Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D.
Senior Research Scientist
OCLC
Chair of Excellence
Departmento de Biblioteconomía y Documen...
Partners
• JISC (UK funding body)
• OCLC
• Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D.
• Erin M. Hood, M.L.I.S.
• Carrie Vass, M.S.
• O...
Video: http://is.gd/vanrvideo
First Monday Paper: http://is.gd/vandrpaper
(White & Connaway, 2011)
Visitors & Residents
(White & Connaway, 2011-2014)
Resident Mode
• Visible and persistent
online presence
• Collaborative activity
online
• Contribute online
• Internet is a...
Visitor Mode
• Functional use of
technology
• Formal need
• Invisible online
presence
• Internet is a toolbox
Project Phases
Phase 1
• Interviewed 31 (16 US/15 UK)
Emerging educational stage
individuals
Phase 2
• Interviewed
• 10 (5...
Project Phases, cont.
Phase 3
• Interviewed second
group of 12 students in
the Emerging stage
Phase 4
• In-depth survey
• ...
Participants
Phases 1-3
• Total of 73 participants (36 UK, 37 US)
• 43 Emerging (21 UK, 22 US)
• 10 Establishing (5 UK, 5 ...
Participants
• Age
• 12-18 years old 26
• 19-25 years old 25
• 26-34 years old 6
• 35-44 years old 5
• 45-54 years old 8
•...
Participants
• Discipline Type
• High School 21
• Sciences 22
• Arts/Humanities 12
• Social Sciences 16
• Undeclared 2
Participant Interview Questions
1. Describe the things you
enjoy doing with
technology and the web
each week.
2. Think of ...
Participant Interview Questions
4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you
needed answers or solutions and you ...
Diarists
14
Phases 1-4
• 20 participants (8 UK, 12 US)
• 15 Emerging (7 UK, 8 US)
• 3 Establishing (1 UK, 2 US)
• 1 Embedd...
Example:
Digital Visitors & Residents Diaries
(White & Connaway, 2011-2014)
Codebook
I. Place
A. Internet
1. Search engine
a. Google
b. Yahoo
2. Social Media
a. FaceBook
b. Twitter
c. You Tube
d. Fl...
(Connaway & White for OCLC Research, 2012)
Digital Sources and Educational Stages
81%, 35
90%, 9
70%, 7
50%, 5
28%, 12
60%, 6
70%, 7
40%, 4
33%, 14
30%, 3
20%, 2
10%...
“I think, it's [Wikipedia’s] quite good for
broadening knowledge if you don't know much
about a subject, gives you ideas.”...
“It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they
just all say – you know, when they explain the
paper they always say, ‘...
“So BBC iPlayer and 4 id and stuff like that. You
know, to catch up on programmes, and
obviously we are using YouTube…”
(D...
“Like, if two of them say the same thing then that
must be right.”
(Digital Visitors and Residents, USS4, Male, Age 17, Hi...
Convenience
(Connaway, Lanclos, & Hood 2013)
Convenience trumps all other reasons for selecting and using a source
“It’s [Google’s] convenience. It’s the immediacy of
it.”
(Digital Visitors and Residents, UKF3, Male, Age 52, Artist & Tec...
Contact and Educational Stages
(Connaway, Lanclos, and Hood, 2013)
60%, 26
100%, 10 100%, 10 100%, 10
84%, 36
80%, 8
70%, ...
“But I could probably not live without the
computer and, you know, the internet. Because,
work, and the emails.”
(Digital ...
Human Sources and Educational Stages
58%, 25
50%, 5
40%, 4
10%, 1
49%, 21
50%, 5
40%, 4
10%, 1
53%, 23
50%, 5
30%, 3
20%, ...
Human Sources and Educational Stages
12%, 5
0%, 0
10%, 1
20%, 2
51%, 22
60%, 6
40%, 4
50%, 5
86%, 37
90%, 9
60%, 6
20%, 2
...
Place (Type of Library) and Educational Stage
60%, 26 60%, 6
90%, 9
50%, 5
12%, 5 10%, 1 0%, 0 0%, 0
14%, 6
10%, 1
0%, 0 0...
“…library catalogues that’s supposed to be a
really good way for looking for books but
usually they are so bad that you ar...
