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  • 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e Chapter 8 Study Guide Part I: Vocabulary Terms: Define the following terms toughly. This means that each term must be defined using the five W’s at a minimum. What are the five W’s? What is it? When did it occur? Where was it? Who was it or who was influenced by it? Why is this term important to the time or what is its lasting impact? Terms 1. Capitalism 2. Business Cycle 3. Middle Class 4. Suffrage 5. Sentimentalism 6. Companionate Marriage 7. Republican Motherhood 8. Missouri Crisis 9. Richard Allen 10. Established Church Section 2: Short Answers 1. How did promoters of mercantilism (the common wealth system) use state and national government to promote economic growth? 2. Why did many Americans believe that the granting of special privileges and charters to private business violate Republican principles? 3. How did republican ideas shape parent-child interactions, marriage relationships, and intellectual life? 4. How did the Aristocratic Republicanism of the South differ from The Democratic Republicanism of the North? 5. What compromises over slavery did the members of Congress make to settle the Missouri Crisis? Who benefited most from the agreement? 6. Why did Protestant Christianity and Protestant women emerge as focuses for social change? Section 3: Summary Questions 1. Explain how the republican ideas of the Revolutionary era shaped American society and culture in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. What regional differences in the social development of republicanism emerged? How can we account for these differences? 2. The text argues that a distinct American identity had begun to emerge by 1820. How would you describe this identity? What were the forces for unity? And what were the points of contention?
  • 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e Capitalism Capitalismis a system of economic production based on the private ownership of property and the contractual exchange for profit of goods, labor, and money. For entrepreneurial minded merchants, farmers, and political leaders, republicanism meant the advance of capitalism: they wanted governments to solidify capitalist cultural values and create a dynamic markets economy. 1820–1850 The United States Farmers, merchants, and other leaders Capitalism is important because it allows everyone to do what they want so they could have a good economy and potentially become successful. Also, it helpedcreate a better democratic nation. Business Cycle The Business Cycle was the periodic rise and fall of business activity that is usual of market-driven, capitalist economies. To increase profits, producer increase production and lower wages: this means that the workerscan’t buy all the goods they produce. In the United States, major periods of expansion were followed either by relatively short financial panics (1819–1822 and 1857– 1860) or extended economic depressions. 1819 The United States Capitalists The Business Cycle was important because it served as a representation of what happens in an economy and helps people understand what is occurring in economies either national or international. It also demonstrates whether an economic system is sustainable or incorrect. If in a business cycle there is much growth and development then it is good but if there is great decline then it's a failure. In some economic systems like capitalism there is a period of boom and bust. Middle Class Middle Class people embraced democratic republicanism that celebrated political equality and social mobility.In Europe, the Middle Class were traders and townspeoplewho were not part of either the aristocracyor the peasantry. The term was introduced inAmerica to describeboth an economic group like successful farmers, artisans, and traders and a cultural outlook of self-discipline, hard work, and social mobility. After independence in early 19th century The United States and Europe American citizens
  • 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e The middle class was important it led to an increase of educational opportunities for women and middle class family would probably be wealthy enough to be able to afford a maid, and a better off household might have two or three servants. Additionally, Middle Class people helped the US develop successfully during the 19th century. Suffrage Suffrage was the right to vote, which mostly included the woman’s suffrage. The classical republicanideology limited suffrage tothose who held property and therefore had a stake in society. However, between 1810 and 1860, stateconstitutions extended the vote to virtually alladult white men and some free black men. Throughout our American history, suffrage has expanded as barriers of race, gender, and age have collapsed. 1807 New Jersey State Constitution granted it to all property holders Suffrage was important because to woman, the resulted in passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which finally allowed women the right to vote.The effect on subsequent generations is evident in a range of educational, civil rights, and health care reforms, as well as in the growing number of women elected to governmental positions. Sentimentalism Sentimentalism is a European cultural movement thatemphasized emotions and a physical appreciationof God, nature, and people. Sentimentalism cameto the United States in the early nineteenth centuryand was a factor in the shift to marriagesbased on love rather than on financial considerations. After the 1800’s it spread quickly through all classes of American society Europe and the United States Young adults and children that were getting married Sentimentalism was important because young men and women chose their own partners and rejected the Enlightenment emphasis on rational thought and celebrated the importance of feelings, such as physical, sensuous appreciation of God, nature, and fellow humans. This new emphasis in deep emotional feelings infused German and English literary works, popular theatrical melodramas, and emotional rhetoric of revivalist preachers. This developed a new marriage system to the United States and subsequently the world. Companionate Marriage Companionate Marriage was a marriage based on equalityand mutual respect, which were both republican values.Although husbands in these marriages retainedsignificant
