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Chapter 7 study guide

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  • 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e Chapter 7 Study Guide Part I: Vocabulary Terms: Define the following terms toughly. This means that each term must be defined using the five W’s at a minimum. What are the five W’s? What is it? When did it occur? Where was it? Who was it or who was influenced by it? Why is this term important to the time or what is its lasting impact? Terms 1. Anti-Federalist 2. National Debt 3. Protective Tariffs/ Revenue Tariffs 4. States’ Right 5. Whiskey Rebellion 6. Thomas Jefferson 7. The War Of 1812 8. John Marshall 9. Embargo Of 1807 10. Lewis & Clark Expeditions Section 2: Short Answers 1. What was Hamilton’s vision of the future? What policies did he implement to achieve it? How was Jefferson’s vision different? 2. What were the consequences of the French Revolution in American life and politics? 3. Was there anything the Western Indian Confederacy could have done to limit white expansion and preserve Indian lands? Explain. 4. Why did Jefferson support Westward expansion? Why did Eastern farm families leave their communities to go West? Were their reasons the same as Jefferson’s? 5. How did the decisions of the Supreme Court between 1801 and 1820 alter the nation’s understanding of the Constitution? How did they change American society? 6. Explain the causes of the rise and fall of the Federalist Party. Why was the Republican triumph so complete? Section 3: Summary Questions 1. What impact did the two great developments of this period-the French Revolution and subsequent was in Europe, and the westward expansions in the United States across the North American continent- have on each other? 2. Explain the rise and fall of the First Party System.How did the policies pursued by Republican presidentsbetween 1801 and 1825 differ from those implementedby Hamilton and the Federalists duringthe 1790s? Why did the Federalist agenda fall out offavor? What legacy did the Federalists leave?
  • 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e Anti-Federalist The Anti-Federalists were a varied alliance of people who opposed ratification of the Constitution. Even though they were less organized than the Federalists, they also had a remarkable group of leaders who were especially prominent in state politics. 1788 United States James Winthrop in Massachusetts, Melancton Smith of New York, Patrick Henry, George Mason of Virginia, and many other great politicians. The Anti-Federalists were important because they believed they thought that Congress would ruin the country with taxes. Also, they thought that the president had too much power and also complained that the constitution didn't list the rights of the people. They were just opposing the Federalist in every way. National Debt The National Debt was a financial obligation of the U.S.government for money borrowed from its citizensand foreign investors. Alexander Hamilton wantedwealthy Americans to invest in the national debtso that they would support the new national government.In recent decades, that same thinkinghas led the United States to encourage individualsand institutions in crucial foreign nationsto invest billionsof dollars in the American national debt. 1790’s United States Alexander Hamilton The National Debt was important because it made the United States go in debt in an early time in development. Even though it helped the nation in some way, it also had economical consequences that still affect us in the 21st century. Protective Tariffs/ Revenue Tariffs The Protective Tariffs was a tax on imports charged to protectdomestic products from foreign competition. Ahot political issue throughout much of Americanhistory, protective tariffs became particularly controversial when Republicans and Democratscentered their politicalcampaigns on the issue.Revenue tariff was a tax on imports imposed to raise moneyfor the government. 1830’s and again between 1880 and 1914 United States It was passed by the 1st Congress and Alexander Hamilton was involved
  • 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e The Protective Tariffs and Revenue Tariffs were important because gaining profits was the main goal so we, as a nation, could be successful, and was intended to protect small industries just getting started and developing. Even though Hamilton didn’t support the high protective tariffs that would exclude foreign products, he advocated for moderate revenue tariffs that would pay the interest on the debt and other government expenses. In the end, it was important because it someway it helped the United States and created a successful nation. States’ Right The States’ Right was an interpretation of the Constitutionthat helps the power of the states and limitsthe authority of the national government. It informed white southerners’resistance to the high tariffs of the 1820s and1830s, to legislation to limit the spread of slavery,and to attempts by the national government in themid-20th century to end Jim Crow practices. 1798 South of the United States Expressed first by Antifederalists in the debateover the Constitution, and then in theVirginia and Kentucky resolutions of, theideology of states’ rights became especially importantin the South. The State’s Right was important becausethese rights were not included in the original draft of the constitution there was a delay in the ratification process until the states were granted individual powers in an added clause, so it helped each state have authority. The anti-federalists opposed the constitution because they thought it did not give enough power to the states, so it did have a huge impact. Whiskey Rebellion The Whiskey Rebellion was an uprising against the excise taxes on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. The army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem. 1794 Western Pennsylvanian Farmers protested to Alexander Hamilton Pennsylvania The Whiskey Rebellion was important because the federal response to the rebellion demonstrated that the new federal government would use force if necessary to collect taxes and uphold its authority so they can establish a powerful nation. It also
