Chapter 9 study guide

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Chapter 9 study guide

  1. 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e Chapter 9 Study Guide Part I: Vocabulary Terms: Define the following terms toughly. This means that each term must be defined using the five W’s at a minimum. What are the five W’s? What is it? When did it occur? Where was it? Who was it or who was influenced by it? Why is this term important to the time or what is its lasting impact? Terms 1. Mass Production 2. Blacklist 3. Benevolent Movement 4. Temperance Movement 5. Market Revolution 6. Industrial Revolution 7. Eli Whitney 8. Injunctions 9. Nativism 10. Gibbons v. Ogden Section 2: Short Answers 1. How did American textile manufacturers compete with British manufacturers? How successful were they? 2. In what ways did the emerging industrial economy conflict with artisan republicanism? How did wage laborers respond to the new economy? 3. What roles did state and national government play in the development of American’s transportation networks? 4. Describe the different types of cities that emerged in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century? How do you explain the differences in their developments? 5. What social classes were created by the economic revolution? Describe their defining characteristics. 6. Weigh the relative importance of the Industrial Revolution and the Market Revolution in changing the American economy? Section 3: Summary Questions 1. In what ways was the economy different in 1860 from what it had been in 1800? How would you explain those differences? 2. Did the Industrial and Market Revolution make American a more or less Republican society? How so?
  2. 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e Mass Production Mass Production is a system of factory production thatoften combines cultured machinery, a disciplined labor force, and assembly lines to turn out massive amounts of identical goods at low cost. In the 19th century, the textile and meatpacking industries pioneered mass production, which eventually became the standard mode for making consumer goods from cigarettes and automobiles to telephones, radios, televisions, and computers. 19th century The United States State Governments and Private Entrepreneurs Mass Production was important because that was what made it possible to produce goods at lower cost, which means that more people can afford to buy products and the standards of living of the population will increase. Blacklist Blacklist is a list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses. 19th century(McCarthy Era) United States People that appeared different were put in the list bybusinesses owners, other middle class or high class people, and politicians. The Blacklist was important because any person who was suspected of being a communist sympathizer or had “weird” (political views, beliefs, etc.) ways of being was put in a "black listed" and found it almost impossible to find work and/or removed from government jobs. This impacted even out lives right now because some people put other people in a “list” because of what they believe or think, so it has shaped America in some ways. Benevolent Movement Benevolent Movement was a broad-ranging campaign ofmoral and institutional reforms inspired by EvangelicalChristian ideals and endorsed by upper middle-class men and women.Ministerswho promoted benevolent reform insistedthat people who had experienced saving graceshould provide moral guidance and charity to theless fortunate. In the 1820s The United States cities Led by Congregational and Presbyterian Minister
  3. 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e The Benevolent Empire was important because various Protestant denominations developed Missionary organizations in order to Christianize citizens of the United States and the world, so they could create a Christian nation or world. The movement included a commitment to social reform by wealthy and middle-class residents. The movement helped connect the different social classes in some way because of their religious beliefs. Temperance Movement The Temperance Movement was a long-term seriesof activities by reform organizations to encourageindividuals and governments to limit theconsumption of alcoholic beverages. Leading temperancegroups include the American TemperanceSociety of the 1830s, the Washingtonian Associationof the 1840s, the Women’s Christian TemperanceUnion of the late 19th century, and AlcoholicsAnonymous, which was founded in the1930s. 19th and early 20th Reform Organizations and the movement's positions were mostly filled by women with their children who had tolerated the effects of unbridled drinking by many of their husbands New York and other U.S. states The Tolerance Movement was important because it proved to be the most successful Evangelical Social reform because thousands of people took the pledge because it was a good improvement to the society. Market Revolution TheMarket Revolution was a dramatic increase in the exchange of goods and servicesin market transactions. The Market Revolutionresulted from the combined impact of the increasedproductivity of farms and factories, theentrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants,and the development of a transportationnetwork of roads, canals, and railroads. Between1820 and 1850 The United States Markets and industrialization industriesand inspired by the success of the Erie Canal and Eli Whitney, which invented useful objects The Market Revolution was important because the states poured millions into transportation networks that spurred economic growth and helped the Unites States Economy. New roads and canals allowed people to exchange goods in distant markets. Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was a period during which mostly agricultural, rural societies in Europe and America became industrialized and urbanized. It began in Britain in the
