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United Nations Peace Operations in 2009

United Nations Peace Operations in 2009

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  • 1. United NationsPeace Operations 2009YEAR IN REVIEW
  • 2. A military officer of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) gives food to children. Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 20 March 2009. (UN Photo by Marco Dormino) Interviews > > > 5 ] alain le Roy, Under-secretary-General for Peacekeeping operations 8 ] susana Malcorra, Under-secretary-General for field support Table of conTenTs 2 ] Introduction: new strategies to help peace Peacekeeping in africa > > > operations meet today’s demands 27 ] MonUc — a watershed year for the protection 11 ] a new Horizon for peacekeeping of civilians 13 ] In Memoriam 31 ] The long journey to sustain peace in Darfur 15 ] Women in Peacekeeping: The power to empower 33 ] UnMIs tackles a rough year in southern sudan 20 ] blue helmets prepare to go green 36 ] a year of transition for MInURcaT 22 ] Thousands join Un Volunteers for the challenge 37 ] supporting peace operations in somalia 25 ] Protection of civilians by peacekeepers gets 38 ] Progress towards peace in somalia new impetus 39 ] côte d’Ivoire’s electoral process moves ahead 42 ] Peacebuilding: consolidating the gains of peacekeeping 41 ] security council downsizes UnMIl based on achievements on the ground 44 ] a more promising outlook in Haiti 46 ] DDR evolves to meet new challenges on alert in the Middle east > > > 47 ] Training and transparency in conduct 48 ] UnIfIl’s strategic communications: actions speak and discipline louder than words 54 ] Helping pave the road to peace in cyprus 51 ] Unsco helps Gaza recover from January conflict 55 ] The Un mission in Georgia ends 52 ] UnTso remains active in the Middle east 57 ] Timor-leste: towards selfsustainability, social 52 ] UnDof acts to keep the peace in the Golan Heights cohesion and development 60 ] an unsettling year for the mission in afghanistan Peace operations facts and figures > > > 62 ] Iraq: coping with a “Herculean task” 67 ] Top 10 troop contributors 64 ] nepal’s peace process falters 67 ] surge in uniformed Un peacekeeping personnel 65 ] stability maintained in Kosovo from 1991-2009 65 ] UnMoGIP monitors ceasefire in Jammu 67 ] Top 10 Providers of assessed financial contributions and Kashmir 68 ] United nations peacekeeping operations 70 ] United nations political and peacebuilding missionsCover photo: A member of the Nepalese contingent participates in a medal 72 ] Peacekeeping contributors award ceremony in recognition of their service to the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 20 March 2009. (UN Photo by Logan Abassi)
  • 3. One UN, One family grieving as On 12 January 2010, two weeks after this publication, intended to cover events of the previous year, was finished, tragedy befell the country of Haiti and the UN peacekeeping mission deployed there. The true scale of the losses was still unknown at the time of this writing. The mission known as MINUSTAH was decimated. Its top leadership, including two of peacekeeping’s most formidable and beloved men, was gone. International civil servants from countries around the world lay under the rubble alongside dozens of their Haitian colleagues. Whatever the ultimate count, the loss of UN staff was by far the greatest for any single event in peacekeep- ing’s 62-year history. And yet as soon as the shaking stopped, Hédi Annabi (Tunisia) the survivors carried on. The people of Haiti, and their colleagues, Special Representative of the needed them. Secretary-General and Head of Mission, MINUSTAH For this edition, we had decided to change the headline of our annual MINUSTAH story. Instead of the usual rendition of “grim but looking better,” the 2009 headline reads, “A more promising outlook for Haiti.” Indeed, MINUSTAH was making a difference. Se- curity had improved. A better life for Haitians seemed almost imag- inable. The cornerstones for a sustainable peace were being laid. Haiti was not just a “duty station” for rotating peacekeepers. It was a passion and a place where many — especially those who served there recently — believed that peacekeeping could make a differ- ence, even after five different missions to that island country. Haiti challenged the traditional norms and practices of peacekeeping. Luiz Carlos da Costa (Brazil) Peacekeeping became “robust,” and challenges were met, creatively Principal Deputy Special and in friendship with the Haitian people. Representative of the Secretary-General And now, as Haiti begins to recover from its apocalypse, we think of our colleagues who devoted their lives to peacekeeping and to Haiti. Colleagues, friends, spouses, bosses, assistants,…soldiers, lawyers, police officers, political analysts, human resources managers, civil administrators — the entire spectrum of a UN peacekeeping mis- sion was represented in this terrible event. As a UN family, we have lost some of our most cherished elders and many, many siblings. And yes, some of their small children as well. To Hedi Annabi, one of peacekeeping’s most respected practitio- ners, and Luiz Carlos Da Costa, who recruited and sustained many of us in the job, and to our many colleagues in the UN in Haiti, we salute you and bid you farewell. We will always miss you. Douglas Coates (Canada) Acting Police CommissionerYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 1
  • 4. Introduction: New strategies to help peace operations meet today’s demands The United Nations’ response to conflicts from emerging or re-emerg- the UN peace and security system conflict and political crises evolved ing and to reduce the dependence to the physical renovations that in 2009, as once again UN peace and stress upon peacekeeping. began at UN Headquarters in New operations were at the centre of York in 2009, telling world leaders global efforts to protect the vul- This publication concerns peace gathered for the September 2009 nerable and nurture fragile peace operations in the field, including General Assembly, all over the globe. peacekeeping operations led by the Department of Peacekeeping “Our United Nations will be com- With its largest deployment ever Operations (DPKO) and political pletely renovated. Our common on the ground, the Departments of missions and peacebuilding sup- ambition is to make this outward Peacekeeping Operations and Field port offices led by DPA. Both types renovation the symbol of our in- Support began a major reform effort of peace operations are supported ward renewal. to perfect the tool of UN peace- by the Department of Field Support keeping as the Organization’s flag- (DFS), itself in the midst of craft- “That is why we have placed such ship peace and security activity. ing a new strategy for more effi- emphasis on building a stronger cient support to its vast, diverse United Nations for a better world. At the same time, in the Department and far-flung operations. We have made progress in deliv- of Political Affairs (DPA) and the UN ering as one UN. We have made peacebuilding entities, other tools Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon strides in getting peacebuilding were being refined to better prevent compared his vision of changes in right, so that societies emerging A UN armoured personnel carrier is transported in Kerfi, Eastern Chad, as a local man and his donkey look on. N’Djamena, Chad. (UN Photo by Olivia Grey Pritchard)2 YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS 2
  • 5. Brazilian and Uruguayan boats from war do not slide back than 120,000 women and men Defining the parameters of leave Grosses Cayes Island. Brazil- into conflict. We have sharp- from 116 countries were serv- peacekeeping in order to ian UN peacekeepers, in coordina- ened our tools of mediation ing under the blue flag in 15 make it more effective intion with Uruguayan UN peacekeep- ers, distribute food and provide and diplomacy so that we peacekeeping operations and the face of contemporary medical care to two isolated com- can stop crises from escalat- two special political missions, global conflicts, reduced munities in Grosses Cayes Island. ing into broader and more led by DPKO in Africa, in Asia, resources and high expecta- Les Cayes, Haiti. January 2009. costly tragedies. We created in Europe and in the Middle tions of success is part of (UN Photo by Marco Dormino) the Department of Field Sup- East—an historic high. (DPA the objective of the “New port, and we are developing was fielding another 11 field- Horizon” project, a far- the ‘New Horizon’ strategy to based political missions or reaching dialogue among all make peacekeeping more ag- peacebuilding support offic- the partners of peacekeeping ile and effective. es.) And this growth is not just launched this year by Alain numerical: today’s peacekeep- Le Roy and Susana Malcorra, “In this, we need the strong ers and peace operation per- Under-Secretaries-General support of Member States, just sonnel are increasingly called for Peacekeeping Operations as we do to secure the safety upon to deploy into desolate and Field Support. of our brave staff serving in and precarious environments dangerous places, too many of and to perform increasingly “Over the course of the last whom have lost their lives in complex and sensitive tasks. year there has been an in- the causes we all serve.” Fulfilling these difficult man- tense and broad debate dates comes at a high price: within the United Nations Today’s UN peace operations more than 100 UN staff died on how we can meet these are truly a global endeavor. while serving on UN peace op- challenges,” Mr. Le Roy said. At the end of 2009, more erations in 2009 alone. “What this debate has dem- YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 3
  • 6. onstrated is the strength of the the capacity of UN actors to fulfill partnerships within and outside global commitment to UN peace- these important mandates. the UN system. keeping. Equally, however, it has highlighted the strains on the The need for such attention grew Working closely with DPA and peacekeeping system.” particularly critical in the Dem- DPKO, the Peacebuilding Commis- ocratic Republic of the Congo. sion, Fund and Support Office also Other developments of the past With mandates both to protect took on new missions and sup- year in peacekeeping include the civilians and to support the na- port for post-conflict strategies observance of women’s role in tional armed forces of the demo- and projects proposed by national peacekeeping during the Inter- cratically elected government of authorities in several countries to national Day of UN Peacekeepers. the DRC, the UN mission, MONUC, keep international support flowing As 2010 marks the 10-year anni- faced an extremely difficult di- after peacekeepers depart. DPKO versary of Security Council reso- lemma in fulfilling these core also began exploring what peace- lution 1325, the role of women tasks in 2009, when the Congo- building tasks should and could be in peace processes is certain to lese army was accused of crimes undertaken by peacekeepers and receive even greater attention in against civilians during MONUC- how to deploy civilian staff more the coming year. backed operations. quickly to strengthen rule of law in a post-conflict country. Peacekeeping missions gained Facing complex peace and se- new mandates to protect women curity challenges in Africa, the In its second year, the DPKO Of- and children from sexual violence UN strengthened its partner- fice of Rule of Law and Security during armed conflict, with Se- ship with and support to African Institutions (OROLSI) supported curity Council resolution 1888, Union peacekeeping endeavors, UN missions to help national approved unanimously in Septem- most actively in 2009 in Somalia authorities consolidate lasting ber 2009. Secretary-General Ban and Darfur. peace by establishing justice and called it “a call to action (and) security systems. Taking a holistic an ambitious platform for intensi- The Department of Political Affairs approach to the rule of law within fying this struggle.” The previous also focused greater emphasis on peacekeeping, OROLSI links un- year, with its resolution 1820, the field operations in 2009. der one entity disarmament, de- Council had determined that sex- mobilization and reintegration of ual violence used in conflict con- Secretary-General Ban had tasked combatants; training and support stituted a threat to sustainable DPA with developing the politi- to police, justice officials and cor- peace and security. Peacekeeping cal tools of diplomacy and media- rection officers; security sector re- operations were tasked with re- tion to reduce the massive cost of form and the removal of mines and porting on and preventing where conflicts and their aftermath, and unexploded ordinance. possible, sexual violence in con- to render DPA a more mobile and flict and post-conflict situations operational platform for conflict “We are …the only organization where they are deployed. prevention, peacemaking and post- that can deploy comprehensive conflict peacebuilding, according peace operations integrating mili- How peacekeepers and others can to DPA Under-Secretary-General B. tary, police and civilian compo- fulfill Security Council mandates Lynn Pascoe. nents,” Secretary-General Ban told on the protection of civilians in an audience in Ireland in 2009. general was also probed and tested For DPA, this has meant adopting a in 2009, and an independent re- stronger culture of action; profes- In 2010, the UN will continue port commissioned by DPKO and sionalizing mediation and strength- to strengthen its comprehensive the Office for the Coordination of ening electoral assistance—both peace and security apparatus, Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is- as tools for conflict prevention; while the tasks of UN peace opera- sued in late December promised strengthening its management and tions promise to grow even more to form a basis for strengthening staffing of field operations and its crucial, complex and in demand. 4 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 7. Interview with Alain Le RoyUnder-Secretary-General Alain Le large number of countries and for earlier. Many lessons were learntRoy leads the world’s second largest people who are in critical need. from the serious failures of thedeployed military force (after that At the same time, it is an over- mid-1990s in Somalia, Rwandaof the US) and thousands of civilian whelming responsibility, as lead- and Bosnia. I was also struck bystaff working on a wide variety of ing simultaneously 15 peacekeep- the outstanding dedication oftasks in 15 peacekeeping missions ing operations is obviously a very the peacekeeping staff both atoperating around the globe, and at delicate challenge. The United Na- Headquarters and in the field. IUN Headquarters. He consented to tions is engaged in solving a large was impressed by the scope ofdo an interview on the challenges number of political crises around our tasks. DPKO and the Depart-facing UN peacekeeping. the world and is present in some ment of Field Support together of most difficult areas, such as the employ about 1,000 staff to sup-Question: You lead the largest Democratic Republic of the Congo port 115,000 peacekeepers de-peacekeeping deployment ever. (DRC) and Afghanistan. ployed in the field. In NATO, theHow could you characterize your ratio is one headquarters stafffirst year in the job at the helm Q: What was your greatest surprise member supporting four peopleof the Department of Peacekeep- in coming to UN headquarters? on the Operations? ALR: I had previously worked in Q: What are some of the recentAlain Le Roy: I will quote my pre- UN peacekeeping operations in achievements of peacekeeping?decessor, Jean-Marie Guéhenno, Sarajevo in 1995 and in Kosovowho said that the job is both ex- in 1999. I used to regularly come ALR: The media tend to mostlyceptional and overwhelming. It is to UN Headquarters then. When I focus on the difficulties we areexceptional because of the level took up my post in New York, I im- facing, for example, in the Sudanof responsibility involved and the mediately noticed the higher level and in the Democratic Republic ofopportunity to provide a contri- of experience and professionalism the Congo. But in these two coun-bution to peace and security in a of the entire staff compared with tries, our peacekeeping opera- what I had experienced ten years tions are providing protection for Alain Le Roy (left), Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, during a visit to eastern DR Congo. Here, Mr. Le Roy is escorted to a MONUC military base by Force Commander General Babacar Gaye (right). 31 October 2009. (UN Photo by Ian Steele)YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 5
  • 8. millions of people. In Darfur, more In Lebanon, UNIFIL allowed the tions at the time when the Brahimi than two million internally dis- Lebanese Army’s return to the Report was published. placed persons need protection. In south of the country in 2006 for the Kivu provinces in eastern DRC, the first time in years, and on So, during my first month in of- over 10 million people may be many occasions the mission pre- fice, I launched the “New Horizon” threatened by violence. Although vented a deadly escalation of inci- process with the goal of forging a we try every day to contribute to dents. Since 2006, there have been greater consensus on the future the protection of civilians in these no casualties along the Blue Line direction of UN peacekeeping be- two countries, this essential task between Israel and Lebanon. These tween three essential partners: the is an extremely complex one to are just a few examples among a Security Council who decides on fully implement. host of others of how ‘blue helmets’ the deployment of our peacekeep- are protecting every day hundreds ing operations; the troop and po- We have also launched a reflection of thousands of lives. lice contributing countries and the on ways to improve peacekeeping UN Secretariat, which plans and entitled “New Horizon.” Q: “New Horizon” is an idea you manages these operations in order inspired and is described else- to adapt UN peacekeeping to to- At the operational level, much where in this publication. Briefly, day’s new realities. progress was made in most of our what was your thinking in creat- missions. In Liberia, for instance, ing it and what are you hoping to Q: You traveled to several mission UNMIL contributed to the exten- achieve through this process? areas this year: what impressed sion of state authority throughout you most? the country, the training of the ALR: Before assuming my post Liberian National Police and the here, in August 2008, I reread the ALR: This was the acknowledge- strengthening of rule of law insti- Brahimi Report1. It appeared to me ment expressed by the local popu- tutions. In Burundi, the implemen- that while most recommendations lation in countries where peace- tation of the 2007 Peace Agree- remained entirely valid, they dated keeping missions are operating. ment is almost completed, and back to the year 2000, a period The people I met in Lebanon, Hai- presidential elections are sched- when less than 25,000 peacekeep- ti, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, the Su- uled for 2010. ers were deployed on the ground. dan, in the DRC….in other words Therefore, 10 years later, it seemed in every county of operation, con- In Haiti, MINUSTAH has contrib- essential to re-examine the Bra- veyed to me not only their key uted significantly to the restora- himi report, to review the recom- concerns, but also their apprecia- tion of security. A priority for the mendations that had not been fully tion for the work of the United United Nations now is to consoli- implemented and to analyze the Nations. Also, while I witnessed date the security gains by foster- new challenges facing peacekeep- extremely diverse situations, each ing economic development and ing, particularly with regard to the time I noted the incredible enthu- attracting investment. This is why surge in demand for personnel and siasm and strong dedication of the the Secretary-General appointed the increased complexity of our staff serving, sometimes in very former US President Bill Clinton as peacekeeping mandates. difficult living conditions. his Special Envoy to Haiti. Today, peacekeeping missions work Q. You have made visiting and In Timor-Leste, President José in a broad range of areas including talking to Troop-Contributing Ramos-Horta recently stated in Security Sector Reform (SSR); Disar- Countries (TCCs) and potential an address to the Security Council mament, Demobilization and Rein- TCCs a priority. What are the that without the United Nations’ tegration (DDR) of former combat- prospects for future TCCs? assistance, his country would have ants; strengthening of rule of law fallen into chaos. Today, UNMIT institutions and electoral support. ALR: All of the main troop-and (the UN mission in Timor-Leste) Today, the number of personnel in police-contributing countries that is progressively handing over law UNAMID (The UN-African Union Mis- I visited expressed their pride and enforcement responsibilities to the sion in Darfur) alone is higher than their willingness to continue to Timorese police. that of all the peacekeeping opera- participate in peacekeeping op- 1 Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations, 21 August 2000 (A/55/305, S/2000/809)6 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 9. Alain Le Roy, Under-Secretary-Gen- erations and, if possible, to security, which we have asked during the first months of eral for Peacekeeping Operations, step up their contribution. of Member States. We also need 2010, significant progress will greets a representative of a local However, it is important – and to strengthen prevention and be achieved, drawing on thecommunity in West Darfur. Darfur, Sudan. 14 July 2009. (UN Photo this one of the objectives of protection arrangements. proposals that we submitted by Nektarios Markogiannis) “New Horizon”- to share more to Member States. equitably the contribution to Q. What should we look peacekeeping, including with forward to in 2010 for UN From an operational viewpoint, developed countries. peacekeeping? all current peacekeeping mis- sions must continue to work Q. Terrorist and criminal at- ALR: We are hoping to reach a toward the stabilization of the tacks threatened and claimed common position within the Se- situations they are facing, so the lives of UN staff in the curity Council and the General as to be able, sooner or later, field this year. How do these Assembly’s Special Committee to withdraw. Since the origin risks affect peacekeeping in on Peacekeeping Operations- of UN peacekeeping, 63 mis- general? the so-called “C34 Committee” sions were established and 48 on priority issues on today’s were closed. Our goal is never ALR: It is clear that over the peacekeeping agenda such to maintain a permanent peace- past few years, UN personnel as the protection of civilians, keeping presence. have often become a target, robust peacekeeping and the although they are, by defini- strengthening of operational For our operations in the DRC tion, deployed to protect the capacities and the linkage with and in the Sudan, 2010 will be population. This is a major peacebuilding activities. We a particularly challenging year. issue. Therefore, we need to need to reform collectively the However, we will continue to take all the necessary steps peacekeeping tool to make it do our utmost for peace to per- to strengthen the security and more effective and more ca- sist in all the countries where safety of UN staff. This will re- pable of meeting today’s chal- we are deployed.  quire an increased budget for lenges. I sincerely hope that YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 7
  • 10. Interview with Susana Malcorra Under-Secretary-General Susana Mal- services based on a few principles. of services. We hope to get these corra heads the Department of Field One is to get there faster at the centres in places that can be de- Support, which provides logistical beginning with a more modularized fined as family duty stations so our and operational support to more approach, to do a better job of pre- staff will have options to serve on than 120,000 UN personnel on glob- deployment preparation…and im- missions…in places that can bet- al field operations. prove services so that we can not ter accommodate the planning of only get the goods there, but also a career. There would be staff wel- Question: Ms. Malcorra, you have get them up and running. We are fare opportunities. We’re planning come up with a new strategy for trying to build rosters to have peo- all this to be more effective, but supporting peacekeeping. What ple available to be deployed, but also more efficient, mindful that is the basic objective? also to sign agreements with gov- resources are a key question these ernments and private companies to days among Member States. Susana Malcorra: Our people have have a stand-by capacity. done an incredible job trying to Q: Give us an idea of the scope of address the increasing challenges. Another important element: we the challenge you face in your job. But we realized that we had to have grown to a size where we think through a different way of have large missions located in ar- SM: We run an operation that is running this business, because the eas where we can share certain close to $9 billion. Of that, peace- business has changed in the last resources among missions, with keeping is close to $8 billion, and few years, not only in size, but regional service centres. This will some of the special political mis- also in complexity. We are trying to give us economies of scale, bet- sions are also our responsibility. establish a new way to deliver our ter quality and a more stable base We also support the African Union Susana Malcorra, USG for Field Support, visits peacekeepers in Darfur. (UN Photo)8 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 11. Under-Secretary-General Susana Mal- in AMISOM (Somalia). So we supply lines that sometimes what we are trying to put corra during a visit to the DR Congo. have a very diverse set of are 2,000 kilometres, partly together. We need incen- Here, Ms. Malcorra arrives in Bukavu, missions that we are respon- without roads as in Darfur tives for people so they can South Kivu, accompanied (from left toright) by General Ghumman, Cdr. South sible for. And they take place and Chad, or when you think value the fact they are first Kivu Brigade and Aliou Sene, MONUC in very remote areas, where about getting to Mogadishu, on the ground. …We need Head of Office, Bukavu. we literally don’t have any- where many of our ships have agreements established 26 August 2009. thing from which we can start been shelled, that’s the type with some governments to (MONUC Photo by Jacqueline Chenard) growing, areas where security of challenge we face. All of help us with certain ca- and safety are sometimes very this, together with the dif- pacities…We’re working on low, where sometimes you’re ficulty of bringing people agreements with the private not necessarily welcomed. In on board, the right people, sector that will allow us to that context, being able to at the right time, and then have certain services on establish a mission that will retaining them for the long stand-by, such as contrac- serve 20-30,000 people is our term,…: that is also our tors to build up camps with biggest challenge. We need challenge. a much faster turn-around. to do that in a way that ad- But we need to do it in a dresses the needs of the peo- Q: What needs to be done way that isn’t very expen- ple who are being deployed to speed up deployment of sive, and we need to make to live in reasonable accom- staff on missions? sure we can find contrac- modations, to have water, to tors in all regions of the have reasonable food service, SM: I don’t see a single an- world….No single solution to have some welfare capaci- swer to this. We need a com- will fix all the problems, but ty. And when you think about bination of tools, and that’s that is our target. YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 9
