Abortion: ethical, moral and religious view
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Abortion: ethical, moral and religious view

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  • having the DNA characteristic of the human species <br /> The problem, however, is that a fertilized egg itself has this DNA.  Therefore, if we grant that killing a fertilized egg is not murder, we must also agree that the mere fact that a fetus or embryo possesses human DNA does not show that killing it is murder.  It also seems to follows that at least some early-term abortions are not murder, since it’s hard to see any moral difference between a fertilized egg and, say, an embryo of two or three weeks. <br /> A possible response is to claim that there is a person with full moral standing only once the fertilized egg has been implanted in the uterus (about five days after fertilization).  But why think that implantation confers personhood?  The only plausible reason seems to be that an implanted egg is on a natural path that will, if all goes well, lead to a full-term birth.  But the same is true of a fertilized egg.  So it’s hard to see that the potential to develop into a newborn morally differentiates a fertilized egg before and a fertilized egg after implantation. <br /> The basic problem is that, once we give up the claim that a fertilized egg is a human person (has full moral standing), there is no plausible basis for claiming that all further stages of development are human persons.  The DNA criterion seems to be the only criterion of being human that applies at every stage from conception to birth.  If we agree that it does not apply at the earliest stages of gestation, there is no basis for claiming that every abortion is the killing of an innocent human person. <br />
  • Child below ten years <br /> Islamic teachings- stress the importance of life: ayat quran <br /> Not just blindly recite the quran-but understand the teaching as well <br /> The child needs to be able to make the connection by himself <br /> Importance of life- among other steps: prophets are sent to stop the killing of girls and all that <br /> Exposure needs to be limited <br /> According to islam child below ten is innocent <br /> In the name of sex education this innocence can not be corrupted <br /> Books and movies- might contain knowledge. But more of a genera knowledge, a child can get to know these things as he attains maturity <br /> General knowledge is not imperative for those under 10 <br /> Teenagers( 10-20) <br /> Introduce to the concept of copulation <br /> Start separating the girls from the boys <br /> Why? Explain. Stress how this would affect their life <br /> Instead of stating abortion as a solution, state the difficulties of young parenthood. <br /> if a mistake is made, consequences needs to be faced <br /> zina is a sin, and if they still commit to it, then they need to face the consequence. Only problems have solutions, mistakes only have consequences <br /> schools: teach about safe sex. Contraception and all that <br /> Adulthood <br /> In malaysia we have marriage courses <br /> It should stress on family planning <br /> Society <br /> Should not be in favour <br /> Feminist movement- should be about compassion, how is seeking compassion for women by disregading <br /> Mosque commitees should play an active role <br /> Host talks <br /> Schools <br /> Teachers/counsellors be aware of the situations <br /> A lot of things like khalwat happens in school <br /> Lovers meet in school <br /> Government <br /> Campaigns <br /> Provide revised laws, and restrict the allowances for abortion <br /> Any doctors or practices that violates the law needs to be penalised heavily <br /> The license needs to be cancelled, or suspended. <br />

Abortion: ethical, moral and religious view Abortion: ethical, moral and religious view Presentation Transcript

  • Abortion Presented by: Ida Yuszrin Hani Bt Eshak Nur Dalilah Bt Azhar Khairun Neesha Bt Raj Mohamed Ezzah Ruzaini Bt Mohammad Radzi Yasmin Adilah Bt Awang Prepared For: Madam Rozita Othman
  • ABORTION (Legal view)
  • • St at es ar ound t he wor ld began liber alizing abor t ion laws in t he 1960s, r ef lect ing changed societ al mor es and, per haps, t he number of illegal abor t ions. Then in 1965, t he Supr eme Cour t int r oduced t he idea of a "r ight t o pr ivacy" in Gr iswold v. Connect icut as it st r uck down laws t hat banned t he sale of condoms t o mar r ied people. • Abor t ion was legalized in 1973 when t he U.S.Supr eme Cour t r uled in Roe v. W ade t hat dur ing t he f ir st t r imest er , a woman has t he r ight t o decide what happens t o her body. This landmar k decision r est ed on t he "r ight t o pr ivacy" which was int r oduced in 1965. I n addit ion, t he Cour t r uled t hat t he st at e could int er vene in t he second t r imest er and could ban abor t ions in t he t hir d t r imest er . However , a cent r al issue, which t he Cour t declined t o addr ess, is whet her human lif e begins at concept ion, at bir t h, or at some point in bet ween.
