for education in digital libraries, as related to any of the multitude of the diverse activities.  True, a number of research leaders in digital libraries have also been connected with some or other course in digital libraries, but the whole connection is sporadic rather than organized and systematic. Overall, education is not a leader by any stretch of imagination, but a follower in digital libraries.” (Saracevic & Dalbello, 2001, p. 4).  Saracevic, T., & Dalbello, M. (2001). A survey of digital library education. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 38, 209-223.
  • 5. Address major gaps in trainingThe complexity of digital research requires an ongoing commitment to professional development in order to maintain expertise in rapidly accruing resources and tools. Faculty, staff, and students need strong, reliable training programs that correlate sound methodological strategies with appropriate new technologies.7. Adopt models for sharing resources among institutionsThe level of investment required to support computationally intensive research is large and growing. It makes no sense to replicate resources, skills, and services at all colleges and universities. Instead, institutions have an opportunity to establish explicit, long-term agreements to work with one another for mutual benefit. There will be serious challenges to overcome—including maintaining appropriate controls over network security, data privacy, and intellectual property—but these challenges must be met to sustain digital researchefficiently and affordably.For administrators:• Develop partnerships with institutions with complementary strengths.• Adopt clear policies for sharing hardware, software, and data resources among on- and off-campus researchers that maximize openness yet protect privacy and intellectual property.For research libraries:• Establish partnerships with other institutions to promote the longterm preservation of and access to scholarly publications and the digital data upon which they rely.For funding agencies: • Support training and professional development opportunities related to computationally intensive research for students, staff, and faculty.Williford, C., & Henry, C. (2012). One culture: Computationally intensive research in the humanities and social studies: A report on the experiences of first respondents to the digging into data challenge. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources.
  • Most of the project managers believed that scholars in the science disciplines were more apt to already be using some type of digital repository and VRE systems. They believed those in other disciplines were less inclined to be involved in these activities. They needed more encouragement and evidence that involvement will benefit them.There were several major themes expressed. The scholars’ attitudes toward adoption and integration of VREs and digital repositories into their workflows will likely vary by isciplineand years of experience.Ease of use and the need to embed the systems into the scholars’ workflows are critical, yet can be difficult to accomplish. The scholars were reluctant to use new technologies not because they were not interested in these new technologies, but because it would take time to learn the new systems and processes. The scholars stated they did not have the time to input data and materials into the systems. The scholars expressed concerns about privacy and limiting the data that are shared. One of the digital repository project managers stated, “The concept of a safe environment as far as security on the web was an issue. If we were going to set up a social network, we would need to create a safe environment, which was very important to the researchers.”Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). Towards a profile of the researcher of today: What can we learn from JISC projects? Common themes identified in an analysis of JISC Virtual Research Environment and Digital Repository Projects. Retrieved fromhttp://ie-repository.jisc.ac.uk/418/2/VirtualScholar_themesFromProjects_revised.pdf
  • “Different perspectives about digital libraries, together with competing visions and associated definitions, come from several communities that are involved in digital library work. We are concentrating here on two communities: research and practice. While they work and proceed independently of each other, they can be considered on two ends of a spectrum, which as yet have not met in the middle. To use another metaphor: the research and practice communities are in the same planetary system, but one is on Mars, the other on Venus. The research community grounded mostly in computer science, on one end of the spectrum, asks research questions directed toward future vision or visions of digital libraries, or rather of their various technology oriented aspects and components, unrestricted by practice. On the other end of the spectrum, the practice community, grounded mostly in librarianship and information science, asks developmental, operational, and use questions in real-life economic and institutional contexts, restrictions, and possibilities, concentrating on applications on the use end of the spectrum” (Saracevic & Dabello, 2001, p. 4).Saracevic, T., & Dalbello, M. (2001). A survey of digital library education. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 38, 209-223.
  • Archive Grid: pointers to data
  • Archive Grid: pointers to data
  • Synergies between research and education in digital libraries: What’s hot, what’s not.

    1. 1. Libraries in the Digital Age (LIDA) 2012 Zadar, Croatia, June 18, 2012 Synergies Between Research and Education in Digital Libraries What’s Hot, What’s Not Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist OCLC The world’s libraries. Connected.
    2. 2. What’s Hot, What’s Not •On Demand Digital Library •Involving & Educating Students •Creating digital library jobs •Lack of funding •Little integration The world’s libraries. Connected.
    3. 3. Digital Environment “The future is digital…digitize and democratize.” (Darnton, 2009) The world’s libraries. Connected.