  • 12. Q. You’ve proposed reducing SM: The Secretary-General was at Q. What has been the effect of the environmental footprint the helm of the notion of creating changes in UN conduct and dis- of peacekeeping. How can you a global secretariat, so that people cipline policy on sexual exploita- green the blue helmets? in the field and headquarters will tion by peacekeepers? be considered the same. This notion SM: …. Peacekeeping operations do of our staff in the field being sec- SM: Recognition of the problem have a huge impact on the ground, ond class bothered him, bothered is at a much higher level. We dis- from the water we need, to the dis- me, bothered all of us. This was cuss it every single time we meet posal of waste, to the equipment something that we did, and it was with Member States providing we leave behind. So we are trying approved by the General Assembly troops or police. We have a very to design our camps with the en- last year. Now you can apply to solid system to address the prob- vironment in mind. More standard- a job anywhere in the Secretariat lem and expeditiously get infor- ized and modularized approaches and you are an internal applicant. mation to Member States so they are part of it. Another example: We were aiming at another piece can follow up. We have a track- we spend a huge amount of money of reform, to bring our staff to an ing system that shows that feed- bringing in fuel to light the camps. equivalent level with the funds and back is starting to come in. Are Today those lights can be served programmes, especially in hardship we there? No we aren’t. The fact by solar panels or wind power. This duty stations and non-family mis- that the General Assembly decided would reduce the need for fuel but sions. That piece was not accept- the troop-contributing countries also make us more efficient and in- able to Member States. They felt should handle this on their own dependent, as we wouldn’t need a our proposal was not ready. So we is very important because now supply line. So there’s an environ- are going back next year to work they are in charge of raising the mental impact and a safety impact. on this. Our missions are not fam- bar in their own countries. It’s The challenge is to be able to pro- ily duty stations, and the notion of had a very important effect. The duce specifications so that we get a second household requires some difficulty for us is getting the fi- the right solutions. kind of compensation. nal result (of an investigation) may take a bit longer. We need to Q. How will the ongoing changes Q. How can we attract more wom- persuade everybody that one case in staff recruitment affect peo- en to peacekeeping? is too many, even though when ple interested in joining peace- you see that we deploy more than keeping? SM: We are going up in numbers of 200,000 military and police in one leaders and that’s a good sign as the year, the numbers are very mini- SM: We are working closely with more women you have in leadership, mal. And we do that by putting on the Office of Human Resource Man- the more they will be focused on pressure and keeping it at the top agement (OHRM) on a new system bringing more women on board. Not of our agenda. being introduced in 2010 which to say our male colleagues aren’t will be much more open, more doing that, but it’s always good to Q. What is on the agenda in 2010? user-friendly and will allow people have a trickle-down from leadership. to track their own application. We Our main problem is in mid-career, SM: Hopefully the Member States are working hard to establish solid because retaining women in their will endorse our support strategy rosters. A lot of changes are hap- thirties, women who have made a so that we have the opportunity to pening at the same time. We may choice to have a family, not only to change the way we do business. We not be able to see the result for a work, and retain them in the places have many challenges in the places little while. The main thing is to where we serve, is very difficult. We where we are deployed, and you simplify the process. And we need need to first improve the conditions never know what new ones may to be able to easily assess the skills of living in those places, but also come in situations that may dete- and profiles of people and to allow we need to improve conditions for riorate. Our biggest work will be to them to see if they fit the profiles them to return should they take streamline human resources reform required. some time off. Being able to keep so we can deliver qualified, skilled track of those who left and welcome people as our missions need them. Q. How will the changes benefit them back and not penalize them is That will be my first priority.  field staff? part of what we need to do.10 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 13. A New Horizon for peacekeepingSecretary-General Ban Ki-moon visits the Tavan TolgoiPeace Operations Support Training Centre, near Ulaan-baatar, Mongolia, where the nation’s troops are trainedbefore service with the United Nations. 26 July 2009.(UN Photo by Eskinder Debebe) As UN peacekeeping entered its after its principle author) would and ongoing reforms. In response, 61st year, Member States and the have its 10-year anniversary. Both the two new Under-Secretaries- UN Secretariat were asking funda- were reviewed in 2009, setting the General responsible for peace and mental questions about the future stage for agreement in 2010 on security issues—Alain Le Roy and directions of this flagship activity the way forward. Susana Malcorra—embarked on a of the Organization. Begun in 2008 dialogue with UN Member States and brought to fruition in 2009, Second, serious challenges were about future directions, with the the “New Horizon” process became facing UN peacekeeping on the goal of agreement on a set of the main organizing framework for ground, putting the peacekeeping achievable targets for strengthen- a major review of the future of UN machinery under real strain. These ing UN peacekeeping. peacekeeping. included new conflict in the Demo- cratic Republic of the Congo; con- The process commenced at a retreat Several factors prompted the Sec- tingency planning for a possible called by Secretary-General Ban Ki- retariat’s decision to launch the operation in Somalia and the on- moon with the Security Council in New Horizon project. First, 2010 going challenges of deploying op- March 2009. Later that month, New would be a key year for two ongo- erations in Darfur and Chad-Central York University’s Center on Inter- ing reform and review efforts. The African Republic. UN peacekeeping national Cooperation—a peace- Peace Operations 2010 agenda laid was also driving transition efforts keeping think tank—produced a out by the Department of Peace- in Timor-Leste, Haiti and Liberia, study entitled Building on Brahimi. keeping Operations (DPKO) in late while facing political challenges in DPKO and DFS produced their own 2005 would reach its conclusion. Kosovo, Afghanstan and Georgia. “non-paper” in July, called An And the Report of the High Level This remarkable slate of activity Agenda for Partnership: Charting a Panel on UN Peace Operations (bet- slowed the full implementation of New Horizon for UN Peacekeeping. ter known as the Brahimi Report, planned structural improvements “New Horizon” sought to promote YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 11
  • 14. the notion of a global peacekeep- ments such as robust peacekeep- as requested and better guidance ing partnership organized around ing, protection of civilians and on tasks such as protection of ci- three key themes: (i) renewing the critical peacebuilding tasks. vilians. Troop contributors cited peacekeeping partnership around a critical capability gaps that con- shared vision; (ii) translating that New Horizon also highlights the strained the ability of missions to partnership into effective action on centrality of a clear political strat- deliver with the mobility and in- the ground; and (iii) building to- egy, adequate support, effective tensity required today, such as in- gether a system that could support mission planning and management, telligence capabilities and air and UN peacekeeping in the future. faster and more effective deploy- ground mobility assets, particular- ment and enhanced generation of ly helicopters. They urged better The authors concluded that the suc- donor resources. The base of troop training and more substantial hu- cess of UN peacekeeping rests on and police contributors should be man resources and procurement re- a global peacekeeping partnership expanded, as the developing world forms to ensure that the necessary between the Security Council, Gen- currently provides the majority of people, goods and services could eral Assembly, troop-and finance- uniformed peacekeepers, and a be deployed more quickly. Delays contributing countries and the Sec- new field support strategy focused in the delivery of UN equipment, retariat. But this partnership would on innovation, flexibility and ac- logistical support and reimburse- have to devise new and better ways countability should be developed. ments were also noted as issues of managing peacekeeping. With that sapped the contributors’ will the unparalleled scale and diversity Not since the year 2000 had there and ability to participate. of operations ongoing in 2008-9, been such activity related to UN peacekeepers have been required peacekeeping. The major financial contributors to do more, often in dangerous en- wanted the Security Council to be vironments, with more constrained In parallel to the Secretariat ef- more aware of the budgetary impli- resources than in the past. Mean- fort and against the backdrop of cations of its mandates. While the while, the peacekeeping personnel, the still-unfolding global financial peacekeeping budget had grown in administrative and financial systems crisis, the United Kingdom and real terms (to $7.8 billion in 2009- have not kept pace. More flexible France launched a process within 10), peacekeeping remained inex- and responsive planning for and de- the Security Council to examine pensive when compared with other ployment of peacekeeping missions UN peacekeeping. A series of de- major military expenditures, and will be required to meet these chal- bates through the first half of the the costs reflected real operational lenges. New Horizon recognizes the year culminated on 5 August with necessities. However, they sought imperative to create a new way of a Presidential Statement that laid a stronger performance culture and doing business, including a global out the Council’s recommenda- more realistic performance expec- support system to deliver more ef- tions and commitments relating tations, and they wanted to explore fective peacekeeping and to protect to peacekeeping. alternatives to large peacekeeping the personnel and resources that operations, as financial constraints Member States have provided. At the same time, the Security Coun- seemed sure to grow in 2010. cil Working Group on Peacekeeping, The New Horizon document pro- chaired by Japan, began its own di- In late 2009 this process culminat- posed a range of practical rec- alogue, particularly with the troop- ed with the delivery by the Secre- ommendations that the peace- contributing countries. Canada tary-General of two critical reports keeping partnership should seek also initiated a seminar series for to the General Assembly, which set to achieve in the coming years. diplomats and field practitioners. the stage for GA action on peace- These included: agreement on Other stakeholders also expressed keeping in 2010. The Report to the the role of UN peacekeeping and their concerns. Troop contributors Special Committee on Peacekeeping clarification of what peacekeeping and field missions highlighted the Operations presented key policy can and cannot do, based on the need for more meaningful consul- priorities that would require GA agreed principles of peacekeep- tation with the Secretariat and the support, such as the protection of ing. To succeed, this partnership Security Council; the importance of civilians, robust peacekeeping and will need consensus on key tasks, realistic mandates with sufficient peacebuilding tasks by UN peace- particularly controversial require- resources to deliver them as well keepers. The report also suggested12 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 15. a longer term approach to address- faster deployment of goods and of the process thus far has been aing critical capability gaps and services, a new regional service commitment to continue meaning-aligning training and equipping centre concept to provide consoli- ful consultation between the threerequirements with the demands of dated support services to multiple key peacekeeping partners: the UNmodern UN peacekeeping. missions, as well as reforms to fi- Secretariat, contributing countries nancing mechanisms and human and the Security Council. The chal-The second report, the Field Sup- resources management. lenge in 2010 will be to translateport Strategy, laid out a compre- that enhanced commitment intohensive set of reforms for the Additional priorities emanating real progress at the policy levelbusiness of logistical and ad- from the New Horizon effort will and most critically to improveministrative support to UN field continue to be pursued throughout support to peacekeeping missionsoperations, including options for 2010 and beyond. A clear result in the field. In MemoriamTragedies in Haiti and Afghanistanunderscore sacrifices made by UN At a memorial service, a UN staff member mourns the deathspersonnel of colleagues killed on 28 October 2009 in an attack on aThe year 2009 once again demon- guest house in Kabul, Afghani-strated that the vital work carried stan. 3 November 2009.out by the United Nations in coun- (UN Photo by Eric Kanalstein)tries in the throes of or recoveringfrom conflict carries grave risks, as116 staff members lost their liveswhile serving with UN peacekeep-ing or political missions. SomeUnited Nations staff died as a re-sult of direct attacks, includingacts of terrorism. Others lost theirlives to accidents or illness. TheUnited Nations family mourns theirdeaths and honours their memory.Two dreadful days in October high-lighted the great dangers that in-dividual UN staff members face onbehalf of the global organization.On 9 October, a horrific accidenttook the lives of six peacekeepersfrom Uruguay and five from Jordanwhen a plane from the UN Stabili-zation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)crashed in a mountainous area ofsoutheastern Haiti. The plane hadbeen on a regular reconnaissanceflight when it crashed into theside of a mountain in the Fonds-Verrettes area, about 45 kilometresYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 13
  • 16. UN peacekeepers pay their respects to 11 of their fellow soldiers killed in an aircraft accident, at a memorial service in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 13 October 2009. (UN Photo by Marco Dormino) from the capital, Port-au-Prince. be lowered, an honour normally re- ghanistan armed not with guns It was the largest loss of life for served for Heads of State. or bullets. They came with a more UN peacekeeping in a single day in powerful weapon – hope. Hope several years. Less than one month after that fa- for a better day for Afghanistan tal plane crash, terrorists disguised and a commitment to help its At a moving ceremony in Port-au- as Afghan police officers attacked people build a better world and a Prince, members of the peacekeep- a guest house in Kabul and bru- better future,” Secretary-General ing mission and Haitian officials as tally killed five UN staff members Ban said. well as the public heard a solemn and injured nine more. Jossie Esto but inspiring message read by MI- of the Philippines, a UNV Volunteer Less than a week after the attack, NUSTAH’s chief on behalf of Secre- who worked with the UN Devel- the Secretary-General paid an un- tary-General Ban Ki-moon. opment Programme (UNDP) elec- announced visit to Kabul to express tion team; Louis Maxwell, a close his solidarity with the UN staff. He “Those we remember today were protection officer from the United also went to Dubai to meet with patrolling from the skies, but they States; Lawrence Mefful, a UN se- some of the UN staff members who could see something farther on curity officer from Ghana; Yah Lyd- were injured in the attack. the horizon: a brighter and more ia Wonyene, a UNV/UNDP elections hopeful future for all the people of officer from Liberia; and Teshome While these two tragedies—along Haiti,” Secretary-General Ban said. Mendefro Ergete, an Ethiopian na- with the attack on the World Food tional from UNICEF, were killed in Programme in Islamabad in Octo- To show the Organization’s soli- the attack. ber which left five staff dead—may darity with the fallen peacekeep- have been the most high-profile ers, the Secretary-General ordered “The men and women who gave deadly incidents, they were cer- that the flag at UN Headquarters their lives today came to Af- tainly not the only ones for UN field14 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 17. staff. Peacekeepers serving with personnel who regularly risk their General has urged survivors to drawthe African Union – United Nations own safety to remove landmines inspiration from the example ofMission in Darfur (UNAMID) have —have been killed or injured in a those who have died: “We shouldfaced extreme dangers. The kill- number of different locations. be proud of their achievements,ing of five Rwandan peacekeepers and determined to pay meaningfulin two separate incidents in early More than 2,500 brave men and tribute to their sacrifice. They haveDecember raised the number to 22 women have fallen since the UN not only helped populations in direpeacekeepers killed in Darfur due first undertook peacekeeping work need, they have also honouredto direct acts of violence since the in 1948. their countries and the United Na-beginning of 2008. tions. Their service will remain a These UN staff leave behind more source of hope and inspiration toElsewhere in Africa and around than family and friends: they also all of us who carry on their life-the world, UN military and police leave an enduring legacy of cour- saving work for peace.” personnel have met similar fates. age and compassion that no bulletMilitary and civilian de-miners— can ever destroy. The Secretary-Women in Peacekeeping: The power to empowerThe special role of womenDuring wartime, women suffer ter-rible atrocities, from physical abuseto the collapse of their societies.During peacekeeping, women arenot only key beneficiaries of theUnited Nations presence, they arealso often its best asset.Aware of this, the UN has beenworking to recruit more women topeacekeeping in all fields and at alllevels. The Departments of Peace-keeping Operations and Field Sup-port have joined forces to bring ingreater numbers of female troops,police, human rights monitors andother staff.Secretary-General Ban Ki-mooncontinued his efforts to increasethe number of women in senior Signe Poulsen (second from right), a human rights officer of the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), and two officers of the vul- nerable persons unit of the Timorese National Police, interview the mother of a victim of domestic violence, Dili, Timor-Leste. 5 January 2009. (UN Photo by Martine Perret)YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 15
  • 18. Women peacekeepers from Nigeriaextend a friendly hand to localchildren as they patrol Martissant,Port au Prince, Haiti. 24 April 2009.(UN Photo by Marco Dormino) peacekeeping posts, most re- also play a major role in helping encourages others to participate in cently appointing Ameerah Haq empower women to rebuild their local peace processes. of Bangladesh, a veteran United war-torn countries. Nations official with wide experi- Susana Malcorra, Under-Secre- ence in crisis areas, to become “The point is not to achieve gender tary-General for Field Support, his Special Representative and parity for its own sake. The impera- concurred: “We have a long way Head of the UN Integrated Mis- tive is to draw on the unique and to go both with the military and sion in Timor-Leste. powerful contribution women can the police.” make,“ said Secretary-General Ban Experience has proven that wom- who has implored Member States to Civilian peacekeepers en peacekeepers can perform the contribute more female personnel to the UN. “Female staffers can of- The UN has had some success re- same roles, to the same standards ten better communicate with local cruiting and promoting women and under the same difficult con- women, generating a greater sense civilian peacekeepers—working in ditions as their male counter- of security while serving as an ex- civil affairs, human rights, elec- parts. And in many cases, women ample of women’s empowerment.” tions, security sector reform, logis- are better-placed to carry out tics, medicine, public information peacekeeping tasks. Whether in- “We have done a lot but we need and beyond. Thirty percent of these terviewing victims of sexual and to do a great deal more,” agreed UN staffers are female. A similar per- gender-based violence, working in peacekeeping chief Alain Le Roy, centage of women staff the Depart- women’s prisons, assisting female noting that women peacekeep- ments of Peacekeeping and Field ex-combatants during demobiliza- ers make a critical contribution in Support at the UN Headquarters tion and reintegration into civilian areas such as security, reform of in New York. They have helped UN life, or mentoring female cadets state institutions and support to peacekeeping operations achieve at police academies, women per- political processes. And their work tangible results on the ground. sonnel are at an advantage. They16 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 19. “I know that women can make a Women had no voice whatsoever UN Policehuge difference in peacemaking, in what was happening to them,peacekeeping and peacebuild- their families, and their country…. The UN Police have doubled theing because I’ve seen it and been So I became determined that we in representation of women in theirpart of it,” said Margaret Novicki, the UN would give them a voice by ranks over the past three years, toa senior UN Department of Public whatever means possible.” 8 percent. But DPKO is far fromInformation official and a former satisfied with this number.The UNchief of public information for UN She teamed up with a grassroots needs more female police officerspeacekeeping operations in Sierra activist, Zainab Bangura, to orga- to better protect and assist womenLeone and Liberia. nize the first nationwide women’s against rampant sexual abuse dur- mobilization for peace, on Interna- ing armed conflict. “By includingAt an ceremony dedicated to tional Women’s Day, in March 2001. female police among our ranks,women peacekeepers in New York, Women from around Sierra Leone we foster a safe environment forNovicki spoke of her experience came out and marched, demanding victims to get the help they needupon joining the UN peacekeeping that their leaders come back to the and deserve,” stated the Secretary-mission in Sierra Leone nearly a de- peace table. General. “And by enabling victimscade ago: to feel secure enough to come “They eventually did and with the forward and press charges against“I was acutely aware that some- UN’s help, peace came to Sierra perpetrators, we fight the culturething was wrong with the bigger Leone,” Novicki said. In addition, of impunity that has prevailed forpicture: men were in complete Ms. Bangura became a UN peace- too long.”control of the instruments of war keeper in next-door Liberia, andand peace, and women were the then Sierra Leone’s first woman Anne-Marie Orler, DPKO’s deputyinnocent and invisible victims. foreign minister. police adviser, said that equal par- A UN police officer from Thailand and a Timorese national police officer visit the family of a victim of domestic violence in Gleno, Timor-Leste. 16 December 2009. (UN photo by Martine Perret)YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 17
  • 20. ticipation of female police officers In September 2009, a delegation lice Unit from India to the UN Mis- at the United Nations empowers of female police officers from UN sion in Liberia. Their deployment the female population to report peacekeeping missions and their still stands as a great success: not cases of sexual and gender-based national counterparts, as well only have the officers helped make crimes. “Much more can be done if as representatives from police- the streets of Monrovia safer, they we have more female officers,” she contributing countries to the UN, have also set a shining example pointed out. reached out to hundreds of female for the women and girls of Libe- police officers worldwide at a train- ria, substantially boosting Liberian In seven United Nations peacekeep- ing conference organized by the women’s interest in joining their ing missions—Timor-Leste, Liberia, International Association of Wom- own police service. Kosovo, Sudan, Haiti, Burundi and en Police in the US city of Seattle. Sierra Leone—UN police divisions Some 625 policewomen participat- The Indian policewomen’s pres- have helped create national spe- ed in the conference, expressing a ence in Liberia “demonstrated that cialized units that investigate and keen interest in UN policing. women can play an increasingly assist victims of gender-based and crucial role in the establishment sexual violence. The following month, the UN- of the rule of law in post-conflict INTERPOL Ministerial Meeting ad- countries,” said the Secretary- To build on this success, the DPKO opted a declaration affirming the General’s Special Representative in police division launched a drive positive contributions of female Liberia, Ellen Margrethe Løj. to recruit more female police of- police officers in peacekeeping op- ficers, aiming to reach 20 per- erations. “To have strong, confident and ca- cent of UN police in 2014. “The pable women police officers in that long-term goal is, of course, to This interest followed widespread environment sends all the right mes- have 50-50” as the gender ratio, media coverage of the 2007 deploy- sages,” said Andrew Hughes, DPKO’s stressed Ms. Orler. ment of an all-female Formed Po- police adviser until late 2009. “If Sergeant Dora Doroye (left), of the UN Mission in Liberia, briefs members of the Ghanaian battalion before leading a patrol through Buchanan, Liberia. 17 April 2009. (UN Photo by Christopher Herwig)18 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 21. these women can do it…then why keepers and to encourage them to vilian roles, as well as in positionscan’t women who are in this society contribute more, the Departments of the same thing? The answer is … of Peacekeeping Operations, Fieldthey can and they should.” Support, and Public Information On 19 June 2008, the Security Coun- decided to dedicate the Interna- cil adopted resolution 1820, encour-Military tional Day of UN Peacekeepers, aging troop and police-contributing May 29, in 2009 to the theme, countries to deploy a higher per-The percentage of women serving centage of women peacekeepers “Women in Peacekeeping: Theas military personnel in UN peace- or police to UN peacekeeping mis- Power to Empower.”keeping missions remains at only sions to protect civilians, includ-2 percent. The small number of ing women and children, and to The three departments, togetherwomen soldiers serving with the prevent sexual violence against with the field operations, orga-UN can be explained by the lack of women and girls. nized events at UN Headquarters inwomen serving in militaries around New York and at UN offices aroundthe world (especially in combat With resolution 1888 of 2009, the world. A major multi-mediaunits). But many militaries have which aimed to further strength- exhibit was on display at UN Head-much higher percentages of women en the efforts of the internation- quarters, and photo exhibits, lec-in their national forces than their al community to combat sexual tures and round-table discussionscontributions to the UN indicate. violence in armed conflict, the were held in several countries. UNDPKO remains engaged with Mem- Security Council acknowledged Television created a video (“Wom-ber States to ensure that they con- that the presence of women en in Peacekeeping: The Powertribute more women to the UN. peacekeepers encourages local to Empower”), which was viewed in UN sites globally and via You- women to participate in the na-South Africa, Ghana and Nigeria tional armed and security forces, Tube ( among the troop-contributing thereby helping to build a secu- watch?v=vAuFQj9xBYc).countries that should be com- rity sector that is accessible andmended for sending large numbers Security Council support for responsive to all.of women peacekeepers, according women peacekeepersto DPKO’s deputy gender adviser, Looking aheadComfort Lamptey. The UN Security Council has passed three resolutions that highlight the With the tenth anniversary of res-“Female peacekeepers inspire, by importance of deploying women olution 1325 coming in 2010, thetheir very example, women and girls peacekeepers. United Nations can rightly claimin the often male-dominated world,” that it has strengthened its com-said UNIFIL Force Commander Ma- The first, adopted on 31 October mitment to increasing women’sjor-General Claudio Graziano, where 2000, was landmark resolution participation in UN peacekeepingmany Ghanaians are deployed. 1325 on “Women and Peace and and made measurable progress in Security,” which recognized that 2009. The Secretary-General, se-Sergeant Dora Dordoye, who leads women bear the brunt of armed nior peacekeeping officials, the Se-a team of nine Ghanaian soldiers conflicts, and thus should have curity Council and Member Statesdeployed in Liberia, said that just a central role in their prevention have all stressed the need forlike her male counterparts, she is and resolution. The resolution more women peacekeepers. Prog-there to serve the local population. stressed the importance of wom- ress on this front would enable“I am trained to be a professional en’s equal participation and full peacekeeping missions to bettersoldier to be called upon to carry involvement in peace processes serve the communities that theyany assignment at any time.” and in efforts for the maintenance are deployed to help and build and promotion of peace and se- lasting peace in countries recov-Outreach to Member States curity. It called for an expansion ering from war.  of the role and contribution ofTo help raise the profile of this women in UN peacekeeping opera-important issue, to thank Member tions, in military, police, and ci-States for providing women peace-YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 19