  • 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e demonstrated the need for a national guard to maintain order and prove the right of federal government to create such a force. Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson was a prominent statesman that became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's president, Jefferson organized the national government by “The Jeffersonian Ideology”, and doubled the size of the nation. He inherited an old international conflict which caused clashed throughout his presidency. 1801 to 1809, but he was the first secretary of the United States Thomas Jefferson United States Thomas Jefferson was important because he drafted the Declaration of Independence that declared the 13 colonies as free and independent country. He was also in the colonial policies and the negotiations that resulted in the Articles of Confederation, and later the United States Constitution. As Secretary of State, he proved strong diplomatic positions with the European nations and as the third president, he agreed to the Louisiana Purchase thatdoubled the territory of the US. The War Of 1812 The War of 1812 took on Great Britainin a conflict that would have a huge impact on our developing country's future. One of the causes of the war wasthe British attempts to restrict the United States trade and desire to expand its territory. The United States suffered many costly defeats at the hands of British, Canadian and Native American troops over the course of the War of 1812 like the capture and burning of the nation's capital. However, American troops were able to repulse British invasion, whichhelped the national confidence and developed a new spirit of patriotism. The ratification of the Treaty of Ghent ended the war but left many of the touchiest questions unresolved. 1812-1815 United States and Britain James Madison The War Of 1812 was important becauseAmericans Nationalism improveddramaticallybecause they faced the war on their without any foreign help. The war increase the population and it was like the Second War for Independence that helped our Nation stay strong and get the Crown out of our way.
  • 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e John Marshall John Marshallcreated the precedent of judicial review and ruled on many early decisions that gave the Federal Government more power, especially the Supreme Court.InMarbury v. Madison, he asserted the Court’s power ofjudicial review. 1755-1835, in 1800 he becomes Chief Justice Pennsylvania, United States John Marshall John Marshall was important because I think he made the United States Supreme Court what it is today and the decision in Marbury v. Madison made the Supreme Court powerful. The Judiciary Act was unauthorized, so it elevated the Supreme Court to a status balancing the powers of the other branches. Embargo Of 1807 The Embargo Act of 1807 was a law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britain and France had been continuously harassing the United States and seizing our ship's and men. The United States was not prepared to fight in a war, so President Thomas Jefferson hoped to weaken Britain and France by stopping trade, but itended up hurting our economy more than theirs. Also, the Embargo Act helped to revive the Federalists and caused New England's industry to grow. 1807 The United States, Britain, and France Thomas Jefferson and other political leaders of the United States Congress The Embargo Of 1807 was important because the act increased capital and labor in the New England textile and other manufacturing industries, decreasing America's reliance on England and other trading countries. The act provedthat thedeveloping United States could hold its own against England. And become a stronger independent nation. Lewis & Clark Expeditions Lewis & Clark Expeditions was initiated by Jefferson as an exploration of the newly purchased land and the territory beyond the great rock mountains in the West.Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis because he was an intelligent and literate man who had skills as a frontiersman and Lewis asked the help of William Clark because of his abilities as draftsman. Together they made the expedition even stronger. Jefferson hoped that Lewis and Clark would find a water route linking the Columbia and Missouri rivers. 1803 Thomas Jefferson, Lewis and Clark Throughout the United States
  • 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e The Lewis & Clark Expedition was important because the expedition shaped a rough route to the waters of the Pacific and marked an initial way for the new nation to spread Westward throughout the oceans, pleasing what would become to many Americans a successful future.