  • In 1992, in Planned Par ent hood v. Casey, t he Cour t over t ur ned Roe' s t r imest er appr oach and int r oduced t he concept of viabilit y. Today, appr oximat ely 90% of all abor t ions occur in t he f ir st 12 weeks. • I n t he 1980s and 1990s, ant i-abor t ion act ivism -spur r ed on by opposit ion f r om Roman Cat holics and conser vat ive Chr ist ian gr oups -- t ur ned f r om legal challenges t o t he
  • The wor ld' s populat ion divides somewhat evenly int o f ive cat egor ies of count r ies: • wher e abor t ion is allowed only t o save t he mot her ' s lif e (or banned complet ely), • wher e abor t ion is per mit t ed only in some "har d" cases, • wher e abor t ion is allowed f or br oad economic or social r easons, • wher e abor t ion is available on demand,
  • • Those ident if ied as banning all abor t ions ar e Chile, El Salvador , Malt a, Nicar agua, Timor -Lest e, and Vat ican Cit y, and since 2007 t he Dominican Republic has also enact ed such a ban. This count compar es t o 4 count r ies in 2001, 4 in 1999, and 16 in 1994 (alt hough 10 of t hose 16 made except ions in var ious cir cumst ances). • Regar ding ot her "har d cases", of f icially, 128 of t hese count r ies per mit abor t ion t o pr eser ve t he mot her ' s physical healt h, 123 t o pr eser ve her ment al healt h, 93 in cases of r ape or incest , and 88 in cases
  • • Abor t ion on demand is per mit t ed in 57 count r ies, alt hough many of t hese count r ies place r est r ict ions such as when dur ing t he pr egnancy an abor t ion may be obt ained. This f igur e is up f r om 53 count r ies in 2002 and 42 in 1994. These 56 count r ies include: – in t he west er n hemispher e: t he Unit ed St at es, Canada, Cuba, and Guyana; – in west er n and sout her n Eur ope: Aust r ia, Belgium, Denmar k, Fr ance, Ger many, Gr eece, I t aly, Net her lands, Nor way, Por t ugal, Sweden, and Swit zer land; – in east er n Eur ope: Albania, Bosnia and Her zegovina, Bulgar ia, Cr oat ia, Czech Republic, Hungar y, Kosovo, Macedonia, Mont enegr o, Romania, Ser bia, Slovakia, and Slovenia; – Kazakhst an, Kyr gyzst an, Lat via, Lit huania, Moldova, Russia, Taj ikist an, Tur kmenist an,
  • • Thr ee count r ies ar e r epor t ed as enf or cing mandat or y abor t ions in some cir cumst ances. – The People' s Republic of China has been r ecognized as f or cing mandat or y abor t ions t o enf or ce it s "one child" policy. While t he PRC gover nment claims t o have r ecent ly r ef or med t he policy t o eliminat e such occur ences, r epor t s per sist of f or ced abor t ions by local aut hor it ies. Ear ly in 2003 t he PRC placed of f icial r est r ict ions on abor t ions f or sex select ion.
  • • The gr eat est r egional consist ency in r est r ict ing abor t ion is in Cent r al and Sout h Amer ica. • Sever al of t hese count r ies make except ions t o save t he lif e of t he mot her and in t he case of r ape and incest --but not f or t he physical and ment al healt h of t he mot her . • I n gener al, many bans on abor t ion ar e r egular ly cir cumvent ed in t he cour t s and can also be avoided by t r aveling abr oad--a common pr act ice in Eur ope.