  • 22. Blue helmets prepare to go green Environmental issues such as ecologically mindful mission ronmental policy, objectives Guatemalan peacekeepers con- competition for dwindling or footprint,” she told the Gen- and control measures to be duct a tree-planting campaign lucrative resources often lie at eral Assembly this year. implemented throughout the at a school in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 26 January 2009. the heart of conflict. Conflict lifetime of the operation. (UN Photo by Damir Milinovic) in turn can devastate habitats, In June 2009, Alain Le Roy, Each mission is also required making recovery to sustainable Under-Secretary-General for to design an environmental peace a hard road. Recently, Peacekeeping, promulgated action plan and create a post peacekeeping mandates have an Environmental Policy for of environmental officer. begun to address these issues. UN Field Missions to develop And work is under way at UN baselines and objectives for Key areas to be covered by Headquarters on ways to de- missions on environmental is- mission environment policies ploy large peacekeeping opera- sues. “Each mission will take include waste, energy, water, tions with a reduced impact on actions to integrate environ- hazardous substances, wild the environment. mental measures into its plan- animals and plants and cul- ning and operations in order to tural and historical resources As green consciousness grows avoid and minimize the impact management. Each mission among peace operation plan- of activities carried out by the also must develop an emer- ners, new ways are being mission and its staff on the gency management plan for sought to “green” peacekeep- environment and to protect environmental crises. ing. The goal, according to human health from such envi- Susana Malcorra, Under-Sec- ronmental impact,” according Missions are to follow the en- retary-General for Field Sup- to the policy objectives. vironmental laws of host coun- port, is to “achieve a more The directive requires that tries and where there are none environmentally sensitive, each mission establish envi- or only a few, to follow multi-20 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 23. Natural resources fuel lateral environmental agreements to responsibility to ensure that their set their own minimum standards. presence and operations have aconflict in DRC minimal ecological footprint andSince 2003, the Security Council has also The policy is an attempt to address do not aggravate environmen-considered the environment in the con- the fact that peacekeeping can in- tal degradation, which may be atext of conflict over natural resources. advertently contribute to environ- dimension of the conflict," saidThe Democratic Republic of the Congo mental degradation in the rush to Steiner recently.(DRC), surrounded by nine neighbouring deploy. In clearing areas for camps,countries, remains the world’s leading ex- for example, trees are removed— “A more environmentally respon-ample of the financial losses and human even in arid environments. In addi- sible aproach requires new think-suffering caused by illegal trafficking tion to felling hundreds of trees for ing and capabilities,“notes DPKO’sin natural resources. Foreign and local its camps in Darfur, for example, New Partnership Agenda.armed groups compete with the Govern- the UN peacekeeping and humani-ment for the control of metal and mineral tarian community decided to help Some UN operations have em-deposits in particular. They are extracted the local economy by purchas- barked on pilot projects to reduceand exported illegally, and some of the ing building bricks in situ instead mission impact on the land. In Su-proceeds from sales abroad are used for of importing them. This sudden dan, UNMIS and the Governmentthe illegal importation of weapons to market for bricks and other wood of Sweden are investing $5 millionsustain the fight for control. products spurred Darfurians to cut to introduce technologies for the and burn even greater amounts of treatment of waste, wastewaterOn 30 November 2009, Council resolution forest—already in serious decline- and efficient use of water and en-1896 on the DRC again recognized the -to produce them. ergy on military posts with a goal“linkage between the illegal exploitation of a 30 percent reduction in waterof natural resources, illicit trade in such This could exacerbate the conflict, consumption, 25 percent in ener-resources and the proliferation and traf- which many, including Secretary- gy expenditures and 60 percent officking of arms as one of the major fac- General Ban Ki-moon, have said waste volume.tors fuelling and exacerbating conflicts was caused at least in part byin the Great Lakes region of Africa….” dwindling resources. DPKO’s “New Thirteen missions are also participat- Horizon” agenda notes, “Threats ing in UNEP’s Billion Tree Campaign,The November resolution asked the such as environmental chang- having pledged or planted approxi-international Group of Experts, estab- es…..threaten many States and mately 118,000 trees in 2009.lished to monitor arms flows, to report contribute to growing politicalon the purchasing, sourcing, acquisition and security instability.” Also during the past year, DFSand processing of mineral products from completed the field missions’the DRC. It called on the Government The Departments of Peacekeeping greenhouse gas emissions in-of the DRC and neighboring states to Operations and Field Support are ventory, requested by the Chiefexchange information on illegal traf- joining forces with the UN Envi- Executives Board of all UN orga-ficking with MONUC and the Group of ronmental Programme (UNEP), nizations in 2007. Results wereExperts. It also called on Member States whose Executive Director Achim published in UNEP’s “Moving to-to take measures to ensure that import- Steiner has taken a keen interest ward a Climate-Neutral UN: theers and consumers of Congolese min- in finding creative ways both to UN System’s Footprint and Effortseral products “exercise due diligence on address the environmental roots of to Reduce It,” launched at the UNtheir suppliers and on the origin of the conflict and to alleviate any stress Climate Change Conference in Co-minerals they purchase,” including by on the environment that might be penhagen on 15 December.keeping import and export statistics for caused by a UN, cassiterite, coltan and wolframite. In preparing the inventory forThe Council recommended that import- "The primary role of interna- missions, DFS looked at the green-ers and processors also adopt policies tional peacekeeping forces and house gases (GHG) and their car-and codes of conduct to prevent indi- aid agencies is to keep the peace bon dioxide equivalent, emitted byrect support to armed groups in the DRC and support vulnerable communi- air travel (commercial, troop rota-through illicit trading. ties during difficult and distress- tion and UN flights), road travel, ing times. But they also have the refrigerants, power generation and YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 21
  • 24. power purchases. (They did not in- clude shipment of materials.) Thousands join UN Volunteers The findings, which DFS believes are underestimated—indicate that for the challenge peace operations emitted about 1 million tons CO2-equivalent (in Conditions in UN peacekeeping operations through the United 2008), nearly two-thirds of that of and political missions can be very Nations Volunteers (UNV) pro- the entire UN, or 1.7 million tons. challenging for personnel who gramme. Their motivations are as must be on alert and operational diverse as their talents, yet the Roughly speaking, the study despite personal discomforts and common thread binding them to- showed that the amount of CO2eq separation from friends and fam- gether is their desire to contrib- emitted in 2008 for the whole year ily. Yet every year thousands of ute to peace and development. (about nine tons per staff member) people join UN peace operations on a peacekeeping mission was a as UN Volunteers. Approximately 30 percent of in- ton more than that for a resident ternational civilian peacekeep- of the European Union. And when In 2009 more than 2,500 people ing personnel are UNVs, and they compared to residents of the host participated in peacekeeping play an important role in UN countries, the peacekeeping pro- duction of CO2-equivlent gases was far greater, i.e., 0.04 tons of CO2-equivlant per person in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example. In short, peacekeep- ing operations behave like devel- oped countries while operating in developing countries. In 2008, DFS added a dedicated post at UN Headquarters to coordi- nate environmental initiatives, to help mainstream the issue in all op- erational activities and to develop a framework to help the missions implement the environmental pol- icy. It will develop environmental guidelines and a GHG emissions re- duction strategy by the end of 2010 along with training materials,—all to raise awareness and understand- ing of the importance of the en- vironment to peacekeepers’ daily lives, to those of the local commu- nity they work with and for, and to the resolution of conflict and pro- motion of peace.  UN Volunteer Filippo Busconi from Italy attends a meeting with village elders to build trust and coordinate future activities, Ganachour IDP Site, Goz Beida, Chad. 15 April 2009 (UNV Photo by Harald Franzen)22 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 25. The volunteers we lost… operations. These volunteers per- period I spent in Liberia, I strongly believe I brought positive change form highly demanding tasks whileOn 28 October 2009, an armed attack on engaging with communities at the to the lives of many people.”the Bekhtar Guest House in Kabul, Afghan- grassroots level.istan, claimed the lives of five UN person- The spirit of volunteerismnel, including two UN Volunteers, Jossie UNV deploys approximately 8,000 UNVs bring a passionate commit-Esto and Yah-Lydia Wonyene. Esto was a volunteers a year, of which almost ment that adds to their contribu-mother of two from the Philippines, and 80 percent come from developing tion to peace and development,Wonyene was a mother of five from Liberia. countries, providing “South-South” bringing positive change in theBoth were serving as electoral outreach insights and support. Volunteers communities where they work. Asand training coordinators with the UNDP/ work in peacekeeping, peacebuild- professionals, they bring their ownELECT Project. Their role included helping ing and political assignments in experience to bear, while they alsorecruit local people as civic educators and 15 missions, including the Sudan, benefit from their volunteer work.district electoral field coordinators or poll- the Democratic Republic of Congoing officers—critical to the smooth opera- (DRC), Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, Haiti “UNV volunteers are motivated bytion of the August elections. UNVs worked and Timor-Leste. UN Volunteers the desire to reach out to communi-directly with teams of Afghan nationals, make a distinctive contribution to ties, and to the vulnerable and mar-offering guidance and training on how the work of UN peacekeeping, and ginalized, and to develop their ca-best to prepare local communities to take the Department of Peacekeeping pacities to participate actively andpart in the elections. Operations has acknowledged their constructively in the development professionalism and dedication. of their societies,” says UNV Ex-Esto and Wonyene had served previously ecutive Coordinator Flavia UNVs in UN peacekeeping and spe- From peace to development However, “the personal and profes-cial political operations in places such Witty Golden Midaya of Malawi has sional gain of a volunteer assign-as Timor-Leste, Sierra Leone, Liberia and worked in Liberia since October ment comes at a cost; for example,Nepal. Often the conditions they experi- 2004 as a UN Volunteer, firstly as living in difficult field conditions.”enced were tough and required a strong a reintegration field monitor indegree of commitment and responsibility. the disarmament, demobilization, One-third of the volunteers work inAs civilian personnel, they often had to rehabilitation and reintegration peacekeeping. Astrede Karimi Mba-don bullet-resistant vests and helmets joint implementation unit in Mon- ka, from Kenya, is assigned to theand travel in armored vehicles. They had rovia, and subsequently as a UN UN Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)the disciplined and strong personalities Development Programme County as a geographic information systemsessential for the work. Coordinator under the communi- (GIS) specialist. The GIS unit col- ty-based recovery and develop- lects, prepares and distributes geo-Stuart Moran, UNV Programme Manager in ment programme. spatial information for UNMIS, otherAfghanistan, described the commitment UN agencies and international non-of the two women to promoting peace “I contributed to the reintegration governmental organizations. Herand development through volunteerism: of close to 120,000 ex-combat- work involves providing digital and“They came to Afghanistan as UNV Vol- ants, but also influenced a mind- print mapping services, enabling herunteers in solidarity with the people of set change, getting people more UN colleagues to plan the complexthe country. They shared their skills and interested in agriculture and work- logistics of a peacekeeping mission.lives with their Afghan colleagues and ing hard,” he says, recalling thosetheir services embodied the very essence days. “I also promoted volunteer- "Volunteers such as Ms. Mbakaof volunteerism.” ism among my team and commu- play a key role in the collection, nity members, who are now always verification, management, storage,For Flavia Pansieri, UNV Executive Coordi- willing to do voluntary work… analysis and dissemination of allnator, the loss of volunteer colleagues was geospatial data," said unit chieftragic: “They gave their lives in pursuit of “The security situation remains Major Haytham Saied.democracy in Afghanistan. Their commit- fragile, and living in a very remotement is an inspiration to us and volunteers and isolated environment can take Mkaba concedes that the tougharound the world to continue working to- its toll. But when I look back at the weather and working conditions inwards peace and development.” YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 23
  • 26. the Sudan require flexibility and are ment control in extremely harsh field. Shortly after Kristen’s team not for everyone. Yet, she asserts, conditions and still remain calm, arrived in the village of Walikale, “Id encourage anyone to become principled and in control, insist- they discovered that a nearby vil- a UNV volunteer. I have grown ing on the respect of rules. Their lage was under imminent threat of professionally and personally, also volunteer spirit is admirable. I being caught in the crossfire be- managing to volunteer my free time have many staff who are profes- tween two warring factions. The to train local students in GIS.” sionals, but who could learn a Joint Protection Teams had to take couple of things about dedication action immediately. UNVs also work with development from UN Volunteers.” partners to reach out to communi- "Together with the ‘Blue Helmets’, ties affected by conflict. They work About 800 UNVs are currently serv- we negotiated a ceasefire and in the UN Mission in the Central Afri- ing with the UN mission in the DRC asked for a temporary zone of sep- can Republic and Chad (MINURCAT), (MONUC). Kristen Petillon, from aration and a retreat of the armed for example to support the creation France, works hand-in-hand with units from their positions," he of security conditions conducive to the “Blue Helmets”. An associate says. "Moreover, thanks to some the voluntary, secure and sustain- civil affairs officer, he is one of six delicate negotiations, the joint able return of displaced persons UNVs deployed with Joint Protec- protection team was able to ex- and refugees from the Sudan and tion Teams in North Kivu. tract two child soldiers from one DRC. For Victor Angelo, Special of the groups." Representative of the Secretary "In practice," he says, "the team General and Head of MINURCAT, assesses situations, identifies “What adds value to our contribu- the added value of UN volunteers threats and, in conjunction with tions within UN operations and is their commitment. the ‘Blue Helmets’, formulates ap- gives us strength to reach out to propriate responses." the communities we serve in these “Volunteers hit the ground run- tough contexts, is the spirit of ning,” he says. “I am very im- But the teams must also react with volunteerism.”  pressed by volunteer engineers tailored approaches to dramatic or volunteers who work in move- situations they encounter in the The UNV (United Nations Volunteer) Support Office organizes the annual blood drive at UNOCI Headquarters in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. 17 June 2009. (UN Photo by Ky Chung)24 YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS 24
  • 27. Civilians seek protection by gathering near a UNAMID base in Muhajeriya area, Darfur.16 January 2009. (UN Photo) Protection of civilians by peacekeepers gets new impetus For the past 10 years, the United of UN Peacekeeping Operations the legitimacy and credibility of UN Nations Security Council has re- (available at peacekeeping missions, the peace quired many peacekeeping missions The report identifies gaps between agreements they are deployed to to include “protection of civilians” the norms that have come to be help implement and the institution as a core part of their work. While accepted and expected in terms of of the United Nations itself,” ac- that might sound like an obvious protection of civilians in conflict cording to the report. duty for a peacekeeping force, pre- on the one hand, and the reality vious mandates had not included of what means UN peacekeepers “Yet the UN Secretariat, troop- and such language, and the current and humanitarians actually have at police-contributing countries, host mandates that do have left some their disposal to protect people on states, humanitarian actors, human missions with either unclear ideas the ground, on the other. rights professionals and the missions of what “protection” means and/or themselves continue to struggle over insufficient resources and capacities Since the crises in Rwanda, Bosnia what it means for a peacekeeping to fully implement it. In addition, and Somalia during the 1990s, the operation to protect civilians, in in 2009, the Security Council also Security Council and the UN Secre- definition and in practice.” mandated peacekeeping operations tariat have worked to improve the to protect women and children from overall effectiveness of UN peace- The “chain of events” to sup- sexual violence during conflict. keeping operations, including their port protection of civilians, from capabilities to protect civilians, the earliest planning, to Security Recommending ways to improve the report notes. A total of 10 UN Council mandates, to implementa- the implementation of protec- peacekeeping operations (eight cur- tion by peacekeeping missions— tion mandates by UN peacekeep- rently) have been explicitly mandat- “is broken,” the report states. ing missions, the Department of ed to “protect civilians under immi- Peacekeeping Operations and Of- nent threat of physical violence.” The Security Council has established fice for Coordination of Humanitar- a normative framework for protec- ian Affairs have released a report, “The security of civilians in post- tion of civilians, however, “there is Protecting Civilians in the Context conflict environments is critical to recognition that this process has YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 25
  • 28. not been matched by a correspond- and training on the protection of discharge their protection man- ing improvement in actual situa- civilians, and that troop-contribut- dates more effectively. tions where civilians are affected by ing countries do the same. • Humanitarian actors must have conflict,” noted the New York NGO better and safer access to civil- Security Council Report. Addressing the meeting, Secretary- ians in need. General Ban Ki-moon said that the This dilemma became all the more • The UN must enhance account- Security Council deliberations and relevant when the UN mission in ability for individuals who vio- decisions on the protection of ci- the Democratic Republic of the late humanitarian laws. vilians “have raised global aware- Congo (MONUC) came under fire ness and advanced what is, after from NGOs and the media in 2009 During the debate, some Member all, a key part of this Organiza- after the Congolese armed forces States who are also troop-contrib- tion’s cardinal mission: saving and (FARDC) were accused of attacks on uting-countries called for realistic protecting people from the horrors civilians. In addition to protecting mandates that clearly delineate of armed conflict.” civilians, MONUC is mandated with the roles and responsibilities of supporting the national army. peacekeepers in protecting civil- He laid out five “core challenges” ians. Other countries stressed— for the UN in better protecting ci- After an open debate on the pro- as did resolution 1894—that the vilians during conflict: tection of civilians issue on 11 host government bears primary November, the Security Council • The Security Council must responsibility for its protection adopted a lengthy resolution (UN- strengthen compliance by all of its citizens. Several countries SCR 1894) demanding that parties parties to a conflict with inter- insisted that sufficient resources to a conflict comply with interna- national law. must be committed to match such tional obligations to protect civil- • The UN needs more consistent mandates. ians. The resolution also asked the engagement with non-state Secretary-General to ensure that all armed groups in order to ensure DPKO and DFS began work in 2009 peacekeeping missions with pro- compliance. on an “operational concept” for the tection mandates conduct planning protection of civilians in UN peace- • Peacekeeping missions must keeping operations, which will be- UN Peacekeeper with Sudanese refugee children, Oure Cassoni camp, Chad. 16 October 2009. (UN Photo by Olivia Grey Pritchard)26 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 29. come the basis for official policy. sexual violence in countries on the security….” The Council expressedThe Security Council also charged agenda of the Council. With resolu- its intention to ensure that reso-peacekeeping missions with ad- tion 1888 of 30 September 2009, lutions establishing or renewingdressing sexual violence against ci- the Council affirmed that “effective peacekeeping mandates containvilians in armed conflict. In 2008, steps to prevent and respond to … provisions on the prevention of andwith resolution 1820, the Council acts of sexual violence can signifi- response to sexual violence, includ-had tasked DPKO with collect- cantly contribute to the mainte- ing the appointment of women’sing evidence of the prevalence of nance of international peace and protection advisers. Peacekeeping in Africa >>MONUC — A watershed year for the protectionof civiliansFor the Democratic Republic of the bellion and integrate some 20,000 wards, the DRC and Rwanda’s alsoCongo, 2009 marked the tenth year combatants into the ranks of the launched Umoja Wetu (Our Unity)of the deployment of the United FARDC and National Police. The against the FDLR. Subsequently,Nations peacekeeping operation FDLR, which the Security Council after many years, the neighbouringthere (MONUC) and a turning point characterized as one of the prin- states of this troubled region fullythat ushered in opportunities for cipal causes of armed conflict in restored diplomatic relations andpeace that were unforeseeable a the region, remained the principal made initial steps towards revivingyear earlier. armed obstruction to Congolese regional economic cooperation. state authority in the eastern prov-Armed conflict between the Con- inces of North and South Kivu. As mandated by the Security Coun-grès national pour la défense du cil, MONUC continued to protectpeuple (CNDP), Congolese Govern- Remarkable diplomacy civilians under threat of imminentment forces (FARDC) and dozens of violence and to assist DRC Govern- This new horizon was opened by ment armed forces in their struggleother armed groups sowed chaos bilateral diplomacy and political against foreign armed groups, no-in the eastern DRC for most of the decisions at the highest levels in tably the FDLR and LRA, as well asprevious year despite peace agree- Kinshasa, Kigali and Kampala, to home-grown militias.ments reached at a conference in mend fences and increase coopera-Goma in January of 2008. Imple- tion, especially in dealing with re- Outrage over attacks on civiliansmentation of the 2007 Nairobi gional threats to security. PoliticalCommuniqué between the DRC and efforts by two international facili- A joint operational directive be-Rwanda on eliminating the threat tators, former Presidents Olusegun tween the military commands ofof the Forces démocratiques de Obasanjo of Nigeria and Benjamin MONUC and the FARDC set outlibération du Rwanda (FDLR), had Mkapa of Tanzania, appointed the terms of cooperation betweenall but stalled. And on another by the UN Secretary-General and them in taking on the FDLR in aeastern front, attempts to end vio- the African Union, respectively, campaign dubbed Kimia II. Thelence by the rebels of the Ugan- helped maintain the momentum campaign, launched in North anddan Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) of talks, both internationally and South Kivu, seriously disrupted theremained unfulfilled. among Congolese parties. In De- FDLR and its command over some cember 2008, the DRC and Ugan- 6,000 militia. In April 2009, AlanHowever, by early 2009, relations da launched Operation Lightning Doss—the Special Representa-between the DRC and its eastern Thunder, a joint military operation tive of the Secretary-General andneighbours were on the mend. on Congolese soil, in coordination Chief of Mission—told the SecurityNew accords were reached in March with forces in southern Sudan, in Council that it would be impossiblebetween the DRC government and pursuit of the LRA. Shortly after- to end the FDLR’s control over largearmed groups to end the CNDP re-YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 27
