Human Activities Annual Exposure in mSv/yr Dose to lungs from smoking a pack 150 of cigarettes daily Medical or dental x-ray 0.39 Living in a masonry home 0.07 Sleeping next to someone for 8 hour 0.02 Watching television 2 hour daily 0.01 Air travel, every airborne hour 0.005 Using a computer terminal 0.001 Average for a person living in United States Source : US Environment Protection Agency, US Department of Energy, ConsumerReport, MIT World Nuclear Association
Consumer Products Tobacco (Polonium-210) Smoke detectors (Americium-241) Welding rods (Thorium-232) Television (low levels of X-rays) Watches & other luminescent products (tritium or radium) Gas lantern mantles
Exposure comparison among various industries Non Medical Industry Nuclear Lynas Destructive Workers Malaysia employees Test (estimated Workers avg) mSv/year 6.1 0.4 0.08 0.03 0.2 Number of radioactive Licenses issued by AELB : more than 1000 companies
Personnel wear Radiation Badges which aretested and monitored by AELB Film Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) Electronic personal dosimeters
History of Nuclear Malaysia (NM) Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is a national research centre Under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Established in 1972 as PUSPATI, renamed as MINT in 1990 Core activities are to promote application and research on nuclear science and technology
Roles of Nuclear Malaysia (NM) Nuclear Malaysia is not the regulator. AELB is the regulator. Nuclear Malaysia main activities are research and technology development in nuclear field. Nuclear Malaysia provide consultancy services to industries, federal agencies and state government.
Nuclear Malaysia is well known in nuclear fields Highly trained professional workforce Expertise sought after by the international communities Well equipped in research laboratories and engineering support infrastructure and indigenously designed pilot plant facilities Well connected to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and others similar international and national agencies
Nuclear Malaysia is well known internationally Staff qualifications : 5 6 7 , $ 1 6* 8 $ Consulted by countries in ASEAN, Africa, Middle East, South Asia and Asia Pacific on various nuclear technology applications e.g. NDT, Radiation Processing, Agro-technology, Radiation Protection, and Quality Management
Nuclear Malaysia is consultant to Lynas Nuclear Malaysia carried out Radiological Impact Assessment for Lynas Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) covers : $ 9 % $ $
In Lynas process, traces of radioactive is present onlyin Raw Material and Iron-Phospho-Gypsum Residue Raw Material • traces of naturally occurring radioactive material Solid Residue • Solids from gas scrubbing (gypsum) Lynas Plant, • Gypsum by-product Malaysia • Iron-Phospho-Gypsum – traces of radioactive material Lanthanide Products
Will the Iron-Phospho-Gypsum Residue affect theenvironment? The residue storage cell design ensures no pathway for contamination on environment ! " # $ & % " " ( )* " + " , "-
Pathway for Contamination is one of the keyconsideration in RIA Pathway considered : : 9 % + : + $ 9 ;
Nuclear Malaysia Findings of the Radiological Impact Assessment on Lynas
Radiation exposure to public is negligibleRadiation exposure to workers is well below the limit Background = 0.04 mSv/mth Background = 0.04 mSv/mth Average exposure per employee : 0.2 mSv/year Background = 0.04 mSv/mth
Is Lynas Iron-Phospho-Gypsum residue withinacceptable risk? The permissible exposure limit for workers is 50 mSv/year, set by the AELB. Theoretical maximum worker exposure in the Lynas plant from WLP residue is 6 mSv/year In practise, Lynas will manage and limit worker exposure below 3 mSv/year No exposure to the public from Lynas residue management
ConclusionBased on Radiological Impact Assessment; The public and the workers exposure are well below the limits set by the authorities. There is negligible impact to the environment.