  • • Conclusively, as we can see t he legal st at us of abor t ion dif f er s accor ding t o st at e and is inf luenced by t he societ y, r eligion and cir cumst ances of a par t icular
  • ABORTION (Ethical View)
  • Abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy.
  • If it’s not Ethical… . Why?
  • illing people is wrong •K – killing innocent human beings is wr ong – human lif e begins at concept ion – t he f oet us is an innocent human being – killing t he f oet us is wr ong – t her ef or e abor t ion is always
  • • A f oetus is a person – A f oet us has a unique genet ic code – A f oet us is a unique individual • Causing pain is wrong – it is wr ong t o cause pain and suf f er ing f oet us is suf f icient ly –a
  • illing potential people is wrong • K – it is wr ong t o dest r oy pot ent ial human lif e – f r om concept ion onwar ds t he f oet us is a pot ent ial human being – t her ef or e it is wr ong t o dest r oy t he f oet us illing beings with ' a f uture like • K ours' is wrong
  • • Increasing tolerance killing is wrong of – allowing abor t ion is legalising killing killing r educes – legalising people' s r espect f or lif e – r educing societ y' s r espect f or lif e is a bad t hing - it may lead t o eut hanasia, genocide and
  • Why Abortion is Ethical? … When?
  • f oetus is not • The necessarily a ' person' with the right to live –a collect ion of human cells does not have t he r ight t o live j ust because it is of t he human species ot her wise amput at ing a
  • • a collect ion of human cells only has t he r ight t o live by vir t ue of cer t ain f act s – t hese ar e eit her : • it has r eached a par t icular st age of development t hat makes it a moral ' person' • it possesses cer t ain pr oper t ies t hat make it a
  • • It is not always wrong to end the lif e of an innocent person – t her e ar e many cases wher e we have t o choose which of t wo innocent people will live and which will die: • conj oined t wins, wher e t he oper at ion t o separ at e t hem may cause one t win t o die
  • otential • 'P rights human beings' don' t have – only ' actual'  human beings have r ight s • The pregnant woman has moral rights too – under some cir cumst ances t hese may over r ide t he f oet us' s r ight t o live – t hese moral rights include: – t he r ight t o owner ship of her own body – t he r ight t o decide her own f ut ur e – t he r ight t o t ake decisions without moral or legal interventionby ot her s • t he pr egnant woman has t he r ight t o lif e -
  • • The pregnant woman has moral rights too some cir cumst ances – under t hese may over r ide t he f oet us' s r ight t o live – t hese moral rights include: • t he r ight t o owner ship of her own body • t he r ight t o decide her own
  • • t he pr egnant woman has t he r ight t o lif e - wher e not abor t ing t he f oet us would put the mother' s lif e or health in danger, she has t he mor al r ight t o abor t t he f oet us
  • ABORTION (Moral perspective)
  • A per son' s st andar ds of behavior or belief s concer ning what is and is not accept able f or t hem t o do.  P Lif e - Opposing abor t ion ro (against abor t ion)  P Choice - Advocat es f or ro t he legalizat ion of abor t ion (f or  Moral -
  • When does "l i f e" begin in t he womb?