  • 30. Indian peacekeepers from MONUC’s North Kivu Brigade escort people at risk of attack by the Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR) to market in the Kibua Walikale area in North Kivu, DR Congo. 14 August 2009. (UN Photo by Sylvie van den Wildenberg) parts of both Kivus without any ernment’s own forces also engaged delays in the payment of soldiers’ humanitarian consequences. In ef- in attacks on civilians. salaries contributed to indiscipline fect, military operations cost civil- and abuses, as army units effec- ians dearly in remote, undefended Undisciplined behaviour among tively lived off the land and those areas. FDLR forces torched villages, some FARDC units was closely re- they were supposed to protect. targeted local authorities and tra- lated to the fast-track integra- ditional chiefs and displaced thou- tion of former militias, including As this publication went to press, sands of families. Accurate num- the CNDP, into the security forces. the integration process was not bers are difficult to obtain, but at Many former combatants and offi- moving ahead as quickly as hoped. least several hundred civilians were cers have records of serious human The CNDP facing internal divisions, killed, and appalling levels of sexu- rights violations. Violence and al- while some former CNDP com- al violence were inflicted on wom- legations of abuses, particularly batants threatened to leave the en and girls. These reprisals, linked by some newly integrated CNDP FARDC. The FARDC itself continued to Kimia II operations and MO- troops against civilians, under- to suffer from weak command and NUC’s mandate to support joint op- mined civilian confidence in the control, and capacity for delivering erations with the FARDC, outraged FARDC and heightened ethnic ten- military justice was sorely lacking. many in the international commu- sions in some areas. Integration nity and subjected the mission to of these groups was nonetheless Government responses sharp criticism from humanitarians an essential element in arrange- Monitoring from the field showed and intense scrutiny in the inter- ments to end internal rebellion that in places where MONUC was national press. Some of the harsh- within the DRC and to underpin visible, where government troops est critiques were prompted by the the rapprochement between Ki- were paid on time and where food fact that elements within the Gov- gali and Kinshasa. Corruption and rations were available, there were28 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 31. fewer discipline problems within fenders who had entered the ranks Security Council in October that FARDC ranks. Successive reports of of the FARDC. it would never be possible for the the Secretary-General drew sharp at- UN and its 12,000 peacekeepers tention to the deficiencies, and the SRSG Doss pressed the DRC and deployed in the east to provide worldwide outcry about sexual vio- its partners to beef up support for blanket protection for civilians lence also appeared to have some proper training to develop a disci- throughout the eastern Congo— positive effect. President Joseph plined army capable of protecting a region the size of France, Spain Kabila declared “zero tolerance” the DRC’s people and its borders. and Germany combined. He noted, for acts of sexual and gender-based He made clear to Government nevertheless, that hundreds of violence, and the Government be- leaders that MONUC would with- thousands of people were protect- gan to take action against looting, hold support from army battalions ed daily and received direct assis- corruption and other undisciplined that showed a blatant disregard tance through MONUC patrols and behaviour by army personnel. An for international humanitarian humanitarian convoys escorted by FARDC military court established law. He also highlighted the need UN peacekeepers. for the Kivus initiated more than 30 for security forces capable of es- prosecutions, finding soldiers guilty tablishing state authority over the MONUC’s strength grew over 2009, of human rights violations. Several natural resources that sustain and with the arrival of some 2,500 of high-level commanders were re- arm illegal armed groups through the additional 3,000 uniformed lieved of command for misconduct, illicit sales of minerals, metals personnel approved by the Council including corruption. The Govern- and forest resources. for MONUC’s expansion in 2008. ment also removed from command But only three of the 18 additional five officers whose records of abuse Reinforcing civilian protection helicopters promised were deliv- had been brought to its attention ered. MONUC closed the year with MONUC’s mandate and operational 95 percent of its troop strength of by the UN. But Congolese and strategies give priority to the pro- 19,670 and 80 percent of its inter- international NGOs continued to tection of civilians. However, the national civilian personnel (more press the Government and MONUC Special Representative told the than 1,000 international civilian to act against other presumed of-A South African peacekeeper carriesan injured child to a MONUC helicop-ter in eastern Congo for evacuationand further treatment, Busurungi, DRCongo. 15 May 2009. (UN Photo byMarie Frechon) YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 29
  • 32. staff plus 628 UN Volunteers) de- that field commanders could bet- DRC and Uganda and trans- ployed in eastern DRC. Some 400 ter direct and position their forces. ferred to Arusha. international police and more than More than 50 JPT missions were • Most of the IDPs who had been 1,000 members of formed police launched during the year, most in regrouped in camps at the out- units are also on the ground. North and South Kivu, as well as in skirts of Goma as a result of Province Orientale. the earlier conflict with the Stretching resources to meet CNDP returned home, although challenges Anticipating problems a very high number of displaced Limited resources led MONUC to A rapid response and early warn- people in North and South Kivu innovate in its quest for improved ing cell assembled and analyzed were waiting for further im- protection. Military and civilian information gathered from mul- provements in the security situ- peacekeepers were deployed to ex- tiple sources at ground level to ation before going back to their tremely remote and isolated areas help guide deployments by as- villages. to get as close as possible to the sessing areas of vulnerability, • More than 2,000 children were people. These deployments meant identifying threat patterns and separated from armed groups. better deterrence, earlier warn- recording the performance of in- ings and quicker reaction in mo- dividual battalions of the FARDC. • The integration of the CNDP and ments of crisis. Initiatives ranged Close monitoring helped MONUC other Congolese armed groups from day patrols escorting women to identify those who violated was approaching completion. villagers to market, to night pa- the rights of civilians and to en- More than 120 political pris- trols in high-risk zones, and the courage Congo’s military leaders oners had been released and distribution of mobile phones pre- to take corrective measures. returned to the East with MO- loaded with emergency contacts NUC’s assistance. so community leaders could call Outcomes MONUC in emergencies. • A UN-supported stabilization As the year drew to a close, prog- programme was moving into ress was evident on a number of areas freed from the control of MONUC also continued to safeguard fronts: armed groups and opening the key surface routes, ensuring hu- manitarian access to populations way for the return of state au- • FARDC operations in the Kivus affected by conflict, and providing thority. and in Orientale province had escorts to UN agencies as well as significantly eroded the strike The SRSG told representatives of NGOs who sought such assistance. capacity and domination of the troop-contributing countries in Oc- FDLR and the LRA. tober that if the MONUC reinforce- The tempo of operations was unre- ment was successful, and major lenting. MONUC forces established • Some 1,500 FDLR combatants military operations against foreign dozens of mobile operating bases had been repatriated by the armed groups could be concluded in “hot spots”, with the flexibility DDRRR (*) team - more than in 2010, MONUC could begin a to move as security demanded. It double the repatriation rate for phased troop drawdown, conso- deployed Joint Protection Teams the same period in 2008. An ad- nant with the security situation on (JPTs) in sensitive areas to help ditional 11,383 Rwandan civil- the ground. On 23 December, the the military and local authorities ians, many of whom had been Security Council authorized a five- analyze, anticipate, and respond to virtually held hostage by the month extension of MONUC’s man- specific threats. JPTs comprise ci- FDLR, returned to Rwanda with date, through 31 May 2010. Resolu- vilian experts in human rights, child the assistance of UNHCR. tion 1906 kept the strength of the protection, civil and political af- • Two major figures wanted by force at its current level of 21,000 fairs and other fields. They enabled the ICTR (**) for their in- troops and police.  the mission to better understand volvement in the 1994 Rwanda the needs of local communities so genocide were arrested in the (*) DDRRR: Disarmament, Demobilization, Repatriation, Reintegration and Resettlement (**) ICTR: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda30 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 33. The long journey to sustain peace in Darfur UNAMID civil affairs officers meet The African Union–United displaced persons (IDPs), pro- the mission is not mandated towith a group of internally displaced Nations Hybrid Operation in viding round-the-clock secu- operate. In addition to more persons in the Abu-Shouk Camp timely delivery of supplies, Darfur (UNAMID) encoun- rity patrols at IDP camps, and in northern Darfur, Sudan, to hearabout the security and health situa- tered successes, obstacles contributing to a substantial the mission received vehicles tion in the camp. 3 February 2009. and tragedy as it closed out reduction in the levels of vio- that were utilized to deliver (UN Photo by Olivier Chassot) its second year amid a deli- lence and in the numbers of water to the local population cate peace. those affected by violence. and building materials that enabled the construction of The peacekeeping mission, These developments were facilities for the mission and the UN’s costliest and the brought about by an in- the people of Darfur alike. second largest in person- creased deployment of mili- nel, is tasked with helping tary personnel and assets, as Other UNAMID initiatives in- to bring peace to Darfur, well as significant improve- cluded enhancement of the ca- a region of western Sudan ments to the logistical sup- pacity of the Government and roughly the size of France, ply chain. In a major initia- police to address human rights which has endured one of the tive to unblock the supply violations and inadequacies in world’s worst humanitarian routes from Khartoum to El the local judicial services, as crises in recent years. Fasher, UNAMID managed to well as the establishment of a reduce the journey for supply UNAMID gender crimes special Despite enormous challenges, convoys from Port Sudan to El investigation unit to monitor UNAMID could count several Fasher from 11 days to four, and report on investigations achievements in 2009. These largely due to increased co- of crimes committed against included encouraging greater operation with the Sudanese women and children. The dialogue between local Suda- police who provided escorts in mission also provided logis- nese authorities and internally areas outside of Darfur where tical support to programmes YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 31
  • 34. for children who had been associ- hostile actions in 2009, bringing the Government of National Unity ated with military activities, and the total number of peacekeepers (GoNU) and the Justice and Equal- funded more than 30 quick impact who died as a result of violence ity Movement (JEM) agreed to AU/ projects in agriculture, education, since the mission’s start two years UN mediated talks in Doha, Qatar. health, water and sanitation and ago to 22. More than 100 UN ve- On 17 February, the parties reached women’s empowerment. hicles were lost to carjackings. an ‘Agreement of Good Will and Confidence Building for the Settle- However, throughout the year, The humanitarian obstacles UNAMID ment of the Problem in Darfur’. Re- the mission was sorely tested by confronted in 2009 worsened fol- grettably, the Agreement was not the challenges of an ever-volatile lowing the 4 March decision by the fully implemented by the parties. security situation and the vaga- International Criminal Court (ICC) In mid-November, the AU-UN me- ries of a complex and difficult po- to indict President Omar Hassan diation made notable progress by litical process. Al-Bashir and three other Suda- bringing together a diverse group nese. Sudan retaliated immedi- of Darfur civil society in Doha to Kidnappings and confrontations, ately by expelling 13 international arrive at a consensus on critical is- tribal clashes, banditry and attacks NGOs from the country and shut- sues such as security arrangements, against its peacekeepers made it in- ting down many national NGOs. wealth-sharing and power-sharing. creasingly difficult for the mission This led to UNAMID, UN agencies to conduct its work. In the western and other partners spending much While the Sudan Liberation Army/ town of Zalingei, two UNAMID in- of the year trying to fill the gaps Abdul Wahid (SLA-AW) and other ternational civilians were abducted in the delivery of humanitarian factions remained outside the from their accommodation in Au- services. talks throughout the year, efforts gust and were released on 13 De- continued to have them agree cember after 100 days in captivity. On the political front, the year upon a common platform in an- UNAMID lost nine peacekeepers to started on a promising note as ticipation of joining the GoNU/ UNAMID peacekeepers from Rwanda patrol in North Darfur, Sudan. 12 October 2009. (UN Photo by Olivier Chassot )32 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 35. JEM talks. The Government of Preparations for the April 2010 with the force rising to 4,574, rep-Libya and the US Special Envoy to general elections to be held across resenting more than 40 countries,Sudan complemented these efforts Sudan began slowly, and logistical and nearly 75 percent of its autho-by working to reunify some of the constraints prompted the extension rized strength.smaller movements. The AU High of the voter registration period. InLevel Panel on Darfur, headed by Darfur, the SLA-AW and JEM boy- While the expansion of both theformer South African President cotted voter registration and called military and police personnel wasThabo Mbeki, also made a signifi- on their supporters in IDP camps encouraging, the military contin-cant contribution to international to do the same, but did not direct ued to lack aviation assets. The lackefforts to find a solution to the major violence or attacks at the ex- of these critical enablers seriouslycrisis in Darfur. ercise. The UN lent some logistical affects the force’s capabilities, and support to the process, which by thus its ability to fully dischargeOn Chad-Sudan relations, the war early December resulted in the reg- its mandate. The United Nationsof words, as well as the territorial istration of approximately 65 per is hopeful that in 2010 these as-violations that marked the start of cent of the national population. sets, which include 18 utility andthe year, ebbed after the two coun- five tactical helicopters, two sur-tries agreed to a cessation of vio- By the close of 2009, significant veillance aircraft and two heavylence on 4 May. This undertaking gains had been made in the deploy- transport units, will be provided bywas reinforced by an official visit ment of UNAMID’s military person- Member Chad on 10 October by President nel. The mission’s total strength ofBashir’s advisor on Darfur, follow- 15,370, representing 53 countries, The challenges UNAMID faces on alling which the Chadian armed op- grew by 35 percent over the previ- fronts—political, security, human-position groups moved some 200 ous year and moved close to the itarian and logistical—are not in-kilometres away from the Chadian authorized strength of 19,555. surmountable. Success will requireborder into Sudan. There were a collaborative effort between UN-also fewer military offences by JEM UNAMID police and formed police AMID, the Member States support-against Sudanese forces as the year units, tasked mainly with protect- ing it, the parties to the conflict andcame to a close. ing the civilian population and the local communities of Darfur.  IDPs, also increased in numbers,UNMIS tackles a rough year in Southern SudanDuring an unusually violent and As inter-tribal turmoil escalated in ing the accord’s fourth anniversarypolitically unstable year in south- southern Sudan, the mission imple- in the Upper Nile State capital ofern Sudan, the United Nations mented a stabilization programme Malakal. Fighting between DinkaMission in Sudan (UNMIS) under- in Jonglei State that sharply cur- and Shilluk tribesmen on 9 Janu-took a new, proactive approach to tailed fighting in one of the most ary triggered clashes that killed 12peacekeeping, which enabled fur- turbulent corners of the country. people and displaced an estimatedther progress towards implemen- UNMIS achieved significant head- 6,000 residents.tation of the 2005 Comprehensive way in its support of crucial mile-Peace Agreement (CPA). stones of the CPA, such as voter UNMIS responded swiftly to the registration, police training, child next outbreak of violence in theUNMIS helped launch the much- protection, and on the issue of the city in late February. The unexpect-awaited Sudan Disarmament, De- disputed boundaries of the oil-rich ed arrival in Malakal of former mi-mobilization and Reintegration area of Abyei. litia commander Gabriel Tangyangi(DDR) programme in 2009 and on 24 February triggered deadlymoved quickly to defuse tensions The first signs of what proved to be clashes between elements of thein the aftermath of violent clashes the most violent year in southern Joint Integrated Unit (JIU) be-in several hotspots in the southern Sudan since the signing of the CPA longing to the Sudan Armed Forcesregion of the country. erupted during celebrations mark- and the Sudan People’s LiberationYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 33
  • 36. Army (SPLA). The violence that men against a fishing camp inhab- other SPLA soldiers stationed at left at least 62 people dead and 94 ited by Lou Nuer villagers in the the local governor’s headquarters wounded was quickly ended after Jonglei State county of Akobo on 2 on 2 October. An estimated 300 UNMIS aircraft flew Vice President August. The raid killed 161 people, troops assigned to Matip’s com- Riek Machar of the Government of most of whom were women and pound fled the city after the fight- Southern Sudan (GoSS) to Malakal children, and UNMIS subsequently ing subsided, and UNMIS aircraft to negotiate a ceasefire. The Cease- airlifted 160 SPLA soldiers to the later ferried those soldiers to Juba fire Joint Military Commission stricken area to stabilize security for re-deployment to the SPLA unit chaired by the UNMIS Force Com- on the ground. assigned to protect GoSS President mander worked closely with the Salva Kiir Mayardit. State Security Committee to disen- The mission rendered a similar gage the warring elements. service after soldiers guarding the Perhaps the most ambitious in- compound of SPLA deputy com- stance of pro-active peacekeeping The mission reacted quickly again mander-in-chief Lt. Gen. Paulino began in Jonglei State with the es- when serious unrest occurred fol- Matip in the Unity State capital tablishment of two UNMIS tempo- lowing an attack by Murle tribes- of Bentiu exchanged gunfire with rary operating bases in the flash- A female former combatant hands over her weapon at the launch of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programme sponsored by UNMIS in Ed Damazin, Sudan. 5 May 2009. (UN Photo by Johann Hattingh)34 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 37. points of Akobo and Pibor counties but its work has proceeded ex- for the three Darfur states were al-on 10 May. Each base was staffed tremely slowly. legedly inflated.with some 120 soldiers, and robustair and river patrols were conducted The annual Misseriya migration Continued bickering between thethroughout the area for 60 days. into disputed areas inhabited by NCP and SPLM stalled efforts in the Dinka Ngok communities went off National Assembly to approve en-County officials and the state gov- relatively peacefully. UNMIS sup- abling legislation for the southernernor later expressed their gratitude ported the convening of meetings Sudan and Abyei referenda, slatedto the mission for having brought among Dinka Ngok, Misseriya lead- for January 2011.residents a welcome respite from ers and government officials in thethe wave of violence plaguing their aftermath of the arbitration court’s In an effort to prompt CPA partnersregion since early March. ruling on Abyei. to consider various post-referenda scenarios that they might haveThe Sudan DDR programme was Marauding bands of gunmen belong- to deal with in order to ensure alaunched in the Blue Nile State ing to the Lord’s Resistance Army peaceful implementation of thecapital of Ed Damezin on 10 Feb- (LRA) continued to terrorize commu- agreement, UNMIS held a majorruary, and reintegration com- nities living near southern Sudan’s symposium on “Unity and Pros-menced six weeks later. Similar border with the Democratic Republic pects of Self- Determination” inprogrammes were later unveiled of the Congo and the Central African November. Sudanese political play-in the states of Southern Kordo- Republic. At least 200 people were ers, intelligentsia and members offan, Central Equatoria and Lakes, killed and another 130 kidnapped the general public engaged in aand as of 31 August over 12,000 during LRA attacks in Western and lively debate over the future of theex-combatants had been demobi- Central Equatoria states during the country post-2011.lized across the country. Another first nine months of the year, withDDR programme was to kick off in tens of thousands of southern Suda- Against this difficult backgroundthe Northern Bahr El Ghazal state nese displaced by these raids. How- of political wrangling and the chal-capital of Aweil in December. ever, the scale and frequency of LRA lenges of timelines, mishaps and attacks declined as the year proceed- regional instabilities, UNMIS con-In the lead-up to the elections in ed, and its gunmen broke into small, tinued to press on with its man-April 2010, the mission’s electoral isolated groups with little ability to date within its capabilities. Theassistance division (EAD) provided mount serious raids deep inside Su- mission cleared and reopened thetechnical help and logistical sup- danese territory. Sobat river waterway after a tribalport to the National Elections Com- attack sank 120 barges, closingmission (NEC), the Southern Sudan As well as rising tensions between the only lifeline between Nasir andHigh Committee and the 25 state- the country’s two leading political Acobo. It deployed aerial patrolslevel high committees. The EAD parties, the Sudanese political cal- after the clashes in Yambio, Bin-played a vital support role in the endar was impacted by the arrest tue and Awiel, supported JIUs inrun-up to the voter registration warrant against President Omar al- the Abyei area, managed tensionsprocess, which began in nearly all Bashir issued by the International between the Dinka and Misseriya,state capitals across the country Criminal Court on 4 March. The and provided training on electionson 1 November. Sudanese Government responded security to police in both northern by expelling 13 international non- and southern Sudan, to mentionIn one of the few positive devel- governmental organizations (NGOs) just a few activities.opments on the political front in from the Darfur region and shutting2009, the National Congress Par- down three local NGOs. UNMIS was also affected by trag-ty (NCP) and the Sudan People’s edy in 2009 when its Deputy ForceLiberation Movement (SPLM) ac- The SPLM and GoSS President Kiir Commander, Brigadier Moin-Ud-Dincepted the 22 July ruling by the publicly rejected the official results Ahmed, was assassinated while onPermanent Court of Arbitration in of the 2008 national census on the leave in his home country of Paki-The Hague on the Abyei boundary grounds that residents in the 10 stan. A memorial service was helddispute. A boundary demarcation southern states had been under- at UNMIS HQ in his honour. committee was then appointed, counted, while population figuresYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 35
  • 38. Officers of the United Nations Police and Chad’s Détachement intégré de sécurité (DIS) interview Sudanese refugees intheir camp, Farchana, Chad. 24 February 2009. (UN Photo by Olivia Grey Pritchard) A year of transition for MINURCAT In 2009, the United Nations Mis- refugees from northeastern Central force had welcomed troops from sion in the Central African Repub- African Republic into the Salamat Nepal, Cambodia and Mongolia, as lic and Chad (MINURCAT) added region of Chad. UNHCR estimates well as a state-of–the-art level II a large military component to its that approximately 16,000 new deployable hospital and staff from peacekeeping operation as it as- refugees arrived, bringing the total Norway. Challenges still remain for sumed responsibility from the Eu- number of refugees receiving hu- the MINURCAT force to attain its ropean Union force (EUFOR) on 15 manitarian aid in Chad to approxi- full authorized strength and fulfil March 2009. In January, the Se- mately 320,000. its security mandate. curity Council adopted resolution 1861 authorizing the deployment At one minute before midnight on At the beginning of the year, the of 5,200 troops to the troubled area 14 March 2009, Force Commander mission successfully focused on and tasked the mission with help- Major-General Elhadji Mouhame- the deployment of the special ing to create conditions conducive dou Kandji (Senegal) assumed Chadian security force, the Dé- to a voluntary, secure and sustain- operational control of the United tachement Intégré de Sécurité able return of refugees (263,000 Nations force of 2,085 troops. The (DIS), to maintain law and order in from neighbouring Darfur, Sudan) force comprised 1,877 troops re- refugee camps, IDP sites and sur- and 180,000 internally displaced hatted from eight EUFOR contribu- rounding towns. The 820 men and persons (IDPs) currently encamped tors (Albania, Austria, Croatia, Ire- women of the DIS are now working in eastern Chad. land, Finland, France, Poland and throughout the mission area in 20 Russia), 140 troops from two new locations in camps, IDP sites and In mid-January 2009, clashes be- contributors (Ghana and Togo), towns in eastern Chad. More than tween rebel factions and the Gov- and 68 new force headquarters 248 United Nations police officers ernment of the Central African Re- staff officers from various coun- from 20 countries, including 26 public resulted in a new influx of tries. By year’s end, the MINURCAT women, mentored, monitored and36 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 39. advised the DIS. The international criminal cases. A total of 107 ac- visits in refugee camps and inter-police officers supported the DIS in cused persons were put on trial, nally displaced person sites to sup-policing refugee camps in eastern represented by defence coun- port Government efforts to eradi-Chad and conducted motorized and sel, with sentences ranging from cate the recruitment of children byfoot patrols around key towns in five years to life imprisonment. armed groups.eastern Chad. MINURCAT also as- MINURCAT also provided techni-sisted the recruitment by the Chad- cal support to the mobile court MINURCAT also supported localian national police of 250 female hearings in Goz Beïda and Farch- reconciliation and intercommu-officers in order to improve the ana, including the preparation of nity dialogue in eastern Chad. Ingender balance of the force. court documents. During July and much of the east, underlying trib- August, court facilities in Iriba al tensions and disputes betweenAt the year’s end, the DIS had and Goz Beïda were rehabilitated farmers and nomadic herders, trig-conducted more than 3,600 pa- and equipped with MINURCAT and gered by competition for scarcetrols and 1,400 security escorts, UNDP support. In order to improve resources, have intensified in re-primarily benefiting humanitarian prison infrastructure, MINURCAT cent years with the displacementactors. It had arrested more than implemented projects to bolster of communities and prevalence of300 individuals involved in vari- security and the living conditions weapons. Initiatives aimed at in-ous crimes and offences, and con- of female inmates in Abéché Prison tercommunity dialogue have seenfiscated weapons and recovering and the reconstruction of the Iriba the creation of conflict preven-vehicles stolen from UN agencies detention facility. tion committees and reconcilia-and non-governmental organiza- tion ceremonies in various areastions. DIS also recorded several MINURCAT launched sensitization of eastern Chad previously miredcases of infiltration of armed in- campaigns on female genital mu- by ethnic conflict.dividuals into refugee camps and tilation, sexual and gender-basedhas sought to contain this threat violence and forced marriage, tar- While 2009 was a year of transitionby placing security checkpoints geting internally displaced persons for the newest UN peacekeepingaround the camps. and refugee communities, as well operation, the coming year should as local authorities. The gendar- be marked by the consolidation ofUN experts also provided support merie initiated criminal investi- its presence throughout the areato the functioning of courts in gations in three rape cases after of operations. Preparations con-eastern Chad. In July, the Criminal DIS arrested the perpetrators and tinue in earnest to accommodateCourt of Abéché, with the support transferred them to the justice of the remaining incoming troopsof MINURCAT, the United Nations the peace. and civilians needed to achieveDevelopment Programme (UNDP) the security objectives set out byand UNHCR, completed a six-week MINURCAT, UNICEF, UNHCR and the Security Council. circuit session that dealt with 42 UNDP conducted joint verificationSupporting peace operations in SomaliaThe newest addition to field op- to AMISOM Mission headquarters, at security level 5 for the Unitederations in 2009 was the UN Sup- the United Nations Political Office Nations (meaning no internationalport Office for AMISOM (African for Somalia (UNPOS) and the UN staff can live or work there).Union Mission in Somalia). UNSOA country team—all in a unique operation in that it Violence continued to wrack theis removed from the theatre, and During the year, UN staff made city, and on 17 September, Al-headquartered in Kenya within the trips to Mogadishu to work directly Shabaab insurgents driving UN-United Nations complex in Nairobi with AMISOM, Somalia’s Transition- marked vehicles attacked the(UNON), with a forward support al Federal Government and other AMISOM force headquarters and abase in Mombasa. The Nairobi loca- partners on the ground in Soma- Dyncorps office, killing 21 peopletion puts UNSOA in close proximity lia. However, Mogadishu remained including four Somali civiliansYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 37