  • 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e Section 2: Short Answers 1. What was Hamilton’s vision of the future? What policies did he implement to achieve it? How was Jefferson’s vision different? Alexander Hamilton’s vision of the future was strongly conservative and wealthy. Hamilton convicted the violence and democratic spirit of the newly enfranchised, white male American electorate. Hamilton’s policies implement to achieve his goals called for an authoritarian government, and as treasury secretary he enhanced national authority in favor of wealthy financiers and merchants through a program of national mercantilism, a system of state assisted economic development. In the other hand, Thomas Jefferson’s vision included speaking for southern planter Federalists andembracement of the Enlightenment spirit of optimism and expressed a democratic vision of an agricultural nation based on small, independent farmers. 2. What were the consequences of the French Revolution in American life and politics? The French Revolution in American produced ideological conflict over religionand created economic prosperity for merchants, slave owners, and farmers as a result of high food prices in Europe. throughout the war people migrated to different parts of the world and that created diversity in American people, which also brought other culture and traditions to the Mother Country. Also, ideological conflicts increased political divisions within American society, particularly the domestic debate over Hamilton’s economic policies, which helped create a domestic rebellion in Western Pennsylvania like the Whiskey rebellion of 1794. Also, the Party identity of Federalists and Republicans crystallized as well. 3. Was there anything the Western Indian Confederacy could have done to limit white expansion and preserve Indian lands? Explain. Western Indian Confederacy could have done something to prevent the white expansion and preserve their Indian lands, but the settlement was not limited because there was a large population of white settlers in eastern states. Therefore, they had little chance to actually prevent the expansion. The Indians failed because the expansion of the farming economy during the late 18th century increased white immigration on to Indian lands and the white settlers had a genocidal attitude toward Indian people. Then, it was the United States government’s policy to acquire Indian lands through treaty, trickery, and warfare. The Indians lacked enough guns to actually fight the white expansion and troops suffered from disease and food loss. 4. Why did Jefferson support Westward expansion? Why did Eastern farm families leave their communities to go West? Were their reasons the same as Jefferson’s? Jefferson supported the Westward expansion because he believed that the West provided a great source of land for farm families. Jefferson was also concerned about urbanization and its inability to create satisfied urban workers who would act in the spirit of Republicanism. Also, a
  • 8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e nation of Yeoman Farmers would provide the independence from capitalists necessary for a Republic to sustain itself over time. Jefferson’s policies encouraged expansion Westward by making it easier for farm families to acquire land so they can have agriculture and other farm that would help out the economy. It also helped the farmers by exporting crops through Spanish New Orleans when they opened the new lands when we boughtthe Louisiana territory from the French and bysending Lewis and Clark on their expedition. 5. How did the decisions of the Supreme Court between 1801 and 1820 alter the nation’s understanding of the Constitution? How did they change American society? The Supreme Court between 1801 and 1820 alter the nation’s understanding of the Constitution by havingthe court be dominated by John Marshall, a committed and loose constructionist Federalist. The three principles that dominated his police and shaped the nation’s understanding of the Constitution were the judicial authority, the supremacy of national laws, and traditional property rights. They change American society because the courts now regularlyreverse state laws that invade on the United States Constitution. The also uphold property rights more stronglyand limit dominations held by private industry. Finally, the decisions of that era shaped the United States banking system through judicial regulation. 6. Explain the causes of the rise and fall of the Federalist Party. Why was the Republican triumph so complete? The rise of the Federalist Party was when merchants, creditors, and urban artisans favored their policies, while the Republican coalition included support from farmers and planters.In the election of 1796, the Federalists celebrated Washington’s accomplishments, and Republicans wanted the democraticideologiesof the Declaration of Independence. Also, the Federalists elected John Adams as president, and he sustained Hamilton’s ProBritish distant policy. Responding to the XYZ Affair, the Federalist controlled Congress cut off trade with France and authorized American privateers to seize French ships. The Federalist Party fall occurred because of the Nationalist Republicans had won the loyalty of many Federalist supportersin the East, and the ProFarmer plansof Jeffersonian Republicans preservedtheir party’s dominance in the South andWest. Also the election of 1818 demonstrated Republican power by outnumbering Federalists in the Senate andin the House. However, the FederalistParty and their policiesremained in evidence becauseof John Marshall’s long tenure onthe Supreme Court and other Federalist that influenced in the movement.
  • 9. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 8 | P a g e Section 3: Summary Questions 1. What impact did the two great developments of this period-the French Revolution and subsequent was in Europe, and the westward expansions in the United States across the North American continent- have on each other? The French Revolution increased party politics and philosophical divisions in United States, which enhanced polices of Westward expansion to achieve ideological ends. Disorder in Europe increased agricultural prices, which speededWestward expansion in the United States as farmers took advantage of new lands. Jefferson’s Embargo of 1807 in reaction to European warfare ruined urban and farm families, motivating many to migrate west to escape debt. Napoleon’s desire to free France of the Louisiana territory led to the Louisiana Purchase and an increase of Westward expansion. United States declarations of neutrality in carrying goods to both France and Britain isolated the British, who sided with Indians in attacking westward migrants and reducing westward migration, leading to the War of 1812. 2. Explain the rise and fall of the First Party System. How did the policies pursued by Republican presidents between 1801 and 1825 differ from those implemented by Hamilton and the Federalists during the 1790s? Why did the Federalist agenda fall out of favor? What legacy did the Federalists leave? Republican polices supported more Westward migration and low taxes and tariffs for farmers and merchants. They defended the Yeoman Farmers and an agricultural based economy over urban development because it was faster and better for the economy, and favored State’s Rights over a strong centralized government. Federalist policies favored a strong administrative branch, urban development, national improvements, a strong central banking system, high tariffs and taxes, national mercantilism, and did not see Westward expansion as a primary national goal.The Federalist agenda fell out of favor due in part to The War Of 1812 because it allowed the Nationalist Republicans to win the loyalty of many Federalist voters. Jefferson’s ProFarmers policies set voter understanding in the South and West.The Federalist left a legacy that continued with the jurisdictionalstrategies of Supreme Court Justice John Marshall.