“And so like my parents will always go, ‘Well look it
up in a book, go to the library.’ And I’ll go, ‘Well
there’s the int...
“This year I don’t think I have ever picked up a book
out of the library to do any research, all I have used
is my compute...
“And since a lot of my academic work is done at
night, later hours, it’s much more convenient to do
so within the home rat...
Place and Educational Stages
95%, 41
100%, 10 100%, 10
90%, 9
21%, 9
50% 50%, 5
70%, 7
33%, 14 50%, 5
30%, 3
40%, 4
0%
20%...
“I don’t use Twitter, partially because a lot of my
friends – there’s a certain negative connotation with
Twitter that it’...
“…[on YouTube] you can see people writing
out the solutions themselves or doing the
working out so you follow it step by s...
Motivation and Educational Stages
23%, 10
20%, 2
50%, 5
10%, 1
44%, 19
80%, 8 80%, 8
60%, 6
44%, 19
50%, 5
40%, 4
40%, 4
0...
“Last semester I was writing a paper on Brazil and there was
a book in the library that I just did not want to leave my ho...
“Ironically, I have a paper calendar. I do this because
I find it very useful to actually have to write rather
than type o...
“I use Facebook for organizing my life basically, with
friends and stuff. ...I also use that in education to
talk to my fr...
What Can We Change?
• Improved OPACs
• Community as content
• Full text, online accessible
• Seamless discovery to
deliver...
Community is Content
• Social networks formed around social objects
• Music, photos, videos, links
• Reviewing
• Tagging
•...
What Can We Do?
• Advertise resources,
brand, & value
• Provide search help at
time of need
• Chat & IM
• Mobile technolog...
infoKit
What is it?
• Contains advice on evaluating digital/online
services within the broader context of traditional
serv...
©2014 OCLC. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Suggested attribution:
“This ...
Discussion & Questions
References
Case, D. O. (2012). Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior. ...
References
Prensky, M. (2001a). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved from
http://www.marcp...
“But Wikipedia is always right, so I always use that.” Implications for Library Services Modeled on the Digital Visitors a...
“But Wikipedia is always right, so I always use that.” Implications for Library Services Modeled on the Digital Visitors a...
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“But Wikipedia is always right, so I always use that.” Implications for Library Services Modeled on the Digital Visitors and Residents Continuum

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Presented the Chair of Excellence Open Lecture at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departmento de Biblioteconomía y Documentación, May 16, 2014, Madrid, Spain.

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“But Wikipedia is always right, so I always use that.” Implications for Library Services Modeled on the Digital Visitors and Residents Continuum

  1. 1. Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist OCLC Chair of Excellence Departmento de Biblioteconomía y Documentación Universidad Carlos III de Madrid @LynnConnaway connawal@oclc.org 16 May 2014 Chair of Excellence, UC3M, Madrid, Spain “But Wikipedia is always right, so I always use that.” Implications for Library Services Modeled on the Digital Visitors and Residents Continuum
  2. 2. Partners • JISC (UK funding body) • OCLC • Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. • Erin M. Hood, M.L.I.S. • Carrie Vass, M.S. • Oxford University • David White • University of North Carolina, Charlotte • Donna Lanclos, Ph.D. Visitors and Residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment?