    4. 4. What is a Digital Library? "Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities." (Waters, 2007, 5) The world’s libraries. Connected.
    5. 5. What is a Digital Library? "Digital libraries are organized collections of digital information. They combine the structuring and gathering of information, which libraries and archives have always done, with the digital representation that computers have made possible. Digital information can be accessed rapidly around the world, copied for preservation without error, stored compactly, and searched very quickly. No conventional back-of-the-book index compares with the text search engines we now have." (Lesk, 1997, xix) The world’s libraries. Connected.
    6. 6. What’s Hot The world’s libraries. Connected.
    7. 7. Expand Our Concept of Research FOUR KINDS OF EXPERTISE • Domain (or subject) expertise “Institutions and scholarly societies must expand their notions of what kinds of activities constitute research and reconsider how these activities are supported, assessed, and rewarded.” (WILLIFORD & HENRY, 2012, 2) RE-EVALUATE The world’s libraries. Connected. • Analytical expertise • Data expertise • Project management expertise Expertise
    8. 8. Expand Our Concept of Research Data CARING FOR DATA • Test (skepticism) • Correct, enhance, and integrate “In fact, some scholars…see the new data they create as their most significant research outcome.” • Make the data meaningful, reliable, and useful (WILLIFORD & HENRY, 2012, 3) Caring for data BIG DATA The world’s libraries. Connected.
    9. 9. Embrace Interdisciplinarity CULTIVATING INTERDISCIPLINARITY • Organizational flexibility “Today’s colleges and universities must equip students with skills appropriate for a rapidly changing and diverse workforce…” • Intellectual flexibility • Sustained collaboration (WILLIFORD & HENRY, 2012, 3) Interdisciplinarity PERSPECTIVE The world’s libraries. Connected.
    10. 10. Models for Sharing Credit COLLABORATIVE CREDIT SHARING “…encourage engagement…by noting and appropriately rewarding their faculty, staff, and students for making substanial contributions to collaborative efforts.” (WILLIFORD & HENRY, 2012, 3) ENCOURAGEMENT The world’s libraries. Connected. • Enhances assessment of work • Quality and impact of digital projects will grow Credit Sharing
    11. 11. On Demand Digital Libraries ON DEMAND DIGITAL LIBRARIES • Brain Hive “…rental service may not appeal to schools that want to own their collections and pay a one-time fee for their books. A Netflix for books, all-you-can-eat subscription service would likely resonate much better with educational institutions, but that could be difficult to arrange in terms of licensing agreements with publishers.” (LEE, 2012) WHAT MAY BE NOT-SO-HOT The world’s libraries. Connected. • Rental service for K-12 schools • School pays $1/rental • Helps libraries make digital shift to e-books • New publishing models On Demand Digital Library
    12. 12. Involving and Educating Students INVOLVING AND EDUCATING STUDENTS “Students have access to materials that others have not yet fully investigated, and their training in archival organization and description results in making those collections more accessible to other researchers.” (CENTER FOR PRIMARY RESEARCH TRAINING, 2012) IT’S A WIN-WIN SITUATION The world’s libraries. Connected. • UCLA Library’s Center for Primary Research and Training • Archival methods training • Students paired with underprocessed collections • Cost effective • Provides feedback • Makes collections more accessible Involving and Educating Students
    13. 13. Involving and Educating Students “And of course, scholarship will eventually be digital. Everything is digital, and people will be working from the ground up imagining how to explain the things people are fascinated by. That’s what is exciting for me about the field. I’m just trying to keep it warm until the young people come along; for them, this is their native language.” (CHEN, 2012) MILLENNIALS TAKE OVER The world’s libraries. Connected. INVOLVING AND EDUCATING STUDENTS • University of Richmond’s Digital Scholarship Lab • Visualizing Emancipation • Team of grad & undergrad students • Primary texts • Digitally map events • New opportunities for undergraduate research Involving and Educating Students
    14. 14. Creating Digital Library Jobs Associate Director for Digital Library Programmes and Information Technologies, Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford Associate Vice President for Digital Programs and Technology Services Columbia University Libraries/Information Services Head of Digital Library CREATING DIGITAL LIBRARY JOBS • Create digital infrastructure • Engage with research data needs • Explore new modes of scholarly communication • Keep up with changing research and learning practices Information Services, The University of Edinburgh (DEMPSEY, 2011) THE JOBS ARE OUT THERE The world’s libraries. Connected. Creating Digital Library Jobs
    15. 15. What’s Not The world’s libraries. Connected.
