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  • 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e CHAPTER 6 STUDY GUIDE Part I: Vocabulary Terms: Define the following terms toughly. This means that each term must be defined using the five W’s at a minimum. What are the five W’s? What is it? When did it occur? Where was it? Who was it or who was influenced by it? Why is this term important to the time or what is its lasting impact? Terms 1. George Washington 2. William Howe 3. Battle Of Saratoga 4. Valley Forge 5. War Of Attrition 6. Republicanism 7. Article Of Confederation 8. Shay’s Rebellion 9. Free Markets 10. Federalists Section 2: short answers 1. Why were British forces militarily superior to American forces in the first years of the war? How did the Americans sustain the Revolution between 1776 and 1778? 2. Who was most to blame for Britain’s failure to win a quick victory over the American rebels—General Howe, General Burgoyne, or the ministers in London? Explain your answer. 3. Why did Britain switch to a southern military strategy? Why did that strategy ultimately fail? 4. Without the French alliances would the America rebellion have succeeded? Why or why not? 5. What were the main differences between conservative state constitutions, like that of Massachusetts, and more democratic constitutions, like Pennsylvania’s? 6. What were the causes of Shay’s Rebellion, and what does it tell us about post war America? 7. How did the Philadelphia convention resolve three contentious political issues: the representation of large and small states, slavery, and state sovereignty? 8. Who were the antifederalist and why did they oppose the Constitution? Section 3: summary questions 1. How revolutionary was the American Revolution? What political, social, and economic changes did it produce? What stayed the same? 2. Why was the Constitution a controversial document even as it was being written?
  • 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e George Washington George Washington was a Commander in Chief of the Continental Army that had 18000 poorly trained recruits. He was the President of the Constitutional Convention and later became the first President of the United States. He is known to be one of Americas Founding Fathers and a successful commander. 1732-1799 North of the United States. He crossed the Delaware River and stages a successful attack on Trenton New Jersey Americas first President George Washings George was and still is important because he is often called the “father of his country" for his essential role in fighting, creating and leading the United States of America when it was starting to seek freedom in the earlier days. He was a surveyor, farmer and soldier who commanded the Colonial forces in the Revolutionary War. He had a major hand in constructing the foundation of our nation. William Howe William Howe is an English general who commanded English forces and did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning and joined British army for attack on Philadelphia. He was sent by Lord North to capture New York City with the strategy of seizing control over the Hudson River and thereby isolating the radical Patriots in New England from the colonies to the South. 1729- 1814 He was from the UK but was a General in the America William Howe General William Howe was important because during his years as a commander he consistently destroyed his enemy when the opportunity arose, perhaps from a functional estimate of the dangers of detection to increase territory power and wealth. As a peace commissioner, he was required to negotiate a peace that would bring the colonies voluntarily back into the empire but most of the colonist wanted equality, freedom and less taxation, so most of the time the peace agreements didn’t work. Battle Of Saratoga The Battle Of Saratoga was a major military campaign. Lord North sent an expedition to Bennington to capture American supplies but a force of New England militia encountered them and crushed them. His men were surrounded near Saratoga by the Continental Army. 1777 Lord North was the one who planned the attack. But he sent General John Burgoyne to lead the large contingent of regulars south from Quebec, Colonel Barry St. Léger and a
  • 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e force of Iroquois warriors would attack from the west, and General Howe would lead troops northward from NYC. New England was the main target (they wanted it to be isolated). The plan was to prolong the attack covering Albany, and New York, The Battle of Saratoga was important because it was known as the turning point of the American Revolutionary War andit was the first battle the British surrendered in. When the French knew that Americans had given up to the British, they wanted to ally with the Americans to become more powerful and overthrow the British. The British had to move their resources that they used to fight because the French had allied themselves with the Americans. Valley Forge Valley Forge was when Washington’s army retreated 20 miles away from it and 12000 soldiers and hundreds of camp followers suffered horribly. There was poor food, hard lodging, cold weather, fatigue, nasty clothes, and nasty cookery. By spring, 1000 hungry soldiers had deserted, and another 3000 had died from malnutrition and disease. That winter at Valley Forge took as many American lives as had two years of fighting. 1777 Valley Forge George Washington and his army Valley Forge was important because there was ashortage of everything from food and clothing to medicine and we lost the lives of many Americans. Washington's men were sick from diseases, hunger, and exposure to the horrible conditions. The Continental Army camped in crude logcabins and tolerated cold situations, but most died; the Patriots went hungry while the British soldiers ate well. War Of Attrition War Of Attrition was a military strategy of small-scale attacksused usually by the weaker side to sap the resourcesand morale of the stronger side. March 1781 WarOf Attrition was General Washington’s strategy was to drawthe British away from the seacoast. The Carolinas The War Of Attrition was important because it weakened the British army, in which the general decided to concede the Carolinas to Greene and seek a decisive victory in Virginia.