  3. 3. Video: http://is.gd/vanrvideo First Monday Paper: http://is.gd/vandrpaper (White & Connaway, 2011)
  4. 4. Visitors & Residents (White & Connaway, 2011-2014)
  5. 5. Resident Mode • Visible and persistent online presence • Collaborative activity online • Contribute online • Internet is a place
  6. 6. Visitor Mode • Functional use of technology • Formal need • Invisible online presence • Internet is a toolbox
  7. 7. Project Phases Phase 1 • Interviewed 31 (16 US/15 UK) Emerging educational stage individuals Phase 2 • Interviewed • 10 (5 US/5 UK) Establishing • 10 (5 US/5 UK) Embedding • 10 (5 US/5 UK) Experienced • Some Phase 1 participants agreed to submit monthly diaries
  8. 8. Project Phases, cont. Phase 3 • Interviewed second group of 12 students in the Emerging stage Phase 4 • In-depth survey • 50 participants from each educational stage in both US & UK • Code, analyze, & compare data 4
  9. 9. Participants Phases 1-3 • Total of 73 participants (36 UK, 37 US) • 43 Emerging (21 UK, 22 US) • 10 Establishing (5 UK, 5 US) • 10 Embedding (5 UK, 5 US) • 10 Experiencing (5 UK, 5 US) • Gender • Female 39 • Male 34 9
  10. 10. Participants • Age • 12-18 years old 26 • 19-25 years old 25 • 26-34 years old 6 • 35-44 years old 5 • 45-54 years old 8 • 55-64 years old 3 • Ethnicity • African American 5 • Caucasian 41 • Multi-racial 2 • Asian 1 • Hispanic 3 • Undeclared 21 10
  11. 11. Participants • Discipline Type • High School 21 • Sciences 22 • Arts/Humanities 12 • Social Sciences 16 • Undeclared 2
  12. 12. Participant Interview Questions 1. Describe the things you enjoy doing with technology and the web each week. 2. Think of the ways you have used technology and the web for your studies. Describe a typical week. 3. Think about the next stage of your education. Tell me what you think this will be like.
  13. 13. Participant Interview Questions 4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed answers or solutions and you did a quick search and made do with it. You knew there were other sources but you decided not to use them. Please include sources such as friends, family, teachers, coaches, etc. 5. Have there been times when you were told to use a library or virtual learning environment (or learning platform), and used other source(s) instead? 6. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal way of getting information be? How would you go about using the systems and services? When? Where? How? (Dervin, Connaway, & Prabha, 2003-2006) (Radford & Connaway, 2005-2007)
  14. 14. Diarists 14 Phases 1-4 • 20 participants (8 UK, 12 US) • 15 Emerging (7 UK, 8 US) • 3 Establishing (1 UK, 2 US) • 1 Embedding (1 US) • 1 Experiencing (1 US)
  15. 15. Example: Digital Visitors & Residents Diaries (White & Connaway, 2011-2014)
  16. 16. Codebook I. Place A. Internet 1. Search engine a. Google b. Yahoo 2. Social Media a. FaceBook b. Twitter c. You Tube d. Flickr/image sharing e. Blogging B. Library 1. Academic 2. Public 3. School (K-12) C. Home D. School, classroom, computer lab E. Other (White & Connaway, 2011-2014)
  17. 17. (Connaway & White for OCLC Research, 2012)
  18. 18. Digital Sources and Educational Stages 81%, 35 90%, 9 70%, 7 50%, 5 28%, 12 60%, 6 70%, 7 40%, 4 33%, 14 30%, 3 20%, 2 10%, 1 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Emerging (n=43) Establishing (n=10) Embedding (n=10) Experiencing (n=10) Wikipedia Major Media Sites iPlayer
  19. 19. “I think, it's [Wikipedia’s] quite good for broadening knowledge if you don't know much about a subject, gives you ideas.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, 2UKU1, Female, Age 19, Geography)
  20. 20. “It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, ‘Don’t use Wikipedia.’” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USU7, Female, Age 19, Political Science) The Learning Black Market
  21. 21. “So BBC iPlayer and 4 id and stuff like that. You know, to catch up on programmes, and obviously we are using YouTube…” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKS4, Female, Age 17, Secondary Student) 24
  22. 22. “Like, if two of them say the same thing then that must be right.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USS4, Male, Age 17, High School Student) Determining Credibility and Authority
  23. 23. Convenience (Connaway, Lanclos, & Hood 2013) Convenience trumps all other reasons for selecting and using a source
  24. 24. “It’s [Google’s] convenience. It’s the immediacy of it.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKF3, Male, Age 52, Artist & Technical Support)
  25. 25. Contact and Educational Stages (Connaway, Lanclos, and Hood, 2013) 60%, 26 100%, 10 100%, 10 100%, 10 84%, 36 80%, 8 70%, 7 50%, 5 77%, 33 90%, 9 70%, 7 70%, 7 60%, 26 60%, 6 40%, 4 70%, 7 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Emerging (n=43) Establishing (n=10) Embedding (n=10) Experiencing (n=10) Email Texting Phone Calls Face-to-Face
  26. 26. “But I could probably not live without the computer and, you know, the internet. Because, work, and the emails.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USU2, Female, Age 19, Engineering)