  • 40. and five Ugandan and 12 Burun- dian peacekeepers Progress towards peace Overseen by the Department of Field Support, UNSOA is mandated in Somalia by Security Council resolution 1863 Somalia continued to dominate including an attempted coup (2009) to deliver a support package world headlines – mostly for neg- d’etat by insurgents in May and to AMISOM similar to that of a tra- ative reasons connected with pi- two deadly attacks carried out by ditional UN peacekeeping mission. racy and violence. But there has suicide bombers in February and There are currently just over 5,000 been positive progress illustrated September, killing Burundian and troops from Burundi and Uganda in by the fact that just nine months Ugandan peacekeepers as well as AMISOM, and discussions are under after being elected President of Somali officials. With the sup- way with other African Union mem- Somalia, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh port of the African Union Mis- ber states to send troops to reach Ahmed addressed world leaders sion in Somalia (AMISOM), the the mandated strength of 8,000. at 64th Session of the United Transitional Federal Government UNSOA’s logistical support is an ele- Nations General Assembly in Sep- (TFG) managed to hold strategic ment of the UN’s three-phase plan in tember 2009 to lay out the prior- positions and government instal- Somalia – to strengthen the Transi- ity needs of his country. lations in Mogadishu. These inci- tional Federal Government’s security dents, however, exposed the dire sector, to create a “light footprint” His election to the presidency on need for strengthened security for the UN, and when conditions al- 30 January 2009 was part of the forces and both increased and ac- low, to transition from AMISOM to a implementation of Article 9 of the celerated international assistance UN peacekeeping operation, pend- Djibouti Peace Agreement, which to the Government and AMISOM. ing Security Council approval. laid out the framework for political cooperation. The agreement includ- The Special Representative of In June, UNSOA delivered the first ed an amended transitional federal the Secretary-General, Ahmedou of multiple support package ship- charter, which led to an enlarged Ould-Abdallah, who was leading ments to Mogadishu, including Parliament of 550 members with the UN Political Office for So- fresh food and rations, medicine greater participation from groups malia (UNPOS) in consolidating and medical equipment, and an not previously represented. By the the peace process, advocated airport fire and rescue truck. Plans end of February, with the appoint- for stronger diplomatic support were under way for the construction ment of Prime Minister Omar Shar- and increased financial backing of new sanitation and kitchen facil- marke, a new Government consist- from regional governments and ities. In addition, UNSOA provided ing of 37 ministers was put in place the international community to AMISOM with training in medical and relocated for the first time in strengthen security. response, movement control, prop- some years to Mogadishu. erty management, engineering and In April, donors pledged more strategic communication. The installation of the new Govern- than $200 million at a United ment, together with the withdrawal Nations-European Union spon- In 2010, UNSOA and AMISOM plan of the Ethiopian forces in mid-Jan- sored conference in Brussels for to launch a radio station for Moga- uary—reconciliation measures laid the support of Somali security dishu with production in Kenya. out in the Djibouti Agreement— institutions and AMISOM. As of UNSOA has contracted with a pri- were positive indicators for the di- late 2009, more than two-thirds vate communications company to rection of the peace process. of pledges had been collected. help implement the radio project In a move towards strengthening as part of an outreach package for The Government, however, faced transparency and accountability, Somalis in and outside the country. numerous challenges throughout the TFG signed an agreement with A mix of news and traditional So- the year as well as threats from the international accounting firm mali music, the station is expected Somali extremists, mainly Al PricewaterhouseCoopers to help to be Somali-owned and operated Shabab and Hisbu’l Islam, aided monitor the incoming funds and in the long-term, and to contribute and abetted by foreign fighters, to build financial capacity. En- to the country’s peace process. 38 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 41. couraging support for the TFG also cluded ministers, parliamentarians, its effect on the global economy,came in early August when US Sec- and members of Somali civil society however, remain a challenge for theretary of State, Hillary Clinton, in a as well as international experts. international community.meeting with President Sharif, re-affirmed the United States’ support Off its shores, high-profile attacks The SRSG maintains that the only du-for the Somali government. involving large ransoms and in- rable solution to piracy and the over- creasingly sophisticated equipment all instability in Somalia is to addressImplementation of the peace pro- continued to focus attention on So- its root causes. The answer lies in es-cess gained further momentum in malia. Spurred by Security Council tablishing effective governance, ruleAugust with a conference on “Ad- resolutions to expand measures to of law and security institutions anddressing Impunity: Towards Justice counter pirate attacks, the interna- economic development including joband Reconciliation,” facilitated by tional community, in a show of soli- creation—all pillars within the frame-UNPOS under Article 9 of the Dji- darity, increased anti-piracy efforts, work of the Djibouti Agreement. UN-bouti Agreement on Justice and making it riskier for pirate ships to POS, together with its regional andReconciliation. The two-day confer- run the gauntlet of naval patrols international partners, continued itsence, which sought ways to move and managing to reduce the number work in advancing the implementa-forward on addressing impunity, in- of successful incidents. Piracy and tion of the Djibouti Agreement. Côte d’Ivoire’s electoral process moves aheadThe motorboats that crisscrossed with just over 70 percent coming the process, logistical support,the scenic lagoons around Grand from the European Union. The re- technical assistance, supportLahou, some 150 kilometres west maining 15 billion CFA francs is the for training and awareness pro-of Abidjan, in mid-2009 bore a Ivorian state’s responsibility. grammes and fund-raising.cargo of no mean importance toCôte d’Ivoire’s peace process. They The UN has made a commitment The UN’s commitment began in thecarried computers and other equip- to supporting open, free, fair pre-electoral phase, supporting thement to localities accessible only and transparent elections in Côte public mobile court hearings in 2007,by water for use in a population d’Ivoire, and to this end it has been which enabled hundreds of thou-identification and voter registra- working with state authorities, es- sands of undocumented persons totion operation, part of prepara- pecially the Independent Electoral obtain substitute birth certificates.tions for the long-awaited national Commission (IEC), the main body For many Ivorians, it was the firstelections. Elsewhere, helicopters tasked with organizing the polls. identity document they had ever had.and land vehicles—contributed, UNOCI also transported equipment,like the boats, by the UN Operation While the UN is not organizing the officials of the IEC and other bodiesin Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI)—were elections, the Special Representa- linked to the mobile court process,used to take the precious supplies tive of the Secretary-General is to including the Justice far-flung villages as part of the certify the process as free and fair,mission’s “Operation Transport.” a weighty challenge. The mission also gave technical and logistical assistance to theOperation Transport is emblematic The UN Development Programme Ivorian state in reconstitutingof the support the UN has provided (UNDP) has contributed $1.2 million, civil registers that were lost or de-to the electoral process in Côte much of which has been used to buy stroyed as a result of the conflictd’Ivoire, a key element on the road voting material, computer and office which broke out in Côte d’Ivoire into peace for the West African na- equipment and furniture for the IEC September 2002.tion of some 18 million people. The and its local commissions. The re-international community is provid- mainder has gone largely to training The electoral process moved intoing approximately 21 billion CFA for the electoral process. high gear in September 2008 withfrancs (about $46.6 million) of the the launch of the population iden-36 billion CFA (about $80 million] UNOCI’s involvement also in- tification and voter registrationbudgeted for the electoral process, cludes providing security for operation, which brought with itYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 39
  • 42. new challenges for the Ivorian state government areas, from where the tion. This has been the main thrust and its partners, including ONUCI. commission distributed it to the col- of seminars, workshops and meet-the- Identification equipment had to lection centres. people sessions conducted in various be transported. Some of the data parts of the country with media, com- collection centres had no electric- As the countdown to the presiden- munity chiefs, women’s and youth ity, which meant the equipment tial election progressed, prepara- organisations and various interest brought in for the operation could tions continued for the poll, which groups. Conscious of the value of sport not work. Staff needed transport to had been scheduled for 29 Novem- as a force for reconciliation and har- remote regions. People had to be in- ber 2009. The mission collected mony, UNOCI placed special emphasis formed how and where to register. electoral material which had been on sport activities aimed at fostering shipped in from abroad, and took it peace. The mission was asked to pres- Operation Transport mobilized some from the port to IEC storage depots ent these activities at the Third Inter- 300 vehicles and drivers each day to in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire’s economic national Peace and Sport Forum, held ferry people and equipment to the nerve centre, and Yamoussoukro, the in November in Monaco. collection centres. Airplanes, heli- political capital. UNOCI then ferried copters and boats replaced cars in heavy and sensitive equipment from Throughout Côte d’Ivoire’s peace pro- localities more difficult to reach. In the storage depots to the 70 depart- cess, the path to elections has been areas off the national electricity grid, mental IEC offices. fraught with delays. Identification the mission supplied generators. and voter registration were completed More than 6 million people registered Aware that all the work done by the months behind schedule, as were the throughout the country during the Ivorian institutions and their interna- production and posting of the voters’ operation which lasted from Septem- tional partners could come to naught roll. The successive delays led to the ber 2008 to June 2009. When a few should there be widespread violence, poll’s postponement again in 2009, months later the provisional voters’ the mission has focused its outreach with early 2010 the most recent tar- list was drawn up, UNOCI helped the activities on creating a peaceful envi- get. Whenever it occurs, the UN will IEC by transporting the list to local ronment before, during and after elec- continue to provide support.  Movement Control officers of the UN Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) load boxes of provi- sional voter lists onto a helicopter for transport to various polling stations in Côte d’Ivoire. Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. 12 November 2009. (UN Photo by Ky Chung)40 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 43. Graduates of the Liberian National Police Academy, including 104 female officers, are sworn into the police force. Monrovia, Liberia. 17 January 2009. (UN photo by Christopher Herwig)Security Council downsizes UNMIL based onachievements on the groundHow a peacekeeping operation com- Security Council and the Secretar- nel and reducing UNMIL’s autho-pletes its mandate and leaves a iat agreed that a phased downsiz- rized strength to just under 8,000country can be as important as how ing and a limited demilitarization troops in Liberia, in addition toit arrives and begins work. When the of the mission was the smartest its 250-strong presence at the“blue helmets” leave prematurely, re- way to proceed. In order to lock Special Court for Sierra Leone ingardless of their achievements, full- in the gains in peace and stability Freetown. In addition, to lowerblown violence can resume, prompt- realized in the West African coun- the mission’s military profile, orig-ing the redeployment of international try, which had previously hosted inally designed to show a robusttroops. Such a scenario was most several UN and regional peace- posture, the Council also calledrecently demonstrated by the argu- keeping operations, this downsiz- for the removal of three attack he-ably premature departure of a UN ing takes into account measurable licopters and dozens of armouredpeacekeeping operation from Timor- developments on the ground in the personnel carriers. On the ground,Leste in 2005, and the subsequent country as well as the situation in the mission removed many staticreturn of a UN peacekeeping mission neighboring states. checkpoints and reduced securitybacked by an international security posts where operationally and lo-force in 2006. Conversely, a mis- In September 2009, the Security gistically feasible.sion that stays too long and main- Council voted unanimously totains too high a profile long after the extend the mandate of UNMIL, The country continued to make sig-conflict has ended risks undermining which was established in 2003, nificant progress in consolidatingsupport from the host government for a further year and to accept peace and stability, but its gainsand the local population. the Secretary-General’s proposed remained fragile. The Security third phase of its drawdown. This Council agreed with the Secretary-In the case of the United Nations process involves cutting back by General that the elections set forMission in Liberia, (UNMIL), the more than 2,000 military person- 2011, when the Liberian authori-YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 41
  • 44. ties will have primary responsibil- UNMIL’s achievements over the extremely popular with the demo- ity for the polling process, will be years are indisputable. The “blue cratically elected government and a critical test of the sustainability helmets” disarmed more than the local population. of peace in the country. In 2010, 100,000 ex-combatants, supported UN efforts will continue to focus the country’s first democratic elec- When the Security Council ulti- on strengthening Liberia’s security tions in decades (which resulted mately decides that a peacekeep- and rule of law of law institutions in Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf becoming ing force is no longer required in and creating employment opportu- Africa’s first female elected head Liberia, it will hopefully be not nities, especially for the country’s of state), and provided the secu- a day to soon or too late. The fi- youth and of people of fighting rity necessary for reconstruction, nal withdrawal should be a source age. Improving the human rights economic development and rec- of pride for Liberians and for the situation, especially for Liberian onciliation. For these achieve- United Nations, which has helped women, is another high priority. ments and others, UNMIL remains bring them peace at long last.  Peacebuilding: consolidating the gains of peacekeeping The components of the United Na- demands for security, shoring up Peacebuilding Support Office at UN tions peacebuilding architecture es- the political process, delivering a Headquarters, extended its reach tablished in 2006—the Peacebuild- peace dividend and strengthening with fast, relevant and catalytic ing Commission, Fund and Support national capacity, we can help na- funding in 15 countries. In addition Office,—were particularly active dur- tional actors in their efforts to set to providing financial assistance ing 2009, to supporting and sustain- positive dynamics in motion right to the countries on the agenda of ing UN political and peacekeeping from the start,” he wrote. the PBC, the PBF supported peace- work in post-conflict countries. In building projects in Comoros, Côte addition, Secretary-General Ban Ki- The Peacebuilding Commission d’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Nepal, the moon laid out a strategy to support (PBC) focused attention on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, national efforts to secure sustainable countries currently on its agenda, Haiti, Timor-Leste, Kenya, Comoros peace more rapidly and effectively. including Burundi, the Central Af- and Somalia. rican Republic, Guinea-Bissau and In his report on “Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone. The PBC assists UN During its third year of engagement the Immediate Aftermath of Con- peacebuilding efforts by providing in Sierra Leone, and in support of flict”, issued in July, Secretary- sustained international attention, the United Nations Integrated General Ban Ki-moon also set out mobilising resources and strength- Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Le- an agenda to “bring peacebuilding ening partnerships in support of one (UNIPSIL), the Peacebuilding upstream and mount a more rapid key peacebuilding priorities of Commission focused international and effective response in the imme- countries emerging from conflict. attention on the country through diate aftermath of conflict.” With convening a high-level special ses- the economic crisis which affects The Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) con- sion in June 2009. That session the most vulnerable, he said, “there tributes to consolidating peace by produced an outcome document is a new urgency to redouble our ef- funding projects that are designed that welcomed the government’s forts and ensure that resources are to respond to the imminent threats Agenda for Change and the United used more efficiently by promoting to the peace process, build or Nations’ joint vision for Sierra Le- a more coherent, effective and fo- strengthen national capacities to one which supports it. The outcome cused response.” promote peaceful resolution of document adopted in June 2009 at conflict, stimulate economic revi- the High Level special Session on The Secretary-General’s report fo- talization and re-establish essential Sierra Leone committed the PBC to cused on the first two years af- administrative services. The Peace- promoting good governance, the ter conflict. “By meeting people’s building Fund, managed by the rule of law, combating illegal drug42 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 45. Women in Mpimba central prison receive new uniforms and blan- kets from a Peacebuilding Fund project, Bujumbura, Burundi. 10 November 2009. (UN Photo by Sylvain Liechti)trafficking and addressing youth communiqué against further vio- Fund, through its $37 million al-unemployment. The PBC engage- lence, but the future path for location to Burundi, has also sup-ment in Sierra Leone has been bol- peacebuilding in Sierra Leone is ported the socio-economic reinte-stered by approximately $37 mil- not yet fully charted. gration of ex-combatants.lion from the Peacebuilding Fund. Using the model of Sierra Leone, Support to the security sector wasUNIPSIL, established in 2008, the Security Council has authorized prioritized as crucial in Burundi.succeeded peacekeeping opera- similar transitions from peacekeep- The PBF funded two initiatives fortions that ended a bloody civil ing to peacebuilding in other post- improving the defense forces bywar in Sierra Leone in 2002. As conflict operations.. Political mis- rehabilitating 14 army barracks forthe first country to be addressed sions in the Central African Republic 23,700 military personnel, 94 per-by the UN’s peacebuilding struc- (BONUCA) and Guinea-Bissau (UN- cent of the country’s military force.tures established in 2006, Sierra OGBIS) are to become integrated Also, the PBF ensured that some 90Leone has been in a sense a labo- peacebuilding offices in early 2010, percent of Burundi’s military per-ratory for the UN peacebuilding while the UN Integrated Office in sonnel received training towardsefforts. UNIPSIL, responsible for Burundi, another peacekeeping suc- the building of a professionalized,coordinating political, develop- cessor, will also be led by the De- peacetime force.ment and humanitarian support, partment of Political Affairs.has found that peacebuilding In addition, bringing together keytakes continuous mediation and a The Peacebuilding Commission actors for political dialogue wasdedicated, coordinated and sup- and Fund have also supported the prioritized as important to sustain-ported strategy. Political violence United Nations Integrated Office able peace in Burundi. BINUB ini-between the youth of rival parties in Burundi (BINUB) in focusing on tiated a set of dialogue meetingsin 2009, for example, temporarily disarmament, demobilization and across Burundi’s 17 provinces, pro-threatened to undo the good done reintegration (DDR), and assisting viding Burundians with a chance toby seven years of peacekeeping. the country as it prepares for elec- contribute to the debate on build-UNIPSIL helped mediate a joint tions in 2010. The Peacebuilding ing a peaceful future.YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 43
  • 46. The Peacebuilding Commission, working with the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in A more promising outlook Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS), final- ized the Strategic Framework for in Haiti Peacebuilding in Guinea-Bissau Five years into the stabilization following a joint visit to Haiti in covering six areas, including: elec- process, Haiti appeared to be on March 2009 along with the Secu- toral support; measures to jump- the right track to advance toward rity Council to assess how best to start the economy and rehabilitate a more promising future for its assist the country in economic the infrastructure, particularly in people, thanks to the combined recovery and reconstruction after the energy sector; security sector efforts of the Haitian authorities, the 2008 devastating storms. reform; strengthening of the jus- the United Nations Stabilization tice sector and measures against Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), and As Special Envoy, Mr. Clinton’s man- drug trafficking; public adminis- the international community. date was to include assisting the tration reform; and social issues Government of Haiti in implement- critical to peacebuilding. The PBF “Haiti has a remarkable opportu- ing its recovery plan, generating has allocated $6 million to support nity to escape the chains of its new jobs, improving the delivery the strengthening of prisons, army past,” said former US President of basic services and rebuilding in- barracks, youth employment and Clinton in his first briefing to the frastructure, strengthening disaster the electoral process. Security Council last September as preparedness, attracting private United Nations Special Envoy for sector investment and fostering The Commission has worked with Haiti. He noted that the outlook greater international support. the United Nations Peacebuilding for the country was positive, with Office in the Central African Repub- a government committed to build- Since assuming his functions, Spe- lic (BONUCA) in the areas of se- ing a modern state, large pledges cial Envoy Clinton welcomed a del- curity sector reform and DDR, rule of donor assistance, a diaspora egation of more than 600 business of law and good governance and willing to assist and goodwill from leaders in Haiti to explore invest- the establishment of development the international community. ment opportunities. His Clinton hubs. The Central African Republic Global Initiative also committed has also benefited from an initial President Clinton was appointed $428 million for two years (2008- allocation of $10 million from the by Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon 2009) for various projects in Haiti. Peacebuilding Fund. “There are no quick fixes for holding and sustaining peace,” the Secretary- General concluded in his report, “….(I)f the international communi- ty, led by the United Nations system, is ready to respond rapidly, coher- ently and effectively, we can help to give national actors a greater chance of sustaining peace and laying the foundations for sustainable develop- ment. All too often it is the innocent men, women and children who pay the price of war. We cannot ask them to pay the price of peace.”  Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (left) accompanied by former United States President Bill Clinton during a visit to Haiti aimed at raising global awareness of the country’s recovery and reconstruction needs. Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 10 March 2009. (UN Photo by Eskinder Debebe)44 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 47. An electoral worker and Jordanian peacekeepers collect andorganize ballots at the MINUSTAH’s intake centre beforesending them for counting, during the second round of thesenatorial elections, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 24 June 2009.(UN Photo by Logan Abassi) The linkage between security, sta- economic development. He noted better meet the requirements on bility and development was reaf- that Haiti’s security capacities had the ground. firmed by Security Council members increased to nearly 10,000 Hai- during a debate on Haiti in Sep- tian National Police (HNP) officers. Council members reiterated their tember. While stressing that much With the support of MINUSTAH and support to the stabilization pro- progress had been achieved in the Haiti’s partners, the Haitian state cess and stressed the need to so- political and security sectors since had restored its authority over the lidify the gains achieved to ensure 2006, members emphasized that entire territory, and the security that progress is irreversible. the dire socio-economic situation situation opened a window of op- remains a key challenge to peace portunity for economic improve- “We must not lower our guard pre- consolidation, and they urged the ment. The peacekeeping mission maturely,” SRSG Annabi told the international community to keep also contributed to enhancing Council. “Haiti continues to face its support steady. Haiti’s institutional capacity and threats, including the potential for supporting reforms that increased resumed activity by gangs, crimi- Addressing the Council, Special customs revenues and enhanced nals and other armed groups and Representative of the Secretary- local management of resources. violence associated with illegal General Hédi Annabi highlighted trafficking, and the risk of civil un- the progress achieved in five key On 13 October, the Security Council rest.” All of those threats may be benchmark areas of the consolida- unanimously voted to extend MI- manipulated to achieve personal or tion plan endorsed by the Secu- NUSTAH’s mandate for an addition- political objectives, he warned, in- rity Council. They include political al year, with a slight adjustment in cluding in the context of forthcom- dialogue and elections, the exten- the force configuration (augment- ing electoral processes. sion of state authority, ensuring ing the number of UNPOL officers security, strengthening the rule of by 120, and reducing the number On 30 October, a group of 18 sena- law and human rights and socio- of troops by the same amount) to tors unexpectedly cast a vote of no YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 45