  • 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e Republicanism Republicanism was a political system that rejectsrules by kings and princes and celebrates a representativesystem of government and a good,public-spirited community. Traditionally, most republicshave limited active political contributionto those with a significant amount of property. 1770’s. After 1800 the United States became a democraticrepublic, with extensiveinput by whitemen of all social classes and, after 1920, bywomen. United States (Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) Americans to reject royal authority and establish a republican government. Republicanism is important because they’re not unreliable people who do things without thinking them over firstand are also better with financial situations unlike conservatives that set boundaries. They give more power to the individual states and state employed banks, no special favors for business, a strict reading of the Constitution, giving people the vote and fairly free speech and press. Article Of Confederation The Articles of Confederation served as a bond between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the Constitution for the United States. The articles envisioned a limited central government, regulations in trade affairs, war, peace, and alliance, but should not have authority to interfere with the internal governance or domestic concern of any Colony. The article provided a loose union in which each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence. November 1777 The United States Colonies Agreed to by the Continental Congress, but man ideas came from Carter Braxton, John Hancock and others The Articles Of Confederation were important becauseit was like the first constitution of The United States. The document made the union of the thirteen colonies legal and identified them as sovereign states.It helped the states reach concessions and agreements and was put into the Constitution so that everyone would be satisfied. Shay’s Rebellion Shay’s Rebellion resembled the American resistance to the British Stamp Act and a revolt against taxes imposed by the distant government. The Shay’s men placed pine twigs in their hats just as Continental troops had done. Some of the radical Patriots of 1776 likewise condemned the Shaysites. To put down the rebellion, the Massachusetts legislature passed the Riot Act and wealthy bondholders armed a difficult fighting force,
  • 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e which governor James Bowdoin used to disperse Shay’s ragtag army during the winter of 1786-1787. 1780’s West Massachusetts Daniel Shays. But it was a war between merchants and farmers in New England The Shay’s Rebellion was important becauseit showed that the central government was very weak and that there were too high taxes and heavy debts.It also influenced the public opinion in a great amount and caused people to realize that they needed a stronger government because they were incapable of dealing with the Rebellion as successfully as they could have. Free Markets Free Markets was a system of economic exchange in whichprices are determined by supply and demand andno producer or consumer dominates the market.The term also refers to markets that are not subjectto government regulation.To protect the property of southern slaveowners and the notion of free markets,delegates agreed to a “fugitive” clause that allowed masters to reclaim enslaved blacks or white indentured servants, who took refuge in other states. 1810’s New York Gouvernour Morris of New York The Free Markets System was important because the economy based on the supply and demand have little or no government control, which can create an economic collapse. An entirely free market is a form of a market economy where consumers and retailers are permitted to manage easily based on a mutual treaty on price without state interference like taxes, subsidies or regulation. Federalists Federalists were supporters of the Constitution, which created a strong central government. They supported the federal union (a loose, decentralized system) and obscuring their commitment to a strong national government. 1787 John Jay and Alexander Hamilton, James Madison penned “The Federalist Papers”. New York The Federalists were important and still are because they convinced the State of New York and other states to ratify the Constitution by explaining the benefits of belonging to the Union. Theimportance today is that it serves as a guide to understand the founders' intent for each Article of the Constitution, and is sometimes factored into judicial decisions.