  27. 27. Human Sources and Educational Stages 58%, 25 50%, 5 40%, 4 10%, 1 49%, 21 50%, 5 40%, 4 10%, 1 53%, 23 50%, 5 30%, 3 20%, 2 77%, 33 70%, 7 40%, 4 40%, 4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Emerging (n=43) Establishing (n=10) Embedding (n=10) Experiencing (n=10) Mother Father Extended Family Friends, Colleagues
  28. 28. Human Sources and Educational Stages 12%, 5 0%, 0 10%, 1 20%, 2 51%, 22 60%, 6 40%, 4 50%, 5 86%, 37 90%, 9 60%, 6 20%, 2 30%, 13 20%, 2 30%, 3 20%, 2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Emerging (n=43) Establishing (n=10) Embedding (n=10) Experiencing (n=10) Librarians Peers Teachers, Professors Experts, Professionals
  29. 29. Place (Type of Library) and Educational Stage 60%, 26 60%, 6 90%, 9 50%, 5 12%, 5 10%, 1 0%, 0 0%, 0 14%, 6 10%, 1 0%, 0 0%, 0 28%, 12 40%, 4 60%, 6 40%, 4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Emerging (n=43) Establishing (n=10) Embedding (n=10) Experiencing (n=10) Academic Public School (K- 12) Library (General)
  30. 30. “…library catalogues that’s supposed to be a really good way for looking for books but usually they are so bad that you are sort of stuck between the two worlds...” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKG5, Female, Age 25, Early Modern History)
  31. 31. “And so like my parents will always go, ‘Well look it up in a book, go to the library.’ And I’ll go, ‘Well there’s the internet just there.’” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKU5, Emerging, Female, Age 19, Chemistry)
  32. 32. “This year I don’t think I have ever picked up a book out of the library to do any research, all I have used is my computer.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USU1, Female, Age 19, Undeclared)
  33. 33. “And since a lot of my academic work is done at night, later hours, it’s much more convenient to do so within the home rather than to go to a library and seek out a computer there.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKG2,Female, Age 22, Learning and Technology)
  34. 34. Place and Educational Stages 95%, 41 100%, 10 100%, 10 90%, 9 21%, 9 50% 50%, 5 70%, 7 33%, 14 50%, 5 30%, 3 40%, 4 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Emerging (n=43) Establishing (n=10) Embedding (n=10) Experiencing (n=10) FaceBook Twitter YouTube
  35. 35. “I don’t use Twitter, partially because a lot of my friends – there’s a certain negative connotation with Twitter that it’s online presence taken too far, taken to the extreme among people my age I suppose…And so it’s a weird connotation, so I’d never use it for that reason.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKG2, Female, Age 22, Learning and Technology)
  36. 36. “…[on YouTube] you can see people writing out the solutions themselves or doing the working out so you follow it step by step and you can see exactly where you go wrong.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKU12, Female, Age 21, Physics)
  37. 37. Motivation and Educational Stages 23%, 10 20%, 2 50%, 5 10%, 1 44%, 19 80%, 8 80%, 8 60%, 6 44%, 19 50%, 5 40%, 4 40%, 4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Emerging (n=43) Establishing (n=10) Embedding (n=10) Experiencing (n=10) Lazy Organization Intrinsic
  38. 38. “Last semester I was writing a paper on Brazil and there was a book in the library that I just did not want to leave my house to go to. It is a 50 minute drive, I didn’t want to do that, but I was writing my paper and so I used Google books instead and really they only had a section of the book available but that was the section I used. So, you know, doing that instead of coming here physically and going to get the whole book. And it saved time, it saved gas, I got what I needed and it wasn’t a big deal.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USG4, Female, Age 23, Latin/American Studies)
  39. 39. “Ironically, I have a paper calendar. I do this because I find it very useful to actually have to write rather than type out the things that I have to do. I don’t have an online calendar in any form because I find that if I write something physically down on a piece of paper, I’m more likely to remember it.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKG2, Female, Age 22, Learning and Technology)
  40. 40. “I use Facebook for organizing my life basically, with friends and stuff. ...I also use that in education to talk to my friends about an equation, the things I don't understand and it works quite well.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, 2UKS2, Male, Age 18, Secondary School Student)
  41. 41. What Can We Change? • Improved OPACs • Community as content • Full text, online accessible • Seamless discovery to delivery • Access more important than discovery • Mobile access • Presence in social networks • Facebook • Twitter
  42. 42. Community is Content • Social networks formed around social objects • Music, photos, videos, links • Reviewing • Tagging • Commenting • Rating • Refines interaction with resources (Dempsey, 2012)