  • 48. confidence against Prime Minister the selection process for a new prime pledged to attract more investment Michèle Pierre-Louis, accusing her of minister was completed in less than and create jobs. failing to take effective steps in her two weeks. Led by Jean-Max Bel- one year in office to address high lerive, the Minister of Planning and Elections to renew Haiti’s Lower unemployment and more broadly the External Relations and renowned House and one-third of the Senate, Government’s lack of socio-econom- economist, the new cabinet—the seen as a critical test for further- ic results. The move raised concerns third during the present term of ing the stabilization and democratic within the international community President Préval—included 11 min- process, were scheduled for the first of a lengthy political gap. However, isters of the previous team. Bellerive quarter of 2010.  DDR evolves to meet new challenges Disarmament, demobilization and In 2009, the DDR section of the De- In southern Sudan, the DDR pro- reintegration (DDR) is a key post- partment of Peacekeeping Operations cess was launched in February conflict activity that aims to rein- (DPKO) continued to support DDR 2009, and as of December, some force peace processes, build confi- processes in BINUB (Burundi), MO- 18,000 ex-combatants and mem- dence among parties involved, and NUC (the Democratic Republic of the bers of special needs groups had contribute to stabilization and early Congo), UNOCI (Côte d’Ivoire), UNMIS been demobilized in five sites with recovery. Spanning the whole spec- (Sudan), UNMIL (Liberia) and UN- the assistance of the United Na- trum of peacemaking, peacekeeping AMID (Darfur), as well as a commu- tions Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) as and peacebuilding, DDR is a multi- nity violence reduction Programme in part of the nationally owned DDR dimensional process which has been MINUSTAH (Haiti), with a caseload of programme. According to the Su- constantly evolving, in the field and more than 520,000 ex-combatants. dan National DDR Strategic Plan, at UN Headquarters. DPKO also assisted planning for DDR up to 180,000 participants are to in Somalia. be demobilized over three years,A former combatant registers to disarm at the launch of the disarmament,demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programme sponsored by UNMIS in EdDamazin, Sudan. 5 May 2009. (UN Photo by Johann Hattingh)46 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 49. which will make it the world’s larg- national government’s DDR processes peacekeeping operations in 2009est DDR programme. for Congolese combatants. In 2009, included the “1,000 micro-projects” the national DDR program processed in Côte d’Ivoire and the communityIn October, in Darfur, representatives some 13,600 combatants, of whom violence reduction programme infrom four peacekeeping operations in about 8,080 were integrated in the Haiti. The “Second Generation DDR”the region, DPKO and UNDP gathered national armed forces (FARDC) and report to be published in early 2010in El Fasher for a three-day simulation about 5,530 were demobilized. will include an evolving set of prac-exercise aimed at team-building and tices that promote and sustain theundertaking pre-planning on possible The President of Liberia officially objectives of DDR in peace opera-scenarios for DDR in Darfur and the ended the DDRR programme in that tion contexts where the precondi-wider region. country on 15 July 2009. In less than tions for the traditional model of five years, some 101,000 ex-combat- DDR don’t exist and where irregularFrom eastern DRC, the UN mission ants were disarmed and demobilised, armed groups are prevalent.MONUC repatriated more than 4,000 including 20,200 women, 9,000 boysex-combatants and dependents to and 2,700 girls. The DDRR programme “This year, integration and in-Rwanda this year. “This is more than contributed to the peace consolida- novation have been the name oftriple the repatriation rate for the same tion process in Liberia, while using the game. By thinking out of theperiod last year,” noted Gregory “Gro- new approaches such as employing box, and also looking at non-tra-mo” Alex, who leads DDR programmes ex-combatants in infrastructure devel- ditional approaches to DDR, wefor MONUC. The mission managed the opment projects conducted in partner- hope to overcome some of thedisarmament, demobilization, repatri- ship with the World Bank and UNDP. challenges we are faced with ination, resettlement and reintegration peace operations,” concluded Aya-operations (DDRRR) for foreign com- Other innovative approaches that ka Suzuki, chief of the DDR Sec-batants, and continued to support the helped stabilization efforts of tion in DPKO. Training and transparency in conduct and disciplineIn addressing misconduct by peace- module on standards of conduct was with 83 such allegations in 2008 andkeeping personnel in 2009, the Con- tested with mission staff responsible 127 in 2007.duct and Discipline Unit (CDU) of the for conduct and discipline training.Department of Field Support priori- Remedial action in 2009 centeredtized prevention activities, and in CDU’s priorities in 2009 also fo- on establishing the foundations forparticular training. The UN’s strategy cused on explaining its mandate and implementation of the victims as-to eliminate sexual exploitation and further disseminating the UN’s zero sistance strategy, as detailed in theabuse is three-pronged: prevention, tolerance policy towards sexual ex- Secretary-General’s “Report on theenforcement of UN standards of con- ploitation and abuse. Implementation of the United Nationsduct and remedial action. Comprehensive Strategy on Assistance A new website was launched in No- and Support to Victims of Sexual Ex-Together with the Integrated Training vember to provide added transparen- ploitation and Abuse by United Nati-Service of the Department of Peace- cy and more comprehensive informa- ons Staff and Related Personnel.“keeping Operations, the CDU launched tion on the status of conduct andnew core pre-deployment training ma- discipline allegations. The new con- The strategy, adopted in 2007, ensu-terial, which is available to all troop duct and discipline website (http:// res that victims of sexual exploita-and police contributing countries. Pi- provides aggregated tion and abuse by UN personnel re-lot testing was carried out in Germany, data on allegations of misconduct ceive timely assistance and support,Nepal and in regional peacekeeping and results of investigations. in the form of medical care, legaltraining centers in Ghana and Guate- services, support for psychologicalmala, where training in the delivery In 2009, the UN received 95 allega- and social care and immediate ma-of this material was also conducted. tions of sexual exploitation and ab- terial care, including food, clothingIn addition, a new induction training use (as of 30 November) compared and shelter.  YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 47
  • 50. Spanish peacekeepers serving with UNIFIL on a foot patrol in the village of Khiam, South Lebanon. 6 August 2009. (UN Photo by Pasqual Gorriz) On alert in the Middle East >> UNIFIL’s strategic communications: Actions speak louder than words 25 December 2008: High alert is perceptions in southern Leba- 8 January: Unknown perpetra- sounded across southern Lebanon non. Media speculation is rife on tors in southern Lebanon fire where the United Nations Interim a possible second front opening two rockets into Israel; the Israel Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) is de- up against Israel from Lebanon, Defence Forces (IDF) retaliate ployed, after the Lebanese Armed where more than 400,000 Pal- with artillery shells directed at Forces (LAF) discover and defuse, estinian refugees reside. Public the rocket launch site. The next with UNIFIL’s assistance, eight apprehensions are particularly day, a UNIFIL patrol finds a hid- rockets ready to be launched in the intense along the villages that den bunker with 34 rockets in direction of Israel. string the UN-drawn Line of (Is- the mountain fold of Kfar Shouba raeli) Withdrawal (from Lebanon overlooking the disputed She- In this atmosphere, when hos- in 2000) known as the Blue Line, baa Farms (that Lebanon claims) tilities break out in Gaza in late an area just recovering from the along the Israeli-occupied Golan. December and escalate through devastating consequences of the It is an old weapons cache dating January 2009, raised tensions in summer 2006 war between Hez- from the 2006 war, but the timing the area bear heavily on public bollah and Israel. of the find adds to the tensions.48 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 51. 14 January: More rockets are fired UN Special Coordinator contributes to peace in Lebanontowards Israel from the eastern sec-tor. The IDF fires back artillery shells. The 12,300 “blue helmets” patrolling Williams has also been proactive onIn follow-up operations in the area, the Blue Line in southern Lebanon are the domestic stage in Lebanon. Rec-UNIFIL and LAF discover and disarm the most visible aspect of the United ognising that the effort to build andthree more rockets equipped with tim- Nations’ presence in that country. How- strengthen Lebanese institutions anders, ready to be fired in the direction ever, the UN has political, developmen- the regular political process is an im-of Israel. tal and humanitarian roles in addition portant outcome envisaged by resolu- to peacekeeping, which are coordinated tion 1701 and other Security CouncilAs tensions mount, UNIFIL and LAF and provided with political direction by resolutions on Lebanon, the UN Specialadopt a high operational tempo across the UN Special Coordinator for Lebanon Coordinator worked with Lebanese po-southern Lebanon and especially along (UNSCOL), based in Beirut. Under his litical leaders, encouraging peacefulthe Blue Line. A particular concern of guidance, the more than 20 agencies parliamentary elections that took placethe mission is that the large troop all seek to work together as ‘one UN,’ in early June this year. Prolonged ne-presence, although necessary for se- in order to support peace and devel- gotiations between the different sidescurity and public confidence, could in opment in Lebanon, which the United produced a national unity governmentturn fuel public apprehensions of an Nations views as complimentary and in- that received parliamentary endorse-imminent war, besides other negative extricably linked. ment in December 2009.consequences of military operations onthe civilian population. It is therefore While the UN involvement in Lebanon UNSCOL continues to engage with theimportant to talk to the people, find dates back to the early years after the Lebanese authorities, encouraging themout their concerns, explain to them founding of the Organization, Special to pursue further-ranging reforms forthe security initiatives and generally Coordinator Michael Williams works the welfare and benefit of the popula-allay apprehensions. particularly closely with UNIFIL on the tion, and offering the UN system’s co- implementation of Security Council ordinated assistance. Williams’ OfficeTime is of the essence here; there are resolution 1701, which ended a 34-day also continues to work on other aspectsalready reports of people wanting to conflict with Israel in 2006. of resolution 1701, coordinating the in-pack and leave the area – as many ternational community’s assistance todid during the 2006 war – and that The resolution, which led to a cessation improve Lebanon’s management of itscould potentially precipitate a new of hostilities between the parties, saw borders, seeking to halt all violations ofhumanitarian crisis. Feedback must the Lebanese Armed Forces deployed in the resolution, including regular over-be quickly obtained on public per- South Lebanon for the first time in de- flights by Israeli reconnaissance aircraft,ceptions on the ground, their fears cades, and imposed an arms embargo on and encouraging the delineation of theand concerns analysed to develop ap- forces other than the Lebanese govern- land border between Lebanon and Syria,propriate messages to address them ment and UNIFIL, remain a top priority which remains uncertain in many areas,and the messages then disseminated for the United Nations. It has created including the so-called Sheb’a Farms inacross the communities in a consis- a largely stable situation along the Blue the tri-border region between Israel,tent and comprehensive way. The Line that separates Lebanon and Israel, Lebanon and Syria.mission’s handful of communications and has brought about the longest pe-staff cannot do that so quickly. There- riod of calm, without casualties on either Special Coordinator Williams remainedfore troops must be used as they are side, in more than a quarter of a century. confident that, taking into account thealready out there among the people. At the same time, the three-year-old ces- tensions and tests of the past, stabil-But soldiers are not trained commu- sation of hostilities does remain fragile, ity would continue to prevail along thenicators: they need clear guidelines as a number of incidents in the summer Blue Line. As he told the Departmenton what to ask and what to say to and autumn of 2009 underscored. UN of Political Affairs’ Politically Speaking,the people they meet. Special Coordinator Michael Williams thus “Despite the fears and strong feelings remains in close contact with Lebanon’s that exist, both countries have seen itAs a first step therefore, UNIFIL troops diverse political leadership and with the in their interest to remain committed toare given guidelines from mission Israeli government, to keep tensions at 1701. There’s real hope for the future,headquarters to find out what the bay and solidify the arrangements put in provided they take it forward and imple-people’s fears and concerns are; how place under resolution 1701. ment the remaining aspects.”they view developments in southern YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 49
  • 52. Lebanon, the response of UNIFIL actions or initiatives to be taken UNIFIL also carries out targeted and the Lebanese Army, and, more by units on the ground, as these communications. Specialists within broadly, how they view the out- have a bearing on the public’s per- the mission identify and analyze break of hostilities in Gaza. The ception through the message in- the concerns and information needs feedback so obtained is then inte- herent in the action. of specific audiences. This could grated at mission headquarters to be related to particular incidents identify communications priorities. The operative communications or developments in a certain part Key messages are issued for dis- principle is centralised messag- of UNIFIL’s area of operations that semination, not just by the special- ing and decentralised delivery. need to be explained to the resi- ized communications components, Messages so formulated have a dents. Specific concerns may ema- but by all civilian and military ele- mission-wide perspective while nate from perceptions prevailing ments on the ground. incorporating specific inputs from among certain communities by vir- ground units on particular local- tue of their location – whether rural This typifies UNIFIL’s new approach ized concerns. This also ensures or urban, or residing along the Blue to strategic communications that that whereas all UNIFIL compo- Line and so on. Socio-religious and combines civilian and military ca- nents speak from the same page, political factors may also play a role. pabilities to enable an informa- their combined involvement in Such specific information needs are tion-driven response to the needs delivering the message maximizes addressed by packaging relevant and concerns of the communities its reach, while at the same time messages for high-impact delivery in a way that integrates the mis- serving as guidelines for com- using multi-media channels. sion’s operational and humanitar- manders and troops on the ground ian initiatives. Most importantly, to tailor their own activities and The preferred means of dissemi- the approach focuses on actions general conduct so that the force nation though is face-to-face more than words: what we are do- posture corresponds to the “mes- communications that place a pre- ing must be consistent with what sage” of the Mission. mium on inter-personal relations we are saying. between peacekeepers and the While addressing specific issues as people among whom they oper- Synergy of words and actions they emerge, the basic key mes- ate. This is done in the context of across the different mission com- sages drawn from UNIFIL’s mandate UNIFIL’s community relations that ponents is ensured through a co- and explaining related activities include regular liaison with local ordination mechanism that brings remain the basis for all media and authorities and key leaders, as well together all units having any form outreach communications. Repeat- as a range of humanitarian projects of public interface in the normal ing the same messages in different undertaken by the mission across course of their work. The central situations helps position the mis- southern Lebanon. coordinating body constantly re- sion’s relevance in the context of views communications priorities, the expansive public concerns re- Quarterly public perception surveys determining not just what to say, lating to security and stability in conducted by UNIFIL through an but also what to do, i.e. specific southern Lebanon. independent Lebanese consultancy indicate the effectiveness of the communications initiative. This is demonstrated by the high level of public acceptance of UNIFIL’s heavy military presence and its op- erations in civilian areas.  Indonesian peacekeepers serving with UNIFIL distribute toys to Lebanese children, Srifa, South Lebanon. 11 August 2009. (UN Photo)50 U N I T E D N AT I O N S P E A C E O P E R AT I O N S 50
  • 53. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon addresses a press conference in front of the damaged warehouse of the Gaza headquarters of the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA). 20 January 2009. (UN Photo by Eskinder Debebe)UNSCO helps Gaza recover from January conflictWith offices in Jerusalem, Ramal- er to do so in several years, just as full support to help you overcomelah and Gaza, the United Nations the hostilities had ceased and liter- this difficulty,” Secretary-GeneralSpecial Coordinator Office for the ally while the embers from the con- Ban said at a press briefing in GazaMiddle East (UNSCO) represents flict were still smoking. on 20 January 2009.the Secretary-General and leadsthe UN system in all political and UNSCO worked feverishly through- The UN Country Team and UNSCOdiplomatic efforts related to the out this time, supporting the were also trying to bring relief topeace process, including in the Secretary-General’s diplomatic en- the people of Gaza in the wakeMiddle East Quartet. UNSCO also deavors, as well as the operations of the conflict. Robert Serry, thecoordinates the humanitarian and of UN agencies which attempted to Special Coordinator, supported bydevelopment work of UN agencies maintain their essential humanitar- the Secretary-General was instru-and programmes in the occupied ian work in the most difficult and mental in trying get agreementPalestinian territory, in support of dangerous of circumstances. Facili- from the Israeli authorities tothe Palestinian Authority (PA) and ties and personnel from the United bring into Gaza urgently neededthe Palestinian people. Nations Relief and Work Agency for materials to begin reconstruction Palestine Refugees (UNWRA) were of clinics, schools and other facili-This past year began with intense caught up directly in the fighting. ties destroyed during the fighting.fighting between the Israeli Army Some schools serving as public Despite significant efforts, UN re-and Hamas in Gaza. The Israeli Gov- shelters were struck by Israeli fire, quests were to date refused, buternment launched “Operation Cast with significant numbers of people UNSCO laid the ground-work forLead” and fierce conflict ensued in both killed and injured. reconstruction to begin when per-the Gaza Strip with rocket fire also mission is granted.hitting various communities inside “I have come to Gaza to see for my-Israel. Secretary-General Ban Ki- self the extent of the damage caused UNSCO continued its role help-moon arrived in region in the midst by the last three weeks of fighting ing the Palestinian Authority andof the January crisis, meeting with and to demonstrate my solidarity Palestinian Prime Minister Salamboth the Israeli leadership and the to the population of Gaza, and to Fayyad’s plan to establish the fun-Palestinian Authority. He also went assure you of the United Nations damental infrastructure of a Pales-to Gaza, the first international lead- and the international community’s tinian State. UNSCO has providedYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 51
  • 54. political and practical assistance ty. In all his contacts Robert Serry 2009 was a particularly busy year for to the PA leadership, supporting underlined the growing urgency UNSCO, noted for both the military its objectives and also facilitat- of reaching a two-state solution and enduring political crisis. The ing capacity-building in the West and how its viability is at risk absence of negotiations between Bank, vital to the plan. The Special if an agreement is not reached Israel and the Palestinian Author- Coordinator also supported the ef- soon. Mr Serry’s efforts kept him ity was the focus of significant in- forts of regional players for Pales- on the move in Israel, the Occu- ternational attention, and the UN tinian reconciliation. pied Palestinian Territories, and along with its Quartet partners has throughout the region. In his underscored the importance of a dip- Throughout the year, UNSCO con- contacts, the Special Coordinator lomatic solution, and what needs to tinued its mediation efforts in was assisted by UNSCO staff who be done to get the parties moving in support of Security Council reso- have developed an acute under- the right direction. UNSCO offices in lutions and agreements, bilateral- standing of the political currents Jerusalem, Ramallah and Gaza have ly with the parties and involving in the region and a network of prepared for what promises to be a the wider international communi- key contacts. challenging year ahead.  UNTSO remains active in the Middle East Over the past year, military observers UNTSO observers also conducted The functions of UNTSO have with the oldest UN peacekeeping liaison activities and patrols with been modified from time to time operation, the UN Truce Supervision the United Nations Interim Force in light of changing circum- Organization (UNTSO), continued to in Lebanon in the UNIFIL area of stances. Since the establishment conduct inspections, patrols and liai- responsibility. of the United Nations Disengage- son in the area of limitation of forces ment Observer Force (UNDOF) in and armaments and maintain obser- Set up in May 1948, UNTSO was the 1974 and UNIFIL in 1978, UNT- vation posts on or near the perime- first peacekeeping operation esta- SO military observers assigned ter of the area of separation between blished by the United Nations. Over to the Israel-Lebanon and the Israeli and Syrian forces. the years, UNTSO military observers Israel-Syrian Arab Republic sec- have remained in the Middle East to tors have been placed under the In 2009, some 150 UNTSO military monitor ceasefires, supervise armi- operational control of the com- observers were deployed in the Go- stice agreements, prevent isolated manders of UNIFIL and UNDOF to lan and southern Lebanon, at the incidents from escalating and assist assist them in the fulfillment of mission’s headquarters in Jerusalem other UN peacekeeping operations their tasks.  and at its liaison offices in Beirut, in the region. Ismailia (Egypt) and Damascus. UNDOF acts to keep the peace in the Golan Heights Patrols were reinforced and UNDOF Over the past year, the situation and Israeli forces of 31 May 1974, stepped up its liaison with local in the Israel-Syria region of the continued to perform its functions leaders during 2009 as the 35-year- Golan Heights remained generally effectively, with the cooperation of old mission adopted a more flexible quiet. UNDOF, which was estab- the parties. and mobile operational concept of lished in May 1974 to supervise its mission to monitor the increas- the ceasefire called for by the Se- UNDOF supervises the area of ingly busy area of separation be- curity Council and the agreement separation by means of fixed po- tween Syria and Israel. on disengagement between Syrian sitions and patrols to ensure that52 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 55. An Austrian peacekeeper checks a patrol track in the area of separation near the Golan Heights, Syria. 14 July 2009. (UN Photo by Martin Austerhuber)military forces of either party existing defensive positions in the defensive positions in the respec-were excluded from it. The force respective areas of limitation. tive areas of limitation," he wrote.also carried out fortnightly in- He also warned of an increasedspections of equipment and force In calling for a six-month extension threat to UNDOF personnel and lo-levels in the areas of limitation. of the UNDOF mandate in December cal inhabitants from long-plantedA battalion from the Philippines 2009, Secretary-General Ban Ki- mines with deteriorating detona-joined the 1,430-member force moon wrote that: “Under the pre- tion 2009, and Poland withdrew vailing circumstances, I considerits contingent which had served the continued presence of UNDOF In December, he also warned thatthroughout the mission’s history in the area to be essential.” the mission faced a financial short-until this year. fall of nearly one half of its $45 The Secretary-General called on million budget approved by theDue in part to the results of UN- the Israeli and Syrian govern- General Assembly.DOF’s presence, development ac- ments to resume dialogue in in-tivities in the area of separation direct talks initiated by Turkey, “The outstanding contributions im-increased, and UNDOF continued and noted that both sides have pede the ability of the Secretariatto adapt its operational posture to continued to impede UN peace- to support the operations of thethe ongoing Israel Defense Forces keepers from performing their full Force and to reimburse Member(IDF) training activities and Syrian duties in some locations. States contributing troops to thecivilian growth in proximity to the Force,” he wrote. ceasefire line. Both sides contin- "Both sides continued to con-ued to construct new and renovate struct new and renovate existingYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 53