  • 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e legal power, they increasingly came tosee their wives as loving partners rather than as inferiorsor dependents. 1760’s-1800’s The United States Republican Principles The Companionate Marriages were important because inthe marriage communication and support between spouses are considered important, rather than only material inheritance and other objects that are valuable. Republican Motherhood Republican Motherhood is the idea that the primary political role of American women was to instill a sense of patriotic duty and republican virtue in their children and frame them into a good republican citizens. 1760’s The United States Christian Ministers Republican Motherhood was important because it centered on the belief that the young children and upcoming generations should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, making them the ideal citizens of the new nation. Republican motherhood was an important civic duty for all mothers and soon leads to the vote for women. Missouri Crisis The Missouri Crisis was when the Northeastern reformers, for the first time, sought to mobilize public opinion against the westward expansion of slavery. When Missouri applied for admission tothe Union as a slave state in 1819, CongressmanJames Tallmadge of New Yorkproposed a ban on the importation of slaves into Missouri and the gradualemancipation of its black inhabitants;when Missouri whites rejected Tallmadge’sproposals, the northern majority in theHouse of Representatives blocked the territory’sadmission to the Union.The task of reconciling regional differenceshad become difficult, and thespecter of civil war lurked in the background. 1819-1821 Missouri Henry Clay put together a series ofpolitical arguments known collectively asthe Missouri Compromise; the compromiseset a precedent for admission ofstates to the Union in pairsand southern congressmen acceptedlegislation that prohibited slaveryin the rest of the Louisiana Purchasenorth of latitude 36°30°, the southernboundary of Missouri. Also James Tallmadge of New York and Congress were involved in the Crisis. The Missouri Crisis was important because it was a compromise on whether to allow slavery in the new territory of Missouri. It attempted to limit the slavery boundaries and
  • 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e was later declared unconstitutional. Also, it was one of many events which led towards the American Civil War Richard Allen Minister, educator and writer Richard Allen was born into slavery. He is best-known as an African American in early Republic that founded a separate congregation for Philadelphia’s black Methodists. He converted religions. Bought his freedom in 1783 and in 1816, he founded the first national black church in the United States. 1816 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Richard Allen Richard Allen was important because he was the founder of the First Independent African American Church and was one of that city's well-known preachers in Philadelphia. He was a leader of Philadelphia's free African American community and thought African Americans should have their own place to worship. Established Church An Established Church is a church given privileged legalstatus by the government. Historically, established churches in Europe and America were supported by public taxes, and were often the only legally permitted religious institutions. 1776 Rhode Island, New England and other United States Colonies Colonies supporters that received taxes from the colonial legislature Established Church was important because the idea of the church and compulsoryreligious taxes lost credibility and usefulness.Republicanism eroded the idea of an establishedchurch, creating an environment favorable to therise of other Protestant sects during the SecondGreat Awakening.
  • 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e Section 2: Short Answers 1. How did promoters of mercantilism (the common wealth system) use state and national government to promote economic growth? Promoters of mercantilism petitioned state legislatures for assistance. Legislatures granted special charters, rights, and laws to private companies to promote economic growth and the market economy. As a large and undeveloped nation, the United States lacked an efficient transportation system, and needed to raise large amounts of revenue to fund infrastructure improvements. American entrepreneurs encouraged expansion by developing rural manufacturing networks like the ones in Europe. Enterprising merchants bought raw materials, hired workers in farm families to process them, and sold the finished manufactured in regional or national markets. Merchants shipped shoes, brooms, and palm leaf hats as well as cups, banking pans, and other tin utensils to stores in seaport cities. This business expansion resulted innovations in organizing production. Also, during the 1780’s, New England and Middle Atlantic merchants built water powered mills to run machines that combed wool and later cotton into long strands. The growth of manufacturing offered farm families new opportunities and new risks as well. 2. Why did many Americans believe that the granting of special privileges and charters to private business violate republican principles? Many Americans believe that the granting of special privileges and charters to private business violate republican principles because the special privileges violated the equal rights of all citizens and restricted the sovereignty of the people to shape governmental affairs and national development. The critics believed that the privileges given to private enterprises were schemes of an evident Anti-Republican tendency. Also, the voting rights increased for white men and the emerging Middle Class helped the nature of family and education by seeking more democratic marriages and more loving ways of rearing and educating children. Black Americans and women were obviously limited in their legal and political rights through new state laws designed to lower opportunities for both groups and restrict suffrage to white men. 3. How did republican ideas shape parent-child interactions, marriage relationships, and intellectual life? The Republican ideas changed the notion of political equality and called into question patriarchal authority, giving women more social latitude for advocating rights for social and political equality. Then as patriarchal authority over the family decreased, young men and women began to create companionate marriages and choose their own marriage partners for love, affection, and