  43. 43. What Can We Do? • Advertise resources, brand, & value • Provide search help at time of need • Chat & IM • Mobile technology • Design all of our systems with users in mind • Familiar formats • Model services on popular services
  44. 44. infoKit What is it? • Contains advice on evaluating digital/online services within the broader context of traditional services. Why did we create it? • To understand the contexts surrounding individual engagement with digital resources, spaces and tools. Who will use it? • Librarians and information technology staff (White, Connaway, Lanclos, Hood, & Vass, 2014)
  45. 45. ©2014 OCLC. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Suggested attribution: “This work uses content from [presentation title] © OCLC, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/” Thank You! Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. connawal@oclc.org
  46. 46. Discussion & Questions
  47. 47. References Case, D. O. (2012). Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior. Bingley: Emerald. Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). “If it is too inconvenient I’m not going after it:” Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research, 33(3), 179-190. Connaway, L. S, Lanclos, D. M., & Hood, E. M. (2013a). “I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google…” Where people go for information, what they use, and why. EDUCAUSE Review Online (December 6). Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/i-always-stick-first-thing-comes-google-where-people-go-information-what- they-use-and-why Connaway, L. S, Lanclos, D., & Hood, E. M. (2013b). “I find Google a lot easier than going to the library website.” Imagine ways to innovate and inspire students to use the academic library. Proceedings of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) 2013 conference, April 10-13, 2013, Indianapolis, IN, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/conferences/confsandpreconfs/2013/papers/Connaway_Googl e.pdf Connaway, L. S., White, D., Lanclos, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2013). Visitors and Residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment? Information Research, 18(1). Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/18- 1/infres181.html Dempsey, L. (2012). Thirteen ways of looking at libraries, discovery, and the catalog: Scale, workflow, attention. Educause Review Online. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/thirteen-ways-looking-libraries- discovery-and-catalog-scale-workflow-attention Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (2003-2006). Sense-making the information confluence: The whys and hows of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). Retrieved from http://imlsosuoclcproject.jcomm.ohio-state.edu/ De Santis, N. (2012, January 6). On Facebook, librarian brings 2 students from the early 1900s to life. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/on-facebook-librarian-brings-two- students-from-the-early-1900s-to-life/34845
  48. 48. References Prensky, M. (2001a). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20- %20Part1.pdf Prensky, M. (2001b). Do they really think differently? On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20- %20Part2.pdf Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. (2005-2007). Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating virtual reference services from user, non-user, and librarian perspectives. Funded by the Institute for Museums and Library Services (IMLS). Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity/default.htm Radford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., & Shah, C. (2011-2013). Cyber Synergy: Seeking Sustainability through Collaboration between Virtual Reference and Social Q&A Sites. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Rutgers University, and OCLC. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synergy/default.htm Saunders, L. (2012). Faculty perspectives on information literacy as a student learning outcome. The Journal of Academic Librarianship ,38(4), 231. White, D. (2008). Not “natives’”& “immigrants” but “visitors’ & “residents.” TALL Blog: Online Education with the University of Oxford, April 23. Retrieved from http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2008/07/23/not-natives- immigrants-but-visitors-residents/ White, D., & Connaway, L. S. (2011-2014). Visitors and Residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/ White, D., Connaway, L. S., Lanclos, D., Hood, E. M., & Vass, C. (2014). Evaluating digital services: A Visitors and Residents approach. Retrieved from http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/infokits/evaluating-services/ White, D. S., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049 Zickuhr, K., Rainie, L., & Purcell, K. (2013). Library services in the digital age. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project.

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