  • PRO-LIFE 1. B iology is clear that at conception, also known as f ertilization, a unique organism comes into existence. Since this new lif e possesses human DNA and is the of f spring of human parents, it can only legitimately be described as human lif e. 2. Since there is no question that human zygotes, embryos and f etuses are alive, some have attempted to claim that human beings are not “persons” until some threshold is crossed, such
  • PRO-CHOICE 1. Ther e is no scient if ic consensus as t o when human lif e begins. I t is a mat t er of philosophic opinion or r eligious belief . Human lif e is a cont inuum--sper m and eggs ar e also alive, and r epr esent pot ent ial human beings, but vir t ually all sper m and eggs ar e wast ed. Also, t wo-t hir ds of human concept ions ar e spont aneously abor t ed by nat ur e. 2. Per sonhood at concept ion is a r eligious belief , not a pr ovable biological f act .Religious communit ies
  • A wom an's r i ght t o c hoos e vs
  • PRO-LIFE 1. Right t o lif e is pr ot ect ed under Ar t icle 5 of t he Feder al Const it ut ion. Laws set up t o cir cumvent abor t ions and t he hiding of it pr oves t he societ y' s ver dict on t he mat t er of abor t ion. 2. Women who ar e unmar r ied t hat ends up pr egnant ar e ir r esponsible. They should st ep up t o t he plat e and if f or some r eason ar e unable t o keep t he baby, give it up f or adopt ion. 3. At t he point when a gir l/ women is pr egnant , her r ight t o choose dissipat es
  • PRO-CHOICE 1. A f et us is not a child, and women don’t always get t o choose t o become pr egnant , t hey may not have access t o bir t h cont r ol, t hey may not want t o have sex, t hey may have been f or ced. I n any case, women pay t he pr ice. They have t o car r y t he pr egnancy, endur e t he bir t h, f eed and clean t he baby, t ake it t o it s appoint ment s, et c. 2. They also have t o wor k, and pay f or day car e, especially if t he “boyf r iend” is gone. Men can help out or not , accor ding t o t heir inclinat ions and char act er , but nat ur e and cult ur e have conspir ed against mom t o make her t he one r esponsible. Slaver y may be t oo st r ong a wor d, but int ent ionally or not , pr egnancy and childcar e ar e an indispensable par t of t he subj ugat ion of women.
  • Is abortion equivalent to MURDER?
  • PRO-LIFE 1. A human lif e begins when a sper m and egg combine t o f or m a new individual. At t hat moment , a per son comes int o exist ence, and, because all human beings have a r ight t o lif e, it is mur der t o volunt ar ily end t hat per son' s lif e. 2. Volunt ar y abor t ion at t acks t he f et us in it s mot her ‘s womb, which should be a place of saf et y and comf or t . Assault ing t he f et us, by causing a volunt ar y abor t ion, is t her ef or e at least
  • PRO-CHOICE 1. An unf er t ilized egg t hen becomes a f er t ilized egg. The f er t ilized egg is unawar e of it s own exist ence and does not have a br ain. I t had no br ain and never knew it exist ed. I t mer ely had t he pot ent ial t o become a conscious human. That same "pot ent ial" t o become a human exist ed bef or e t he egg was even f er t ilized. 2. Even at t he end of t he second t r imest er , t he f er t ilized egg st ill has a ner vous syst em no mor e conscious t han
  • Is it morally acceptable to seek abortion?
  • PRO-LIFE 1. When people choose t o engage in sexual int er cour se, t hey become mor ally obligat ed t o t ake car e of any r esult ing pr ogeny, even if t hey also use bir t h cont r ol. 2. I t is only accept able t o seek abor t ion if t he pr egnancy will af f ect t he mot her ' s healt h. I n cases of r ape and incest , it var ies f r om one case
  • 3. I n Malaysia, having a child out of wedlock is consider ed immor al and t hus it can be seen f r om t he high number of illegal abor t ion t hat t he "shame" in having a pr ogeny out of wedlock, adult er y, r ape or incest is r eally deep t o dr ive t hese women t o commit such at r ocious act . 4. That is why t her e ar e no legalisat ion of abor t ion in Malaysia because Malaysians f eel st r ongly t hat abor t ion is not mor ally accept able. People who
  • PRO-CHOICE 1. Women have t he r ight t o def end t hemselves. So if a pr egnancy is causing t hem har m, women have t he r ight t o pr ot ect t hemselves f r om t hat har m by choose t o under go an abor t ion. 2. I f a woman knows she will not be able t o r aise a child t o be a pr oduct ive member of societ y, she is mor ally obligat ed t o obt ain an abor t ion r at her t han subj ect it t o a lif e of
  • ABORTION (In perspective of islamic view)
  • INTRODUCTION • Islam def ine abortion as an intentional discharge of the f oetus f rom the womb prematurely and without a justif ication. • Muslims regard  abortion  as wrong and haram (f orbidden), but many accept that it may be permitted in certain cases. • The  quran  does not explicitly ref er to abortion but of f ers guidance on related matters. Scholars accept that this guidance can properly be applied to abortion.