  • 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e happiness. This was the Sentimentalist movement that made many young people fall in love and marry whoever they decided to. Many fathers saw their roles change from authoritarian patriarchs to watchful paternalists. Furthermore, by the 1790’s, the birthrate in the northern states was dropping dramatically. The couples in the urban Middle Classes deliberately limited the size of their families 4. How did the Aristocratic Republicanism of the South differ from The Democratic Republicanism of the North? Aristocratic Republicanism of the South differed extremely from The Democratic Republicanism of the North. The presence of slaves exposed the blatant contradiction of the Southern slave society with Republican values. Also, because of the regional importance of slavery, Southern Republicanism was based more on property rights than a respect for liberty.Aristocratic Republicanism of the South cared more about the benefit they got from having slaves than how it contradicted religious beliefs. Slavery helped create a Southern culture based on racism toward blacks and racial unity with whites across class lines.The focus on establishing slave plantations diminished against the creation of educational institutions, and in general ruined Southern culture through the inactivity of rich planters who reliedon slave labor and engaged in extravagant displays of wealth.Southern owners were completely dependableon slavery for their workforce, whereas most Northern owners would not have been able to use slavesbecause of the new laws. Also Northern puritans disapproved of slaveryeven though most Northerners weren’t Abolitionists. 5. What compromises over slavery did the members of Congress make to settle the Missouri Crisis? Who benefited most from the agreement? Southern politicians accepted the prohibition of slavery in the Northern section of the Louisiana Purchase, the lands North of latitude (36°, 30°). The task of compromise had become more difficult. It took only two months in 1787 but over two years in 1820 to resolve the issue. Also, the Congress admitted Maine as a Free State. The Congress chose latitude line and decided that South of that line would have slavery and it would be illegal North of the line. Missouri was the exception. Although it was not a permanent fix, it worked for a few decades. Even though the Southern states still had slaves, the ones that benefitted were the slaves (mostly from the North) because the main discussion was slavery. 6. Why did Protestant Christianity and Protestant women emerge as focuses for social change? In the United States, the power of the Protestant faiths was established during the colonial period, and even though women outnumbered men in the churches, the church hierarchy was completely patriarchal. The Second Great Awakening and its independentreligious
  • 8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e importancesupportedthe connections between the American people and Protestant Christianity, increasing the positions of new churches and groups of Protestants and making the members of thecongregation active reformers. Additionally, the Second Great Awakening impactedwomen’s lives and theirsearch for social, political, and culturalequality. This alsoincreased the confidence and role of women as a positive force forsocial change accomplished through active efforts in the church, public field, educational institutions, and home.
  • 9. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 8 | P a g e Section 3: Summary Questions 1. Explain how the republican ideas of the Revolutionary era shaped American society and culture in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. What regional differences in the social development of republicanism emerged? How can we account for these differences? Republican ideas impacted all aspects of American society, politics, and economy. In society, the ideas of abolishing slavery had a tremendous reaction on the states. Like the Missouri Crisis which brought the Missouri Compromises, saying that of the north of the latitude 36°30° slavery would be illegal and not practice, but south of the latitude, slavery could still be practice. Southern colonies wanted slavery more than any other states because they depended to the extreme on labor, house work and other luxurious things that the people wanted. Moving on, the idea of equality increased the development of capitalism and a market economy in the capitalist commonwealth. Republicanism also increased racial unityamong whites and racism and exclusion toward blacks, thusestablishing slavery as an institution. Relations between men and women and parents and children became less conservative, patriarchal, and coercive, and based more on love, affection, companionate marriage, and paternalism. Also, the European movement of Sentimentalism, a marriage system based on feelings and emotions, separated young adults from their parent’s because they started to choose who they wanted to marry. Furthermore, Republicanism gradually destroyed the idea of an established church, producing a climate favorable to the rise of other Protestant sects during the Second Great Awakening. Women increased their rights to education, divorce, and playing an active role in public by calling on the need to apply republican values to the United States society. Regional differences included a much more property rightsbased idea of Republicanism in the slave based South, where free labor and a respect for liberty were minimal. Slavery and heavy Southern investments in the institution over Industrial Development accounted for the main value differences in Republicanism between North and South. Thomas Jefferson had hundreds of slaves and knew it was wrong but he saw it as a “necessary evil”, just like most of the Northern states. The Northern states abolished slavery and the South did not because they depended heavily on slavery. 2. The text argues that a distinct American identity had begun to emerge by 1820. How would you describe this identity? What were the forces for unity? And what were the points of contention? The American identity that begun to emerge by 1820 was based on Republicanism, strong faith in equality among whites in society and politics. Slavery had produced a race-based society where whites exercised class and racial unity by excluding blacks from political rights and enslaving them. But the North wanted to exclude slavery from their system because it was
  • 10. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 9 | P a g e wrong, that’s why in the Missouri Crisis they separated the South because all they wanted was to have slaves so they could do all their work. Furthermore, there was a strong rural and capitalist identity based on Indian removal and the growth of a market and transportation system utilized by white immigrants heading to the trans-Mississippi west.Slavery was a force of unity and controversy because it united whites racially but divided the white population regionally, politically, and economically as slavery became more profitable.