  • 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e Section 2: Short Answers 1. Why were British forces militarily superior to American forces in the first years of the war? How did the Americans sustain the Revolution between 1776 and 1778? The British militarily were forces superior to American forces in the first years of the war because the British had a military service that created political commitment, a larger population than the colonies, access to more wealth, a more powerful navy and army, a more experienced officer corps, and possessed Indian allies in North. The population of Great Britain was 11 million, while the colonies were barely 2.5 million. Additionally, the British government had access to the huge wealth produced by the South Atlantic System and the Industrial Revolution. Their military budget paid for the most powerful navy in the world, a standing army of 48,000 Britons, plus the American Loyalist and powerful Indian tribes.The Americans sustain the Revolution between 1776 and 1778 by taking advantage of the winter weather to retreat and increase their forces, create surprise attacks against the British, and achieve small but important military victories that provided moral support to keep fighting. The successful attack was on Christmas night 1776, when Washington crossed the Delaware River to Trenton, New Jersey, and made 1,000 German soldiers surrender. Anyhow, General Howe of the British refused to destroy the Continental army after the surprise attack and instead he wanted them show their weakness and persuade the Continental Congress to give up the struggle. 2. Who was most to blame for Britain’s failure to win a quick victory over the American rebels; General Howe, General Burgoyne, or the ministers in London? Explain your answer. General William Howe was most to blame for Britain’s failure to win a quick victory over the American rebels because rather than destroying the rebels, Howe encouragedCongress to surrender, buying the rebel’s furthertime during the winter of 1777 to improve theirforces.Howe’s slow and misguided attack againstPhiladelphia contributed to General Burgoyne’sloss at Saratoga, New York. At summer’s end, Burgoyne’s army of 6000 British and German troops and 600 loyalists and Indians were stuck near Saratoga, New York and were beaten back by 2000 American militiamen. 3. Why did Britain switch to a southern military strategy? Why did that strategy ultimately fail? First of all, when France entered the conflicts in June 1778, it hoped to seize all Britain’s sugar islands and Spain, which joined the war against Britain in1779, aimed to recover Florida and the fortress of Gibraltar at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.Therefore, manyissues contributed to the switch. British government revised its military strategy to defend the West Indies and capture the rich tobacco and rice growing colonies like Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Then once conquered, the ministry planned to use the Scottish Highlanders in the Carolinas and other loyalist to hold them. Additionally, Britain could exploit racial divisions within southern society, take advantage of Native American allies like the Cherokees, and utilize the larger number of Loyalists present in the southern than northern colonies. Furthermore, there
  • 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e were French attacks in the West Indies and the southern slave colonies were wealthier. However, the strategy ultimately failed because of colonial use of guerilla tactics in the Carolinas, Holland’s declaration of war against Britain, and the French dispatching troops to the North American mainland. French naval forces helped to defeat the British southern strategy as mentioned before. 4. Without the French alliances would the America rebellion have succeeded? Why or why not? First of all, France, a large nation, initially provided the colonies with a secret loan and lots of gunpowder, and opened up political channels with American leaders. Both nations wanted to defeat Britain, and signed the Treaty of Alliance in 1778, which specified that neither partner would sign a separate peace with Britain. But, I believe that Americans rebellion would have succeeded because American civilians were the key to the success of the war in their choice to volunteer for the armed forces, to donate clothing and other material for the war effort, and to increase domestic home production by women to meet wartime needs. Therefore, we would of have succeed but I would have been harder because we had fewer soldiers and with the help of France, it all made it easier and faster. 5. What were the main differences between conservative state constitutions, like that of Massachusetts, and more democratic constitutions, like Pennsylvania’s? Massachusetts’sconservative state constitution restricted office holding to elite property holders, and had a two-house legislature with an upper house composed of elite property holders, a mixed government with separate functions, an elected governor with the power to veto laws, and an appointed judiciary. Pennsylvania’s democratic structurestartled many important Patriots like John Adams that denounced the unicameral legislature as “so democratical that it must produce confusion and every evil work” and he also wanted to restrict office holding to “men of learning, leisure and easy circumstances” and warned of oppression under majority rule. Pennsylvania’s constitution abolished property ownership as test of citizenship, granted taxpaying men the right to vote and hold office, and created a unicameral legislature with complete power and no upper house. The democratic impulse grew in Pennsylvania thanks to a coalition of Scot-Irish farmers, Philadelphia artisans, and Enlightenment influenced scholars, but the governor lacked veto power. Concluding, the political legacy of the Revolution was complex and went through any stages to actually stabilize because politicians had different aspects. 6. What were the causes of Shay’s Rebellion, and what does it tell us about post war America? One of the cause of the Shay’s Rebellion was a revolt against taxes imposed by a distant government and resembled an American resistance to the British Stamp Act. Shay’s men placed pine twigs in their hats just as Continental troops had done. To put down the rebellion, the Massachusetts legislature passed the Riot Act and wealthy bondholders equipped a formidable fighting force, which Governor James Bowdoin use to disperse Shay’s ragtag army during the winter of 1786-1787. Also, the wealthy merchants and landowners purchasedstate