  • CONT … • Many verses in Al Qur' an describe beautif ully and scientif ically all the dif f erent stages of development and growth of the unborn baby, producing great admiration f or The Creator, the best of Designers! (Chapter 23, verses 12, 13, 14) • Islam also has stated clearly  the rights of the f oetus; the right to lif e and protection f rom any harm, the right to lineage, the right to support f rom f amily, the right to legal status and
  • QURANIC VERSE REGARDING ABORTION • “hence do not kill your childr en f or f ear of want (pover t y).it is we who should pr ovide sust enance f or t hem as well as f or you. Ver ily killing t hem is a gr eat sin.” – (17: 31) • “and when t he f emale inf ant bur ied alive is quest ioned f or what cr ime she as killed.” (81: 8) • “and do not t ake any human being’s lif e – t he lif e which Allah has willed t o be sacr ed – ot her wise t han in pur suit of j ust ice (17: 70) • “and ver ily we had honour ed t he childr en of
  • CONT … • “I f t hey believe in God and t he Final Day, it is not per missible f or t hem t o suppr ess what God has cr eat ed in t heir wombs.” (2:228) • “He cr eat es you in t he wombs of your mot her s. I n st ages, one af t er anot her . I n t hr ee veils of dar kness. Such is Allah, your Lor d and Cher isher ” ( 39:6). • “We cr eat ed t he human being f r om a quint essence of clay. Then we placed him as semen in a f ir m r ecept acle. Then we f or med t he semen int o a blood-like clot . Then we
  • Views of Four Madhhabs • The Hanaf i : allows abor t ions t o t ake place pr incipally unt il day 120; some j ur ist s r est r ict t his pr ovision t o “good cause”, e.g. if t he mot her is st ill nur sing an inf ant and f ear s t hat her milk may r un out dur ing t he new pr egnancy. I n abor t ing up t o day 120, t he woman commit s a mer e mor al t r ansgr ession, not a cr ime. • The Shaf i : allows abor t ions t o be per f or med up t o day 120.
  • SANCTITY OF LIFE • The I slamic view is based on t he ver y high pr ior it y t he f ait h gives to the sanctity of lif e. The Qur ' an st at es: “W hos oev er has s par ed t he l i f e of a s oul , i t i s as t hough he has s par ed t he l i f e of al l peopl e. W hos oev er has ki l l ed a s oul , i t i s as t hough he has m der ed al l of m ur anki nd” Qur' an 5: 32
  • 1. PROTECTION OF MOTHER’S LIFE • Islam allows abor t ion t o save t he lif e of t he mot her because it sees t his as t he ' lesser of two evils' and t her e is a gener al pr inciple in shar ia (Muslim law) of choosing t he lesser of t wo evils. • ‘’ al -aham wa 'l -m m uhi m   ’’ m • The P rophet said, "When t wo f or bidden t hings come [ upon a per son] t oget her , t hen t he lesser will be sacr if iced f or t he gr eat er ."
  • 2. PROVIDING FOR THE BABY • The Qur ' an makes it clear t hat a f oet us must not be abor t ed because t he f amily f ear t hat t hey will not be able t o pr ovide f or it - t hey should t r ust Allah t o look af t er t hings: • Kill not your of f spr ing f or f ear of pover t y; it is We who pr ovide f or t hem and f or you. Sur ely, killing t hem is a gr eat sin. - Qur' an 17: 32 • The same (and similar ) t ext s also ban abor t ion on social or f inancial gr ounds
  • 3. ABORTION FOR THE SAKE OF THE BABY • I f it is conf ir med in t he ear ly per iod of pr egnancy t hat a f oet us suf f er s f r om a def ect t hat can' t be t r eat ed and t hat will cause gr eat suf f er ing t o t he child, a number of scholar s would say t hat it is per missible t o abor t , provided that the pregnancy is less than 120 days old. • A slight ly mor e liber al opinion is t hat abor t ion wit hin t he f ir st 120 days would be per mit t ed if a child would be born with such physical and mental def ormity as would deprive the child of a normal lif e. The opinion of at least t wo compet ent medical specialist s is r equir ed.