  4. 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e late 1700’s and manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines that weren’t yet very powerful. The revolutionin the marked had a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron, textile industries, and the discovery and improvement of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution because it improved the systems of transportation, communication and banking. 1790-1860 The Unites States and Europe James Watt, Eli Whitney, Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen, and many other inventors The Industrial Revolution was important because it accelerated American Economy by opening new ways of trading goods and creating them. There was a change from the slower and more expensive production by hand to the quicker and less costly production by machine. It also boosted the growth of major towns and changed the mode of living of the locals for better. Eli Whitney Eli Whitney was an inventor of the cotton gin and interchangeable parts, which revolutionized both southern agriculture and Northern manufacturing. He was a key innovator that began fashioning nails and knife blades and later woman hatpins. He own admission to Yale College and subsequently worked as a tutor on a Georgia cotton plantation. He built a simple machine that separated the seed in a cotton boll from the delicate fibers and then in 1798 he moved to the creation of military weapons. 1765-1825 New England Eli Whitney Eli Whitney was important because he invented the cotton gin which changed the growing of cotton and slavery in America. Because more cotton could be grown more and processed faster, the slaves were needed to produce the cotton that was wanted by England and mills, but the amount of slaves wasn’t growing like it was before. This lead to factors that changed slavery and eventually will lead to the Civil War. Injunctions An Injunction wasa court order that forces or limits the performance of some act by a private individual or by a public official. 19th century The United States Private individual, judges, and/or public officials
  5. 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e Injunctions were important because is areasonablefix in the form of a court order that requires a party to do or refrain from doing specific acts. A party that fails to comply with an injunction faces criminal or civil consequences. Openings of injunctions can be considered serious criminal offenses that merit arrest and possible prison sentences. They made laws in the US and lessen the criminal rates, which helped the development of safeness in the country. Nativism Nativism was a movement based on hostility to immigrants. It was motivated by ethnic tensions and religious bias. It considered immigrants as despots overthrowing the American republic and there was a fear of anti-Catholic riots and competition from low- paid immigrant workers. 19th century America Foreigners and other immigrants Nativism was important because it claimed that the newly arriving foreigners or immigrants would not be able to fit into American society. Gibbons v. Ogden In Gibbons v. Ogden, the Court voided a New York law that created a monopoly on steamboat travel into New York City and established federal authority over interstate commerce. This decision meat that the monopolies or tariffs would impede the flow of goods, services, and news across the nation. 1824 New York The Court and NYC The Gibbons v. Ogden was important because itproven that the federal government had the power to regulate federaltrade, under the commerce section of the Constitution. This helped create the legal background for the growth of the country’s manufacturing system. Section 2: Short Answers 1. How did American textile manufacturers compete with British manufacturers? How successful were they? Americans had the advantage of abundant natural resources. By 1830, a new mineral resource economy began to emerge and themanufacturers increasingly ran their machinery with coal-
  6. 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e burning stationary steam engines rather than with water power. This fastens the production and increased the American economy.Also, the nation’s farmers produced a wealth of cotton and wool, and fast-moving rivers existed for transportation and cheap energy.The U.S. Federal Government attempted to assist American industry through tariffs.But the British had cheap labor, and undersold American competitors.Because of cheap transatlantic shipping and low interest rates in Britain, raw cotton could be imported from the United States, manufactured into clothing, and resold at bargain price. Throughout the development, the U.S. started to be better than European systems and was becoming richer and more powerful and subsequently became a global power. 2. In what ways did the emerging industrial economy conflict with artisan republicanism? How did wage laborers respond to the new economy? The Industrial Revolution was dramatically changing the lives of Americans, but also it changed the nature of work and workers lives. From early to the mid-19th century, many American craft workers espoused artisan republicanism. The men brindled at their status as supervised wage workers and rejected the traditional terms of master and servant to assert their independence. Additionally, outwork and factory systems led to a decrease in the standard of living, and loss of social equality, independence as a craft worker, working class identity, and the ability to control labor conditions. Wage workers responded to the new economy by forming unions to protect their working rights. Slowdowns sometimes occurred when workers felt threatened by their employers. 3. What roles did state and national government play in the development of American’s transportation networks? The State Governments chartered private companies to build roads and turnpikes, the New York legislature funded the Erie Canal in 1817, passed taxes, sold bonds, and charged tools to pay for the project in the development of the American transportation networks. The National Governmentfunded large improvements that benefited the whole nation, such as the National Road in 1811. The National government helped developed trading systems throughout the country so the manufacturing systems would increase and be easier o transport good to other place of the country or continents. 4. Describe the different types of cities that emerged in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century? How do you explain the differences in their developments? The different types of cities that emerged in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century included theWestern commercial cities like Pittsburgh and New Orleans that expanded as regional centers for the shipment of goods to the American West. Also, Northeastern