  • 56. Helping pave the road to peace in Cyprus The United Nations Peacekeeping around the world who have helped engaging in a process to overcome Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), the maintain stability and calm for their differences and re-unite the Organization’s third oldest peace- decades on the troubled eastern country. This latest attempt at a keeping operation (after UNTSO Mediterranean island under the comprehensive settlement in Cy- and UNMOGIP), marked its 45th blue UN flag. prus raised hope in the interna- anniversary in 2009. Although tional community. A year since the occasion in itself was not a What puts the anniversary in great- they began, direct peace talks may cause for celebration, it did serve er relief, however, was the fact that not have moved as quickly as some as testament to the success of the it came as the two main communi- expected. However, considerable thousands of men and women from ties of the island once again were progress has been made, which led the Secretary-General to emphasize while in Greece in November 2009 Special Representative of the that, despite the many challenges, Secretary-General, Alexander he remained “cautiously optimistic” Downer, together with the Cy- over prospects for a settlement. prus leaders Demetris Christofias (left) and Mehmet Ali Talat (right) address media as peace One of the main challenges facing talks gathered momentum in the peace process is the mistrust January 2009. UN Protected that still prevails in many aspects Area, Nicosia, Cyprus. of the relationship between Greek (UN Photo) and Turkish Cypriots. This was ex- emplified by the delay in opening a highly symbolic crossing point between the two sides situated in the northwest of the island. The opening of the Limnitis/Yesilir- mak crossing – considered eco- nomically vital by local residents from both sides of the divide – had been agreed in March 2008, when the two leaders met to kick off the series of encounters that led to full-fledged negotiations starting in September of that year. Over a year later, follow- ing months of recrimination and accusations, the crossing was still to be opened. An initiative designed to build confidence be- tween the two sides seemed in- stead to erode trust. And the Limnitis/Yesilirmak cross- ing was not the only confidence- building measure in abeyance. In May 2009, the Secretary-General wrote in his semi-annual report on UNFICYP that he was disappointed that since the agreement on nearly54 U N I T E D N AT I O N S P E A C E O P E R AT I O N S 54
  • 57. two dozen confidence-building mea- with the opening of the famous ers together on over 50 occasionssures during the preparatory phase Ledra Street crossing over a year for direct talks so far.of the talks, the parties had made earlier, what once had been seenlittle progress on their implemen- as insurmountable obstacles were As 2009 came to an end, there wastation. “The apparent lack of po- overcome, potentially an indica- no scheduled date for the conclu-litical will to implement the agreed tion of future cooperation between sion of the peace talks, which hadmeasures constitutes a missed op- the two sides. entered their second round. UN-portunity in building public support FICYP and the Secretary-General’swithin the communities for the pro- The agreement to open this new- good offices mission in Cypruscess and creating an improved in- est crossing point was another were working hand-in-hand to fa-ter-communal atmosphere crucial to demonstration of the political cilitate the negotiations, with thea future united Cyprus,” he wrote. will and leadership the Secretary- Secretary-General’s assurance that General commended in the lead- he would continue to give unwaver-Amid mounting concern over the ers of the two communities, Greek ing support to the two sides in theirprospects for the peace talks, the Cypriot Demetris Christofias and search for a settlement. When, andeventual opening of the Limnitis/ Turkish-Cypriot Mehmet Ali Ta- if, one is reached and approved byYesilirmak crossing – which UNFI- lat. The Secretary-General’s Spe- voters on both sides of the island, itCYP will help operate – was greeted cial Adviser on Cyprus, Alexander is likely that UNFICYP’s almost half-not only with relief but with a re- Downer, was leading the United century of experience will be tappednewed sense of optimism over the Nations political effort on the to help Cyprus make the transitionpossibility of a lasting accord. As ground, bringing the Cypriot lead- to a united country at last. The UN mission in Georgia endsThe UN peacekeeping mission in UNOMIG was originally established and Separation of Forces, — con-Georgia came to an end when the in August 1993 to verify compli- siderably affected the contextSecurity Council, on 15 June 2009, ance with the ceasefire agreement in which UNOMIG carried out itsfailed to extend the mandate of following the outbreak of hostili- mandated tasks.the United Nations Observer Mis- ties between the Georgian Govern-sion in Georgia (UNOMIG), due to ment and the Abkhaz authorities The security regime in the Geor-the veto by one of the permanent striving to separate Abkhazia from gian-Abkhaz conflict zone, basedCouncil members. Ten countries the Republic of Georgia. Its man- on the Moscow Agreement, saw fur-had voted in favor of a resolution date was subsequently expanded to ther signs of erosion. The Collectiveextending the Mission, while four monitor and verify the implemen- Peacekeeping Forces of the Com-countries abstained. tation by the parties of the Agree- monwealth of Independent States ment on a Ceasefire and Separation (CIS), which had been in place in theIn a statement issued by his Spokes- of Forces signed in Moscow on 14 conflict zone for the past 14 years,person after the vote, Secretary- May 1994. was officially terminated by the CISGeneral Ban Ki-moon said that he as of 15 October 2008. Armed forces“regrets that the Security Council While UNOMIG had no role in of the Russian Federation remainedhas been unable to reach agree- nearby South Ossetia, another deployed on the Abkhaz-controlledment on the basis of a package of independence- driven region of side of the zone of conflict. Georgianpractical and realistic proposals he Georgia, the dramatic develop- and Abkhaz forces, including heavysubmitted to the Security Council ments there in August 2008 and weapons, were deployed on their re-aimed at contributing to a stabiliza- subsequent events, — such as the spective sides of the ceasefire line,tion of the situation on the ground.” recognition by the Russian Fed- facing each other in a potentiallyHe also expressed deep appreciation eration of Abkhazia’s and South dangerous stand-off. Persisting ten-for the Mission’s commitment and Ossetia’s independence and Geor- sions in Georgian-Russian relationscontribution to peace and security gia’s withdrawal from the 1994 continued to affect the overall situ-over the last decade and a half. Moscow Agreement on a Ceasefire ation in the region.YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 55
  • 58. The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UN- OMIG) military observers’ winter survival exercise in the Caucasus mountains, Georgia. 1 March 2004. (UN Photo by Justyna Melnikiewicz) Twice, on 9 October 2008 and 15 February 2009, the Security Coun- cil extended the mandate of the mission for four-month periods, with the last extension terminat- ing on 15 June 2009. As a result of those extensions and notwith- standing the new challenges in the aftermath of the August 2008 events, the mission continued its activities in the area of respon- the withdrawal of Georgia from the previous permanent residence and sibility, including through active 1994 Moscow Agreement. increased respect for human rights. patrolling, observation and liaison This component covered activities in with the parties. The United Nations police com- the areas of political and civil affairs ponent provided assistance to as well as human rights in mandated During the first six months of both parties to enhance law and areas. The main priority remained 2009, the military component of order in the Gali and Zugdidi dis- the engagement of the parties in di- UNOMIG continued to monitor tricts. The main priorities were rect dialogue on substantive issues, and verify the parties’ compliance to contribute to the creation of economic cooperation, confidence- with the 1994 Moscow Agreement. conditions conducive to the safe, building measures, humanitarian is- The military observers conducted secure and dignified return of sues and the monitoring and protec- patrols in the Gali and Zugdidi internally displaced persons and tion of human rights. sectors to observe the situation refugees. This was carried out and investigate incidents. Fewer through advising, monitoring, In accordance with the agreements patrols, however, were conducted training and equipping local law reached on 12 August and 8 Sep- in the Kodori Valley owing to the enforcement agencies as well as tember 2008 under the auspices withdrawal of the CIS Peacekeep- facilitating cross-ceasefire line of the European Union presidency, ing Forces and Georgian forces who cooperation in improving order the sides engaged in international provided security guarantees for and combating crime. discussions in Geneva, beginning United Nations patrols. Participa- on 15 October 2008 under the tion in the quadripartite meetings UNOMIG also continued to support co-chairmanship of the European of the joint fact-finding group and the process aimed at the political Union, the Organization for Secu- meetings of working group I of the settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz rity and Cooperation in Europe and coordinating council did not take conflict, the safe, secure and digni- the United Nations, represented by place owing to the suspension of fied return of refugees and internally the Special Representative of the the dialogue between the sides and displaced persons to their places of Secretary-General. The discussions56 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 59. Timor-Leste: towards self- sustainability, social cohesion and development Timor-Leste today looks very different from the days of mid-Members of the Security Coun- proceeded in two working groups: working group I on 2006, when a political, hu-cil fail to extend the mandate stability and security and working group II on the re- manitarian and security crisis of the UN Observer Mission in turn of internally displaced persons and refugees. Georgia (UNOMIG). of major dimensions threat- 15 June 2009. ened the fledgling state. The (UN Photo by Mark Garten) The activities of the human rights office covered the security situation as of late monitoring of the human rights situation throughout 2009 was calm, and the coun- the mandated area, particularly in the Gali district, try had been able to celebrate with a focus on the prevention of human rights viola- on 30 August the tenth an- tions, as well as the provision of legal advisory ser- niversary of the 1999 UN-or- vices to the local population and the monitoring of ganised Popular Consultation court trials and detention facilities. In addition, the in a peaceful atmosphere. office implemented capacity-building projects and other grass-roots initiatives for the local population, This year also saw further including initiatives for disadvantaged groups in iso- progress in addressing the two lated areas. major residual consequences of the 2006 crisis: the re- In May 2009, the Secretary-General submitted to the Se- integration of the Timorese curity Council a package of recommendations relating to Armed Forces (F-FDTL) “peti- the future activities of the mission and a future security tioners” into civilian life, and regime in UNOMIG’s area of operations. However, the the closure of all 65 internally Council members were not able to reach an agreement displaced persons (IDP) camps on the basis of those recommendations and the mandate without significant incident. of the mission was not extended beyond 15 June 2009. The resumption of primary po- After the closure of UNOMIG, the United Nations has licing responsibilities by the continued to play a role within the framework of the Polícia Nacional de Timor-Les- Geneva discussions, to liaise with the parties and in- te (PNTL) through a gradual, ternational stakeholders, and continued its activities phased approach based on mu- on the humanitarian front. tually-agreed criteria between the Government and UNMIT be- The maximum authorized strength of UNOMIG was 136 gan on 14 May 2009, with four military observers, 20 police officers, 114 internation- districts, the police training al staff, 211 local staff and one UN Volunteer. Over a centre, the maritime unit, and period of almost 16 years, hundreds of United Nations the police intelligence service military observers, police, and international and local handed over to the PNTL as of staff served with UNOMIG. Twelve UNOMIG personnel 22 December. lost their lives while serving in the mission.  YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 57
  • 60. A national police officerparticipates in IndependenceDay celebrations in front ofthe Palácio do Governo, Dili,Timor-Leste. 20 May 2009.(UN Photo by Martine Perret) The current peacekeeping mission, However, progress and stability to function in an accountable and the United Nations Integrated have been fragile, as many of the effective manner, with respect for Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), underlying factors contributing to the rule of law and human rights. A established in the wake of the the 2006 crisis have remained, in- package of draft legislation on the 2006 crisis, has been providing cluding poverty (which increased) security sector was submitted to critical assistance to the Timorese and unemployment, lack of an ef- parliament for consideration, and authorities in its four mandated fective land and property regime UNMIT continued to offer advice priority areas: review and reform and still-developing institutions, and support. Some of the main of the security sector; strengthen- including in the justice and secu- challenges for the government in ing of the rule of law; promotion rity sectors. seeking consensus on such legisla- of a culture of democratic gover- tion include defining a meaningful nance and dialogue; and economic While the return and resettlement role for the F-FDTL in a peacetime and social development. process of IDPs was largely suc- setting, clarifying its relationship cessful, tensions in some commu- with the PNTL and establishing ac- Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon nities persisted. Also, while the countability mechanisms and civil- presented a medium-term strategy commencement of the PNTL re- ian oversight. in his 4 February 2009 report to the sumption process was encouraging Security Council, with benchmarks and the security environment con- During 2009, then Special Repre- informed by the national priorities tinued to be stable, much remains sentative of the Secretary-General process and other planning exer- to be done to fully develop and Atul Khare continued to encourage cises such as the UN development strengthen Timor-Leste’s security consultative and democratic deci- assistance framework and the plan institutions. Long-term security sion-making processes involving a for the resumption of responsibili- and stability will depend on the ca- broad range of stakeholders. While ties by the national police. pacity of the security institutions Fretilin, the largest opposition58 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 61. party, continued to publicly deny On 13 October, Parliament debated justice and reconciliation, and the legitimacy of the Alliance for a a “motion of no confidence” tabled implementation of the recom- Parliamentary Majority (AMP) Gov- by Fretilin and its ally, KOTA, be- mendations of the reports of the ernment, all political parties con- cause of their opposition to the Commission for Reception, Truth tinued to demonstrate respect for release by Timorese authorities to and Reconciliation (CAVR) and the the state institutions. Timor-Leste the Indonesian authorities of for- Commission of Truth and Friend- President Jose Ramos-Horta con- mer Laksaur militia leader Mater- ship (CTF), victims and their fami- tinued to promote dialogue across nus Bere, against whom there was lies continued to search for justice the political spectrum and among an outstanding warrant for crimes and reparations for criminal acts all segments of society to address against humanity. The motion was committed from 1974 to 1999. On priority issues facing the country. defeated by a vote of 39 to 25. The 14 December, Parliament called Secretary-General noted in his re- on its Committee A to assess the On 9 October, Timor-Leste held vil- port of 2 October that the manner CAVR and CTF reports within three lage (“suco”) elections in a generally in which the case has been handled months and to propose the estab- peaceful atmosphere with only minor could have serious consequences for lishment of an institution that security-related incidents. The UN the prospects of accountability for would generate concrete measures electoral support team, comprised of the serious crimes which occurred for implementation of the reports’ UNMIT and UNDP staff, gave advice in 1999. He reiterated the UN posi- recommendations. and support through an integrated tion that there can be no amnesty “One UN” approach. The ability of or impunity for war crimes, crimes Weaknesses in the judiciary con- the Timorese electoral bodies to orga- against humanity or genocide. tinued to affect public confidence nize the elections successfully dem- in the entire rule of law system, onstrated their increasing capacities While the renewed political dia- including in the PNTL. An inde- and the public’s continuing faith in logue was promising on issues pendent comprehensive needs as- democratic electoral processes. such as reparations to victims, sessment of the justice sector wasA family prepares to re-turn home after spendingthree years in the Met-inaro camp for internallydisplaced people followingthe Timor-Leste crisisof April/May 2006. 18June 2009. (UN Photo byAntoninho Bernardino) YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 59
  • 62. completed in 2009, and its recom- With regard to the future pres- oured to work in a manner that mendations should contribute to ence of UNMIT, the Secretary- enhances the capacity and cred- justice sector reform and facilitate General, in his 2 October report, ibility of the institutions of this the identification and provision of stated that any adjustments in young nation,” instead of taking assistance needed from the inter- the numbers of UNMIT police the lead in any activity. “This ap- national community. On 8 June, should be carried out in a grad- proach means that progress is not the new penal code entered into ual, step-by-step manner that linear, but depends on the pace at force, incorporating core inter- helps maintain public confidence which national institutions devel- national criminal law and human in the stable security situation. op….The touchstone for success rights standards and making do- A technical assessment mission in Timor-Leste is not whether or mestic violence a public crime. from UN headquarters was to not crises occur, but how future visit Timor-Leste in January 2010 crises are met and resolved. The Economic and social development to develop medium-term recom- goal should be to ensure that they continued to remain critical to long- mendations for the configuration are handled in a responsible man- term peace and stability in Timor- of UNMIT. The Secretary-General ner that does not threaten the Leste. While the country’s Petroleum was to make proposals for pos- state and instead provides an op- Fund has been the major source of sible adjustments in the Mis- portunity for enhanced social co- income, UNMIT and other UN part- sion’s mandate, composition and hesion and development.” ners continued to support fiscal pru- strength in his report scheduled dence as well as the expansion of for February 2010. In December, the Secretary-Gen- the non-oil sector of the economy. eral appointed Ameerah Haq of In 2009, Parliament adopted legisla- In his last address to the Security Bangladesh as SRSG for Timor- tion aimed at enhancing democratic Council on 23 October, then Spe- Leste and head of the UN Inte- governance, including the establish- cial Representative Khare noted grated Mission there. She took ment of anti-corruption and civil ser- that “UNMIT and the UN country up her appointment in Dili on 5 vice commissions. team have consciously endeav- January 2010.  An unsettling year for the mission in Afghanistan Of the seven years that the United Amidst a worsening security situ- providing a crucial link between Nations Assistance Mission in Af- ation in Afghanistan and a ris- the international community and ghanistan (UNAMA) has been in ing number of civilian casual- Afghans on the ground. existence, 2009 would probably ties—1,013 deaths for the first six qualify as the most difficult yet. months of 2009, up by 24 percent In the run-up to the polling day from the previous year—the Afghan on 20 August, doubts were raised As a political mission mandated authorities, with support from the about how many polling centres to provide political and strate- international community, began could actually be opened. Would gic advice for the peace process preparations for the presidential anti-government elements act and also to help the Government and provincial council elections. upon their repeated threats to implement the Afghanistan Com- disrupt the process? How much pact, UNAMA and its leadership in The elections were fully Afghan- fraud would occur? And how many 2009 faced a crucible of purpose led and organized. However, the voters would turn out to cast and resolve through the challeng- international community provided their votes? es that were to confront it in the funding and technical support months to come. Undeterred by through UNDP/ELECT, and the There were achievements on elec- these enormous events, the mis- international military forces sup- tion day: approximately 6,200 poll- sion has continued to cleave to its ported Afghan security institu- ing centres opened and the strin- principles and to serve the people tions. UNAMA mobilized and coor- gent security apparatus across the of Afghanistan. dinated the international support, country prevented any major attack60 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 63. An Afghan citizen votes in the country’s presiden- tial and provincial council elections, Herat, Afghani- stan. 20 August 2009. (UN Photo by Tim Page)although, by government estimates, killed in a dawn attack by gun- Progress was being made by a matur-73 incidents took place country- men who stormed a guesthouse in ing democratic state. Although thewide on 20 August. An initial offi- Kabul. Survivors and eyewitnesses country’s election body was unablecial figure put the turnout at 39 per of the attack recounted stories of to prevent fraud, the process wascent of registered voters. heroism by UN security officers followed, and the mechanisms to Louis Maxwell and Lawrence Mef- detect it worked successfully whenHowever, the Independent Election ful, who were killed while saving the Electoral Complaints CommissionCommission (IEC) was unable to many lives. threw out 18 percent of total votes.prevent widespread fraud. The in-ternational community and UNAMA Yet 2009 was also a year of some In welcoming the IEC’s decision towere chastised by the media for achievement. While the presidential forego a run-off in the presidentialbeing incapable of stopping fraud, elections were far from perfect, SRSG race on 2 November, Secretary-although it was not in their man- Eide had emphasized before the first General Ban Ki-moon said, “Thedate to do so. ballot was cast, that this was “the United Nations remains committed most difficult and complex election” to providing every support and as-The mission’s reputation suffered a he had seen. Afghanistan’s was a sistance to the new Government infurther blow, after the Special Rep- fledgling democracy plagued with helping to push forward progressresentative of the Secretary-General insecurity, poor infrastructure and for all peoples of Afghanistan.”for Afghanistan, Kai Eide, was ac- low literacy levels. However, 4.5 mil-cused by his deputy Peter Galbraith lion people registered for new voting This was also the third year in whichof allowing so-called “ghost poll- cards. Men and women and first-time UNAMA spearheaded efforts duringing stations” in the south of the voters came out and voted – even a month-long campaign leading upcountry to exist on Election Day. in the embattled south – where they to the International Day of Peace defied the Taliban’s threats, bombs, on 21 September. The campaignJust days before a run-off election and bullets. The public debates be- not only encouraged civil society towas scheduled, terror struck the tween candidates and the discourse participate in promoting the urgentUN when five staff members were in the media were robust and civil. need for peace in Afghanistan, butYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 61