  • 4. RAPE, INCEST AND ADULTERY • Some scholar s st at e t hat abor t ion wher e t he mot her is t he vict im of a r ape or of incest is per missible in t he f ir st 120 days of t he pr egnancy. • Ot her s say abor t ion f or such r easons is never per mit t ed. • Explaining t he dif f icult y of such a case, one scholar says: • I believe t hat t he value of lif e is t he same whet her t his embr yo is t he r esult of
  • CASES • I t is r epor t ed t hat B osnian women r aped by t he Ser bian ar my wer e issued a f at wa allowing t hem t o abor t , but wer e ur ged t o complet e t he abor t ion bef or e t he 120 day mar k. A similar f at wa was issued in Alger ia. • This demonst r at es t hat I slamic law has t he f lexibilit y t o be compassionat e in appr opr iat e cir cumst ances.
  • 1) I n I slam, it is f orbidden  (har am to abort )  the f etus and if this is done, it would result in the  Di yah  having to be paid. The Diyah is t he r esponsibilit y of t he per son who was in char ge of car r ying out t he abor t ion. •I f t he doctor was t o per f or m it t hr ough an oper at ion or by inj ect ing some medicat ion int o t he woman and t hr ough t his act of his, t he child was abor t ed, t hen he is responsible. •I f it was t he mother her self who at e some pills or was t o use somet hing else t hat t he doct or pr escr ibed f or her t o t ake, t hen t he mother would be responsible. •I f the f ather did not know about t his t aking
  • CONT … 2) I f t he child was to die while in the womb of t he mot her , t hen it is obligatory t o r emove it f r om t he womb. 3) I f t he pr egnancy is a danger to the lif e of t he mot her or would r esult in her become handicapped, t hen it is permissible f or her t o abor t t he child bef or e t he t ime when t he soul has been inf used int o t he body. •However it is not permissible to abort the child once the soul has come into the body and the f etus starts to move (inside t he
  • CONCLUSION • Islam permits preventing pregnancy f or valid reasons, it does not allow abortion. • EXCEP TION : when doctors declare with reasonable certainty that the continuation of pregnancy will endanger the woman' s lif e ; – The reason f or this is that the mother is the origin of the f oetus; moreover, her lif e is well established with duties and
  • SOLUTION SOLUTION
  • Child below ten years 1. Islamic teachings- stress the importance of life: ayat quran 2. Not just blindly recite the quran-but understand the teaching as well – The child needs to be able to make the connection by himself • Importance of life- among other steps: prophets are sent to stop the killing of girls and all that 1. Exposure needs to be limited – – According to islam child below ten is innocent In the name of sex education this innocence can not be corrupted
  • • • Books and movies- might contain knowledge. But more of a genera knowledge, a child can get to know these things as he attains maturity General knowledge is not imperative for those under 10
  • Teenagers( 10-20) 1.Introduce to the concept of copulation 2.Start separating the girls from the boys – Why? Explain. Stress how this would affect their life • • • Instead of stating abortion as a solution, state the difficulties of young parenthood. if a mistake is made, consequences needs to be faced zina is a sin, and if they still commit to it, then they need to face the consequence. Only problems have solutions, mistakes only have consequences 1. schools: – teach about safe sex. Contraception and all that
  • 1. Adulthood – – In malaysia we have marriage courses It should stress on family planning: teach about safe sex 1. Society – Should not be in favour of abortion – Feminist movement- should be about compassion, how is seeking compassion for women by disregarding another life is good? – Mosque committees should play an active role – Schools • Teachers/counsellors be aware of the situations • A lot of things like khalwat happens in school • Lovers meet in school
  • • Government • Campaigns • Provide revised laws, and restrict the allowances for abortion • Any doctors or practices that violates the law needs to be penalised heavily • The license needs to be cancelled, or suspended.