    16. 16. Lack of Funding for Educational Programs "Unfortunately, education has had little direct or organized connection with any of these rapid and substantive developments. There was little or no funding for education in digital libraries, as related to any of the multitude of the diverse activities.” LACK OF FUNDING • Substantive funding for research in digital libraries • Little funding set aside for educational programs • Education is far behind research and practice (SARACEVIC & DALBELLO, 2001) Lack of funding EDUCATION IN LAST PLACE The world’s libraries. Connected.
    17. 17. Lack of Funding for Educational Programs “Faculty, staff, and students need strong, reliable training programs that correlate sound methodological strategies with appropriate new technologies.” LACK OF FUNDING • Resources and tools change rapidly • Research a big investment • Adopt models for resource sharing • Share resources, skills, & services ( WILLIFORD & HENRY, 2012, 3) Lack of funding ONGOING COMMITMENT TO EDUCATION The world’s libraries. Connected.
    18. 18. Limitations to Adoption LIMITATIONS TO ADOPTION • Need evidence of benefits “…confusion about the varying requirements of data security between social scientist and sciences. Social science researchers need processing of private or constrained data.” (CONNAWAY & DICKEY, 2010, 5) • Attitudes toward adoption vary • Discipline & Years of Experience • Reluctant to use new technologies • Time consuming to learn • Do not know they exist • Concern about privacy & desire to limit shared data Limitations To Adoption ADVOCACY The world’s libraries. Connected.
    19. 19. Lack of Integration in Research and Practice "Mostly, the existing rationale for digital library education, if offered at all, is reactive, meaning that education reacts with a time lag to both research and practical developments in digital libraries.” LACK OF INTEGRATION • Research, practice & education differ • Research • Based in computer science • Future-thinking • Practice • Operational libraries • Present-thinking • Little research involved • Diverse • Education • Lag behind both practice and research • Concepts taught vary greatly (SARACEVIC & DALBELLO, 2001) Lack of integration THEY DON’T MEET IN THE MIDDLE…YET. The world’s libraries. Connected.
    20. 20. What’s Next? • What is available in digital format? • Who are the users? • Who are we educating • Archivists/curators • Librarians • Computer scientists • How do we integrate resources & encourage the different user groups to interact & support each others’ needs? • Data reuse The world’s libraries. Connected.
    21. 21. What’s Next? • How do people discover the resources? • Metadata • Who creates? • From whose perspective? • Are the resources accessible? • Limited to specific campuses, organizations, or institutions? The world’s libraries. Connected.
    22. 22. References • Center for Primary Research Training. (2012, May 2). Center for primary research and training opportunities. Retrieved from UCLA Library: Department of Special Collections web site: http://www.library.ucla.edu/specialcollections/researchlibrary/9613.cfm • Chen, A. (2012). Interactive map traces slaves’ path to emancipation. The Chronicle of Higher Education, (2012, June 12). Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/interactive-map-traces-slaves-path-toemancipation/36729?sid=wc&utm_source=wc&utm_medium=en • Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). Towards a profile of the researcher of today: What can we learn from JISC projects? Common themes identified in an analysis of JISC Virtual Research Environment and Digital Repository Projects. Retrieved from http://ierepository.jisc.ac.uk/418/2/VirtualScholar_themesFromProjects_revised.pdf • Darnton, R. (2009). On the ropes? Robert Darnton’s case for books. Publishers Weekly, 256(37), http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/print/20090914/451-on-the-ropesrobert-darnton-s-case-for-books-.html • Dempsey, L. (2011, August 17). The ILS, the digital library and the research library [Web log]. Retrieved from http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/002188.html The world’s libraries. Connected.
    23. 23. References • Lee, J. (2012). Brain Hive debuts on-demand digital library for schools. Betakit, (June 4). Retrieved from http://betakit.com/2012/06/04/brain-hive-debuts-on-demand-digital-libraryfor-schools • Lesk, M. (1997). Practical digital libraries: Books, bytes & bucks. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. • Saracevic, T., & Dalbello, M. (2001). A survey of digital library education. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 38, 209-223. • Waters, D. J. (2007). What are digital libraries? In D. Kresh (Ed.), The whole digital library handbook (pp. 5-7). Chicago: American Library Association. • Williford, C., & Henry, C. (2012). One culture: Computationally intensive research in the humanities and social studies: A report on the experiences of first respondents to the digging into data challenge. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources. The world’s libraries. Connected.
    24. 24. Lynn Connaway, Ph.D. connawal@oclc.org Questions and Discussion The world’s libraries. Connected.
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