  • 64. also directly led to a substantial military inaugurated a new prison, macteric, when progress and mis- drop in security incidents (similar replacing the existing facility with takes were made and communi- to the 70 percent fall in 2008 on one providing detainees with im- ties were empowered and lessons Peace Day), after pro-government proved living conditions and rein- learnt through the historic elec- forces declared a 24-hour cease- tegration programmes. tions in August. The UN in 2010 fire. The Taliban also allowed health faces an opportunity to address workers access to insecure areas by As coordinator of the humanitarian these challenges. A high-level in- agreeing to support a Peace Day po- assistance to Afghanistan, UNAMA ternational conference to be held lio immunisation drive. also launched a $604 million hu- in late January in London was to manitarian action plan to benefit provide an opportunity for the UNAMA’s efforts toward improving the country’s most vulnerable international community to set the situation in detention centres that agenda, with their Afghan such as Bagram air base also moved The year 2009 in Afghanistan partners.  forward in November, when the US may eventually be seen as cli- Iraq: Coping with a “Herculean task” In 2009, the United Nations As- Given the challenging political and their personal data, and 18 million sistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) security environment in Iraq, the voter information cards were distrib- made significant progress in imple- Secretary-General called the progress uted nationwide. menting its mandate from the Secu- made on the election front a “re- rity Council, under resolution 1830 markable achievement.” Ensuring that basic standards (2008) and the subsequent resolu- would be met for the national elec- tion 1883 (2009), in the areas of UNAMI has been mandated by the tions would be, according to the political facilitation, elections, re- Security Council to advise, support, Special Representative of the Sec- gional dialogue, human rights, and and assist the Government of Iraq retary-General, Ad Melkert, during reconstruction and development. and the Independent High Electoral his briefing to the Security Council Commission (IHEC) on the develop- in November, a “herculean task.” Elections ment of processes for holding elec- (Melkert succeeded SRSG Staffan di tions and referenda. UNAMI has Mistura in July.) A priority activity for UNAMI this focused on capacity and institution- year was supporting preparations for building for the IHEC and heads the Briefing the Security Council in No- the forthcoming national elections, International Electoral Assistance vember, went on to say that “suc- scheduled on 7 March 2010. These Team (IEAT), which is comprised of cess is far from guaranteed as inside elections were to mark the end of international advisors from various and outside forces continue their the first full-term of a freely elected organizations. UNAMI electoral ad- efforts to impose an agenda of di- parliament in the country’s history. visers have been sharing best prac- vision and destruction. Opposed Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon stat- tices in electoral administration in to this stands the will of the Iraqi ed his firm belief that these elections order to help the IHEC to undertake people to participate in the design “represent an historic opportunity elections that will be credible and ac- of the future and to democratically for Iraq and a crucial step forward for national reconciliation. They will also cepted by the Iraqi people. The IEAT mandate its leaders.” contribute to Iraq’s political progress also strives to support processes that and could go a long way towards enhance the independence, transpar- Disagreements in the Iraqi Council strengthening Iraq’s sovereignty and ency and credibility of the IHEC. This of Representatives led to delays independence.” UNAMI was also in- support included the voter registra- in the passage of the electoral volved in supporting the conduct tion update exercise, accompanied law, which set back the timetable of provincial elections in 14 of the by a national voter education cam- for national elections by several country’s 18 governorates, as well as paign. More than 1.5 million Iraqis months. These elections must be presidential and parliamentary elec- visited one of 1,082 voter registra- held before 15 March 2010 – the tions in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. tion centres to register or confirm end of the legislative term of the62 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 65. United Nations electoral staff at a polling station in Erbil, Iraq. 25 July 2009. (UN Photo by Rick Bajornas)current parliament. In December, to the Council, “the new Iraq will be for economic growth and socialthrough the mediation efforts of permanently at risk of being pulled progress, including by assisting theSRSG Melkert, UNAMI helped Iraqi back or dragged into a fundamen- Government of Iraq in the formu-leaders reach compromises on a tally destabilizing conflict.” lation of a national developmentnumber of contentious issues, in- plan (NDP). The UN Country Teamcluding the allocation of seats, and Under UNAMI’s auspices, a high- launched the first common countryagreed on a number of amendments level task force was established assessment (CCA) for Iraq, focusingto the electoral law. Subsequently, in July to bring together repre- on three key areas: governance, in-the Council of Representatives ad- sentatives of the Government of clusive economic growth and es-opted the amended law, and the Iraq and the Iraqi Kurdistan Re- sential services. In turn, both thePresidency Council set the date for gional Government to find com- NDP and CCA were incorporated un-the election on 7 March 2010. mon ground on issues of mutual der the UN development assistance concern and identify possible framework (UNDAF) 2010-2014,Disputed internal boundaries confidence-building measures. At to provide a harmonised approach the end of the year, some progress to sustainable development in theIn 2009, UNAMI was actively en- was made on addressing measures coming years.gaged in seeking a resolution to the to expedite property claims, im-issue of disputed internal bound- prove detention procedures and A new period of potential invest-aries. This involved addressing a guarantee the right to education ment in economic growth and so-range of issues including territorial in children’s mother tongue. cial progress began in Novemberboundary delineation, federal and with the International Reconstruc-provincial competencies and respon- Economic growth and social tion Fund Facility for Iraq (IRFFI)sibilities, revenue-sharing and oil progress Donor Committee meeting, whereextraction, service delivery and secu- options were discussed for a newrity arrangements. Without resolving The aim of UNAMI’s political efforts funding and coordination mecha-these issues, SRSG Melkert stressed has been to create an environmentYEAR IN REVIEW 2009 63
  • 66. nism, including the establishment Regional cooperation Promotion of human rights of a new UN multi-donor trust fund The promotion of regional coop- Throughout the year, the protection that would build on the achieve- eration has also been a key ac- and promotion of human rights was ments of the Reconstruction Fund. tivity for UNAMI. The mission has a key priority for UNAMI. It issued In November, during a meeting in tried to assist Iraq and Kuwait in its 15th human rights report for the Baghdad between the Government normalizing their relations and period covering January to June of Iraq and representatives of the addressing Iraq’s outstanding 2009 which highlighted improve- donor community, a decision was Security Council obligations to ments as well as raised concerns on reached to begin a new partnership its neighbour. The hope is that the situation of human rights in the between Iraq and the international progress in this regard could in country. It also made special em- community, with Iraq in the lead, turn help create a positive mo- phasis on the areas of rule of law building on the accomplishments mentum for the normalization of and impunity, the reimplementation of the International Compact with Iraq’s standing in the interna- of the death penalty, the situation Iraq (ICI). tional community including, and in prisons and detention centres, subject to the Security Council’s and allegations of torture. UNAMI The United Nations also em- approval, the eventual lifting of also continued to provide capacity- barked on a number of activities all outstanding Chapter VII man- building assistance to Iraqi min- to strengthen governance and the dates on Iraq since resolution 661 istries, including support for the rule of law in Iraq, helping in the (1990). UNAMI also continued to establishment of an Iraqi Human preparation of the first Iraqi na- work on promoting and support- Rights Commission. tional anti-corruption strategy, ing regional cooperation in other which identified several key areas areas, in particular in relation The United Nations remains com- of engagement, including political to water issues involving Turkey, mitted to assist the people of Iraq party and elections financing and a Syria and Iran. to rebuild their country and achieve civil service code of conduct. lasting peace and stability.  Nepal’s peace process falters The peace process in Nepal, so the United Nations political mission cantoned personnel was re-con- hopeful after a peace agreement in Nepal (UNMIN) which had sup- stituted. And on 16 December, the in 2006 and democratic elections ported Nepalis with the electoral United Nations, the Government of in 2008, stalled in 2009 when rela- process as well as with monitoring Nepal and the Unified Communist tions between the party of the for- the cantonment sites of the Maoist Party of Nepal-Maoists (UCPN-M) mer Maoist insurgents and Nepal’s army personnel. signed an action plan for the dis- other major political parties dete- charge of Maoist army personnel riorated, and the Prime Minister— One of the unfulfilled provisions of disqualified in the United Nations- the former Maoist leader known as the peace process has been the re- led verification process in 2007. Prachanda—resigned in May. habilitation or integration into the government security forces of some The UN and the government will as- The Maoist party UCPN-M went on 19,000 Maoist army personnel— sist their rehabilitation, once they to block parliament and hold nu- including 3,000 children—who re- have been officially discharged. The merous street protests and strikes mained cantoned in camps around ex-combatants will have access to a throughout the rest of the year, the country since the end of the civil range of rehabilitation options de- with the political situation deterio- war. The ex-combatants were to have veloped by UN agencies. The action rating further in late December. been discharged after completion of plan will be monitored by a UN-led a verification process. But the army team to ensure that those disquali- Karin Landgren, Representative of had resisted integrating them. fied are given the choice to partake the Secretary-General in Nepal, car- in programmes to assist their return ried out continuous quiet diploma- However, in late 2009, a high-level to a civilian environment, and that cy throughout the year. She headed committee on the future of the they are not exposed to recruitment64 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 67. by groups who engage in violence moving the UCPN-M from the list of impasse that emerged earlier thisor criminal activities. parties which recruit and use chil- year when the President revoked the dren in conflict. army chief’s dismissal by the then-The Secretary-General’s Special Maoist-led Government and PrimeRepresentative for Children and It was an “historic step” in Nepal’s Minister Kamal Dahal. At issue wasArmed Conflict, Radhika Coomaras- peace process, Landgren said. “We the fate of the cantoned Maoists.wamy, attended the signing event, hope that it will encourage otherand said that the minors who spent steps to unblock the current politi- Other critical key objectives in thethe last three years in cantonments cal stalemate.” peace process, such as the finaliza-with their lives on hold will finally tion of a new constitution by Maybe able to take the next step to- In November, Landgren addressed 2010, must take place for the con-wards a more positive future. The the Security Council, reporting little fidence of Nepalis to be restored,agreement was the first step in re- progress in overcoming the political she said. Stability maintained in KosovoIn 2009, its 10th year in opera- Largely as a result of EULEX assum- mechanisms important for Kosovo’stion, the United Nations Interim ing responsibilities in the fields of development, such as the CentralAdministration Mission in Kosovo police, justice and customs, UNMIK European Free Trade Agreement,(UNMIK) continued to contrib- staff was reduced to about 500, a 90 the Regional Cooperation Councilute to maintaining stability in percent cut from the previous year. and Interpol.the region as it transformed intoa smaller, more politically-focused While continuing to operate under UNMIK maintains strict neutralitymission. At the end of June, the Security Council resolution 1244 regarding the legality of Kosovo’smission completed its reconfigura- of 1999, UNMIK has concentrated 2008 declaration of indepen-tion, which the Secretary-General its resources on facilitating practi- dence, on which the Internationalhad initiated in response to the cal cooperation between Kosovo’s Court of Justice (ICJ) is expectedchanged situation on the ground, communities and between the au- to issue a non-binding opinionnotably the deployment of the Eu- thorities in Pristina and Belgrade, in 2010. Sixty-four UN memberropean Union rule of law mission in monitoring and reporting with an states had recognized Kosovo asKosovo (EULEX) in December 2008. emphasis on community issues, of December 2009, when the ICJEULEX declared itself fully opera- and facilitating Kosovo’s participa- held nine days of public hearingstion in April 2009. tion in regional and international on the matter. UNMOGIP monitors ceasefire in Jammuand KashmirUNMOGIP, the second oldest UN each party and to the Secretary- mer), and carried out by 43 militarypeacekeeping operation after UN- General. observers deployed in field stationsTSO in the Middle East, was de- and mobile observation teams. A li-ployed in January 1949 to super- Over the past year, UNMOGIP contin- aison office is located in New Delhivise the ceasefire agreed between ued to observe and report develop- (India). In addition, internationalIndia and Pakistan in the state of ments pertaining to the strict obser- United Nations staff, assisted by lo-Jammu and Kashmir. Until today, vance of the ceasefire. The activity cal staff, provide administrative andUNMOGIPs functions have been in the field is coordinated by a main logistical support. Military personnelto observe and report, investi- headquarters in Islamabad, and a from the Indian and Pakistani armiesgate complaints of ceasefire vio- rear headquarters in Srinagar during provide drivers, security and fieldlations and submit its findings to the winter (and the reverse in sum- station domestic services. YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 65
  • 68. Postscript: Disaster struck Haiti in early 2010. Badly damaged, with scores of peacekeepers lost, the UN mission worked to help the country recover. Here are a few images from MINUSTAH, January 12-20, 2010.66 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 69. Top 10 Providers of Assessed Financial Contributions toUN Peacekeeping Operations United States 27.17% Japan 12.53% Top 10 contributors of uniformed United Kingdom personnel to UN peacekeeping operations 8.16% (31 December 2009) Germany 8.02% Pakistan - 10,764 France Bangladesh - 10,427 7.56% Italy 5.00% China 3.94% India - 8,757 Canada 3.21% Spain 3.18% Others - 39,361 Republic of Korea 2.23% Nigeria - 5,8070 5 10 15 20 25 30 Egypt - 5,155 Percentage of assesed contributions Nepal - 4,311 Jordan - 3,798 Uruguay - 2,513 Rwanda - 3,671 Ghana - 3,633 Surge in uniformed UN Peacekeeping personnel from 1991 to 2009 120,000 Dec.2009: 98,197 (MONUC,UNAMID, UNIFIL) 100,000 Jul 1993: 78,444 Oct 2006: 80,976 (Largest missions: UNPROFOR, UNOSOM, UNTAC) (MONUC, UNMIL, UNMIS,UNIFIL) 80,000 60,000 Nov 2001: 47,778 (UNAMSIL, UNTAET) 40,000 20,000 0 1991-Jan 1992-Jan 1993-Jan 1994-Jan 1995-Jan 1996-Jan 1997-Jan 1998-Jan 1999-Jan 2000-Jan 2001-Jan 2002-Jan 2003-Jan 2004-Jan 2005-Jan 2006-Jan 2007-Jan 2008-Jan 2009-Jan YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 67
  • 70. UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS As of 31 December 2009 Peacekeeping operations since 1948…………………................................................................………63 Current peacekeeping operations…………………….........................…..........................................…..15 Current peace operations directed and supported by the Dept.of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO)…….…….17 PERSONNEL Uniformed personnel (82,868 troops, 12,781 police and 2,209 military observers) .............................97,858 * Countries contributing uniformed personnel .....................................................................................115 International civilian personnel (31 October 2009).......................................................................5,827 * Local civilian personnel (31 October 2009)............................................................................... 13,330 * UNV Volunteers..........................................................................................................................2,562 * Total number of personnel serving in 15 peacekeeping operations .................................................119,577 Total number of personnel serving in 17 DPKO-led peace operations ..............................................121,716 ** Total number of fatalities in peace operations since 1948 ................................................................2,677 *** FINANCIAL ASPECTS Approved resources for the period from 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010...........................About US$7.75 billion Estimated total cost of operations from 1948 to 30 June 2009......................................About US$61 billion Outstanding contributions to peacekeeping.................................................................About US$1.85 billion * Numbers include 15 peacekeeping operations only. Statistics for two special political and/or peacebuilding missions—BINUB and UNAMA—directed and supported by DPKO can be found at ** This figure includes the total number of uniformed and civilian personnel serving in 15 peacekeeping operations and two DPKO-led special political and/or peacebuilding missions—BINUB and UNAMA. *** Includes fatalities for all UN peace operations.68 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 71. CURRENT PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONSUNTSO Since May 1948 UNOCI Since April 2004United Nations Truce Supervision Organization United Nations Operation in Côte d’IvoireStrength: military observer 151; international civilian 96; local civilian Strength: military observer 189; troop 7,202; police 1,145;129; total personnel 376 international civilian 400 ; local civilian 682; UN volunteer 304; totalFatalities: 50 personnel 9,922Appropriation 2008-09: $66.22 million Fatalities: 64 Approved budget 07/09–06/10: $491.77 millionUNMOGIP Since January 1949United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan MINUSTAH Since June 2004Strength: military observer 43; international civilian 25; local United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiticivilian 47; total personnel 115 Strength: troop 7,032; police 2,025; international civilian 482; localFatalities: 11 civilian 1,228; UN volunteer 215; total personnel 10,982Appropriation 2008-09: $16.96 million Fatalities: 59 Approved budget 07/09–06/10: $611.75 millionUNFICYP Since March 1964United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus UNMIS Since March 2005Strength: troop 855; police 66; international civilian 40; local civilian United Nations Mission in the Sudan112; total personnel 1,073 Strength: military observer 476; troop 9,093; police 693; internationalFatalities: 180 civilian 827; local civilian 2,555; UN volunteer 367; total personnelApproved budget 07/09–06/10: $54.41million 14,011 Fatalities: 50UNDOF Since June 1974 Approved budget 07/09–06/10: $958.35 millionUnited Nations Disengagement Observer ForceStrength: troop 1,043; international civilian 40; local civilian 103; total UNMIT Since August 2006personnel 1,186 United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-LesteFatalities: 43 Strength: military observer 35; police 1,517; international civilian 366;Approved budget 07/09–06/10: $45.03 million local civilian 895; UN volunteer 198; total personnel 3,011 Fatalities: 7UNIFIL Since March 1978 Approved budget 07/09–06/10 $205.94 millionUnited Nations Interim Force in LebanonStrength: troop 11,862 international civilian 324; local civilian 663; UNAMID Since July 2007total personnel 12,849 African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in DarfurFatalities: 282 Current strength: military observer 260; troop 15,114; police 4,575;Approved budget 07/09–06/10: $589.80 million international civilian 1,093; local civilian 2,481; UN volunteer 410; total personnel 23,933MINURSO Since April 1991 Authorized strength: military observer 240; troop 19,315; police 6,432;United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara international civilian 1,579; local civilian 3,455; UN volunteer 548Strength: military observer 199; troop 27; police 6; international civilian Fatalities: 5597; local civilian 157; UN volunteer 19; total personnel 505 Approved budget 07/09–06/10 $1,598.94 millionFatalities: 15Approved budget 07/09–06/10: $53.53 million MINURCAT Since September 2007 United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and ChadUNMIK Since June 1999 Current strength: military observer 24; troop 2,489; police 264;United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo international civilian 429; local civilian 398; UN volunteer 148; totalStrength: military observer 9; police 8; international civilian 148; local personnel 3,752civilian 283; UN volunteer 25; total personnel 473 Fatalities: 3Fatalities: 54 Approved budget 07/09–06/10 $690.75 millionApproved budget 07/09–06/10: $46.81 million Mission ended in 2009:MONUC Since November 1999United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of UNOMIG August 1993 - June 2009the Congo United Nations Observer Mission in GeorgiaStrength: military observer 705; troop 18,646; police 1,158;international civilian 1,005; local civilian 2,613; UN volunteer 648;total personnel 24,775Fatalities: 155 NOTE: UNTSO and UNMOGIP are funded from the United Nations regular bien-Approved budget 07/09–06/10: $1,346.58 million nial budget. Costs to the United Nations of the other current operations areUNMIL Since September 2003 financed from their own separate accounts on the basis of legally binding as-United Nations Mission in Liberia sessments on all Member States. For these missions, budget figures are for oneStrength: military observer 118; troop 9,505; police 1,324; year (07/09—06/10) unless otherwise specified. For information on Unitedinternational civilian 455; local civilian 984; UN volunteer 228; total Nations political missions, see DPI/2166/Rev.79 also available on the web atpersonnel 12,614 143Approved budget 07/09–06/10: $560.98 million YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 69
  • 72. UNITED NATIONS POLITICAL AND PEACEBUILDING MISSIONS As of 31 December 2009 NUMBER OF MISSIONS ...................................................................................................................12 PERSONNEL Uniformed personnel.....................................................................................................................357 International civilian personnel (31 October 2009)............................................................................1,010 Local civilian personnel (31 October 2009)......................................................................................2,322 UNV Volunteers ............................................................................................................................125 Total number of personnel serving in political and peacebuilding missions ..........................................3,814 For information on United Nations peacekeeping operations, visit the United Nations website at UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  • 73. CURRENT POLITICAL AND PEACEBUILDING MISSIONSUNPOS Since 15 April 1995 UNAMA* Since 28 March 2002United Nations Political Office for Somalia United Nations Assistance Mission in AfghanistanSpecial Representative of the Secretary-General: Special Representative of the Secretary-General:Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah (Mauritania) Kai Eide (Norway)Strength: international civilian 43; local civilian 15 Strength: international civilian 339; local civilian 1,298; military observer 17; police 3; UNV volunteer 53UNOGBIS Since 3 March 1999United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in UNAMI Since 14 August 2003Guinea-Bissau United Nations Assistance Mission for IraqRepresentative of the Secretary-General: Special Representative of the Secretary-General forJoseph Mutaboba (Rwanda) Iraq: Ad Melkert (Netherlands)Strength: international civilian 12; local civilian 13; Authorized strength: 1,014 (463 international, 551 local)military adviser 2; police adviser 1 Current strength (staff based in Iraq, Jordan and Kuwait): international civilian 321; local civilian 456;UNSCO Since 1 October 1999 troop 221; military observer 11Office of the United Nations Special Coordinatorfor the Middle East UNIPSIL Since 1 October 2008Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office inand Personal Representative of the Secretary-General Sierra Leoneto the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Executive Representative of the Secretary-General:Palestinian Authority: Robert H. Serry (Netherlands) Michael von der Schulenburg (Germany)Strength: international civilian 29; local civilian 26 Strength: international civilian 29; local civilian 29BONUCA Since 15 February 2000 BINUB* Since 1 January 2007United Nations Peacebuilding Office in the Central United Nations Integrated Office in BurundiAfrican Republic Executive Representative of the Secretary-General:Representative of the Secretary-General: Youssef Mahmoud (Tunisia) Strength: international civilian 125; local civilianSahle-Work Zewde (Ethiopia) 239; military observer 5; police 10; UNV volunteer 50Strength: international civilian 24; local civilian 53;military adviser 5; police 6; UNV volunteer 3 UNMIN Since 23 January 2007 United Nations Mission in NepalUNSCOL Since 16 February 2007 Special Representative of the Secretary-General:Office of the United Nations Special Coordinator for Karin Landgren (Sweden)Lebanon Strength: international civilian 48; local civilian 119;(Formerly known as Office of the Personal Represen- military observer 72; UNV volunteer 19tative of the Secretary-General for Southern Lebanon)Special Coordinator for Lebanon: UNRCCA Since 10 December 2007Michael C. Williams (United Kingdom) United Nations Regional Centre for PreventiveStrength: international civilian 20; local civilian 51 Diplomacy for Central Asia Special Representative of the Secretary-General:UNOWA Since 29 November 2001 Miroslav Jenča (Slovakia)Office of the Special Representative of the Secre- Strength: international civilian 7; local civilian 13tary-General for West AfricaSpecial Representative of the Secretary-General: Missions ended in 2009:Said Djinnit (Algeria)Strength: international civilian 13; local civilian 10; UNOGBIS March 1999 – December 2009military adviser 4 United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau It was succeeded by UNIOGBIS (United Nations Inte-* Political or peacebuilding mission directed and supported grated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau) by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. All other political and peacebuilding missions are directed by the De- BONUCA February 2000 – December 2009 United Nations Peacebuilding Office in the Central partment of Political Affairs. For information on political and African Republic peacebuilding missions, visit the United Nations website at It was succeeded by BINUCA (United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic)YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 71
  • 74. PEACEKEEPING CONTRIBUTORS (Police, Military Experts on Mission and Troops as of 31 December 2009)No. Country Police MEM Troops Total No. Country Police MEM Troops Total 1 Albania 63 63 59 Kyrgyzstan 15 9 24 2 Argentina 32 8 821 861 60 Libya 3 3 3 Australia 25 24 9 58 61 Madagascar 50 50 4 Austria 49 11 391 451 62 Malawi 52 26 124 202 5 Bangladesh 1,614 98 8,715 10,427 63 Malaysia 243 48 776 1,067 6 Belgium 10 257 267 64 Mali 56 18 2 76 7 Benin 135 27 1,178 1,340 65 Moldova 8 8 8 Bolivia 31 410 441 66 Mongolia 8 386 394 9 Bosnia and Herzegovina 23 5 28 67 Montenegro 1 2 3 10 Brazil 10 46 1,288 1,344 68 Morocco 5 1,557 1,562 11 Brunei 7 7 69 Mozambique 3 3 12 Bulgaria 1 1 70 Namibia 33 14 9 56 13 Burkina Faso 60 17 627 704 71 Nepal 814 60 3,437 4,311 14 Burundi 65 7 4 76 72 Netherlands 19 18 3 40 15 Cambodia 5 93 98 73 New Zealand 25 12 1 38 16 Cameroon 145 9 154 74 Niger 131 24 387 542 17 Canada 115 39 16 170 75 Nigeria 806 86 4,915 5,807 18 Central African Republic 17 17 76 Norway 23 28 163 214 19 Chad 56 3 1 60 77 Pakistan 866 115 9,783 10,764 20 Chile 3 7 515 525 78 Palau 2 2 21 China 191 53 1,892 2,136 79 Paraguay 48 48 96 22 Congo 1 1 80 Peru 25 213 238 23 Colombia 26 26 81 Phillipines 405 23 634 1,062 24 Côte d’Ivoire 132 132 82 Poland 3 14 19 36 25 Croatia 11 16 110 137 83 Portugal 200 4 146 350 26 Cyprus 2 2 84 Qatar 3 3 27 Czech Republic 5 5 10 85 Republic of Korea 4 25 368 397 28 Denmark 27 148 175 86 Romania 44 50 1 95 29 Djibouti 51 2 53 87 Russia 50 76 239 365 30 Ecuador 14 68 82 88 Rwanda 157 20 3,494 3,671 31 Egypt 286 99 4,770 5,155 89 Samoa 16 16 32 El Salvador 47 15 52 114 90 Senegal 583 52 1,610 2,245 33 Estonia 1 1 91 Serbia 11 7 27 45 34 Ethiopia 10 19 2,143 2,172 92 Sierra Leone 63 12 60 135 35 Fiji 43 7 221 271 93 Singapore 21 2 23 36 Finland 6 19 76 101 94 Slovakia 2 196 198 37 France 99 26 1,485 1,610 95 Slovenia 1 2 14 17 38 FYR of Macedonia 1 1 96 South Africa 154 32 1,992 2,178 39 Gabon 1 1 97 Spain 39 3 1,050 1,092 40 Gambia 147 3 199 349 98 Sri Lanka 98 13 959 1,070 41 Germany 17 27 244 288 99 Sweden 34 24 2 60 42 Ghana 444 56 3,133 3,633 100 Switzerland 7 18 25 43 Greece 4 51 55 101 Tajikistan 9 9 44 Grenada 1 1 102 Tanzania 62 27 365 454 45 Guatemala 14 270 284 103 Thailand 18 17 10 45 46 Guinea 72 14 86 104 Togo 48 17 773 838 47 Honduras 12 12 105 Tunisia 38 467 505 48 Hungary 6 88 94 106 Turkey 169 1 582 752 49 Iceland 2 2 107 Uganda 186 5 2 193 50 India 738 77 7,942 8,757 108 Ukraine 64 27 279 370 51 Indonesia 156 28 1,473 1,657 109 United Kingdom 7 275 282 52 Iran 2 2 110 United States of America 55 8 12 75 53 Ireland 18 20 426 464 111 Uruguay 17 56 2,440 2,513 54 Italy 5 21 2,425 2,451 112 Vanuatu 46 46 55 Jamaica 29 29 113 Yemen 150 63 12 225 56 Japan 6 33 39 114 Zambia 300 56 659 1,015 57 Jordan 1,607 59 2,132 3,798 115 Zimbabwe 109 27 4 140 58 Kenya 40 28 811 879 POLICE MEM TROOP72 Totals 12,794 2,314 83,089 Grand total in PKO 98,197
  • 75. Un Day concert 2009:a Tribute to Peacekeeping 23 October 2009
  • 76. DAY CONCERT 23 OCTOBER 2009 GENERAL ASSEMBLY HALL UNITED NATIONS ● NEW YORKPoster designed by the Outreach Division/DPI, New York A TRIBUTE TO PEACEKEEPING Produced by the Peace and Security Section of the United Nations USD 10 Department of Public Information ISBN 978-92-1-101215-6 For information on UN peacekeeping visit: Printed at the United Nations, New York 09-64044—January 2010—8,000