  7. 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e manufacturers shipped clothing, boots, and agricultural equipment to farm families and in return the farmers sent grain, cattle, hogs, and raw materials like leather, wool, and hemp to eastern cities and foreign markets. The trading was increasing dramatically and the economy as well. Additionally, because of industrial growth, large urban Atlantic coastal cities, such as New York, grew as ports for the shipping and financial industry, and as centers of new arrivals of immigrants, which was called Nativism. Furthermore, smaller, internal cities grew as regional centers for local farmers who shipped extra grain and other goods for market resale abroad. The differences in development included that some cities grew large because of their location on water routes of communication, including inner cities on the fall line where rivers descended to coast. Every year, new transportation networks in the cities were being created that our country was developing rapidly and positively. 5. What social classes were created by the economic revolution? Describe their defining characteristics. The Industrial Revolution, market Revolution, and Economic Revolution created the Business Class (rich people, business owners and politicians), Middle Class, and the Urban Workers and Poor People. The Business Elite people were wealthy, removed physically and ideologically from lower social classes and the middle class, and isolated. The managers and owners of industry, they inhabited separate residential neighborhoods in large cities, and were exploiters of cheap immigrant laborers. They took advantage of their power for their benefit and sometimes it helped the country. The Middle class peoplewere engaged in regular economic businesses of society, including noticeableconsumption for material comfort as their incomes increased during the Market Revolution. They viewed themselves as self-made men,based on a hard work ethic and moral and mental discipline from heavy drinking and gambling. They possessed a strong belief in public education and wanted their children to be well educated. Finally, the UrbanWorkers and the poor were dependent on the upper classes for work, engaged in manual or skilled labor, believed in artisan republican ideology, joined unions and went on strike, and inhabited working class neighborhoods. The poor suffered terribly from disease, inhabited substandard housing, had a high rate of alcoholism, crime and fighting, and high unemployment, and experienced a lack of government social services. The Poor and Urban Workers were the people that worked more harshly and were exposed to more diseases. 6. Weigh the relative importance of the Industrial Revolution and the Market Revolution in changing the American economy? The Industrial Revolution changed the American economy by the creation of industrial machines that allowed the manufacturer to produce more goods, way faster than hand work, and hence there was more machinery power was needed, which increased unemployment. New jobs were created in the Northern states as they needed people who knew how to use the new machines,
  8. 8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e while the Southern states stumble upon the development of slave labor. The influence of the Industrial and Market revolution in the South was increased with the mass manufacturing of cotton, essential for the textile commerce in the North. Even though the Industrial and the Market revolution brought positive things to the country, there was also negative impact on the working classes, who were living in populated and dirty houses and had difficult working conditions. Generally, the Industrial Revolution and Market Revolution weredefining moments in the American history and had as result the change from an agricultural and rural society into industrial and urban places in the U.S. Section 3: Summary Questions 1. In what ways was the economy different in 1860 from what it had been in 1800? How would you explain those differences? The 1800 economy was Pre-Industrial and deeply dependent on Atlantic seaport trade with Europe. TheUnited States was a nation of independent farm families disconnected from larger market economy. But, then in the 1860’s economy was an industrial and manufacturing economy based on mass production and the use of cheap urban labor. Since, there was new technology being created, the work increased with machinery and the hand labor decreased. However, the
  9. 9. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 8 | P a g e exposure to pollution increased and more environmental consequences increased. Geographical regions were more interdependent, and there was increased agricultural output because of improvementsin transportation systems and an increase of exports to Europe.American private and government interests engaged in capitalism to create transportation improvements and a manufacturing industrial infrastructure based on mass production. The removal of Native Americans from the southeast enabled the increase of cotton production, the key export fueling American industrial growth before 1860. But, the moving of Native Americans decreased their population and consequently their race started to decrease. 2. Did the Industrial and Market Revolution make American a more or less Republican society? How so? Economic Revolutions worked against the creation of a Republican society based on social equality, and participation in government. The revolutions created strong class differences that decreased the sense of social equality. Therefore, it did have a big impact because it started to separate the people more and more because they believed that some were superior to others. Economic inequality increased, asdid breaches in wages and life expectancy, residential segregation by class, and regular periods of unemployment. An increase of independenceand economic self-interest decreased a sense of public animation, reducing the effectiveness of government and private reforms of social ills. The Industrial and Market revolutions required cotton as a key product for U.S. and British mass production in factories and resale. Lands were taken from Indians and labor from Africans as new technology were being developed, resulting in an increase of Indian genocide and land loss, and an African holocaust of slavery and destruction of rights as free people.

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