  • 8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e debtcertificates during the war at lower than face value then required taxes to be raised in order to redeem them after the war. Post war America was in uglyconditions, which included economic recession, a disrupted economy, and a shattered economic infrastructure. The war crippled American shipping and cut exports of tobacco, rice, and wheat. By the 1780’s, middling farmers and artisans now controlled lower houses of state legislatures. Farmers couldn’t pay their debts or seek debt relief legislation passed by other states because creditors threatened them with lawsuits in Massachusetts. Middling farmers created extralegal conventions that called for closing debtor courts by force to prevent loss of property and imprisonment that lead to an outright rebellion. 7. How did the Philadelphia convention resolve three contentious political issues: the representation of large and small states, slavery, and state sovereignty? The Philadelphia convention resolve contentious political issues in May 1787 by sending 55 delegated from each state except Rhode Island because they opposed the incensement of central authority. Most were strong nationalists; 42 had served in the Confederation Congress and were educated and propertied. In the convention there were people that were merchants, slaveholding planters, and “monied men”. There were no artisans, back country settlers, or tenants, and only a single yeoman farmer. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were serving as American ministers to Britain and France, so they couldn’t attend to the convention and Patrick Henry refused to attend because he “smelt a rat”. So, the absence of practiced leaders and contrary-minded delegated allowed capable younger nationalists to set the agenda. Moving on, the delegates created a new government based on a combination of the New Jersey and Virginia plans, creating a bicameral legislature that reflected the needs of small and large states. Every state was allowed to send two members to the Senate, while in the House the largest states would have the most representatives. Slavery issues were resolved by placing a twenty year moratorium on the Atlantic Slave Trade. The other aspects of slavery were political rather than moral issues. The delegated were agreeing that a fugitive slave allowed masters to reclaim slaves who escaped to other states. Also, they included the importance of refusing to mention slavery in the Constitution and were going to be named differently because they were going to start being treated as a part of the United States. Finally, state sovereignty was preserved by restricting the central powers of the national government through the use of state rather than national courts. Voters in national elections did not have to be landowners, and the president of the nation would be chosen by an electoral college chosen on a state-by-state basis. This was impacting because it set new boundaries and a new beginning to the United States, even though not all states were there, this marked an important event of our history. 8. Who were the antifederalist and why did they oppose the Constitution? Some of the Antifederalist included Governor George Clinton of New York, Melancton Smith of New York, Montesquieu, and Patrick Henry. Governor George Clinton opposed because he feared that state government would lose power. Rural democrats protested that the proposed documents lacked a declaration of individual’s rights and that the central government
  • 9. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 8 | P a g e would be run by wealthy men. Melancton Smith of New York argued that the large electoral districts prescribed by the Constitution would restrict office-holding to wealthy men. Montesquieu, a French political philosopher argued that the republican institutions were best suited to small polities, a localist perspective that shaped American thinking well into the 20th century. Additionally, what all the antifederalist had in common was that they opposed the Constitution because they felt that state governments would lose power, the Constitution lacked a declaration of individual rights, and because they feared that the government would be run by wealthy men.
  • 10. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 9 | P a g e Section 3: Summary Questions 1. How revolutionary was the American Revolution? What political, social, and economic changes did it produce? What stayed the same? The American Revolution was an immense movement toward the development of the Democratic ideology. But the Revolution was a traditional movement. Political changes produced were the declarations given in the land that offered people a lot of freedom, more than any country at the time, that’s why America was known for being the land of opportunity. The social changes included that the world saw the Americans as the 13 colonies thatseparated from Britain with the use of the Patriots military ideas and the search for freedom. The Americans used tactics and was formed the same way some guerrilla organizations are. Economically, Americadidn’t change until the Industrial Revolution, which was when some colonial powers such as Britain and France started to exploit America by having all the factories in the country and to pay very little to the people. Moreover, one of the changes includeda cultural fragmentation of the British world. Federalism and Republicanism replaced Monarchy and deference as fundamental principles of the Revolution. The colonial relationship with Britain was destroyed, and even though Britain had the biggest military in the world at the time, our partnership with France helped us become free and start a new life as a democratic land. Also, the Atlantic slave trade was condemned and outlawed by 1808. And finally, non-elite men achieved a great role in determining the government system that ruled over them. One of the things that remained the same was the role of women. Even though they could get education, they still remained second-class citizens. Also, slavery remained a legal institution for African American people, Native Americans continued to be viewed as outsiders who had a minimum role to play in the independence movement, and educated, and monied white men continued to control the landactivities. 2. Why was the Constitution a controversial document even as it was being written? The Constitution was a controversial document even as it was being written because the politicians and the people had to really think about what they wanted to do. The sponsors that participated in the writing it believed that the Constitution extended their republican ideas, adding a new level to the elected government, though the opponents believed the Federalist worked in small political units and that they wanted only wealthy men to run the land. Additionally, the need to balance several opposing issues, such as the role of large and smallstates, the raising of national incomes, the development of slavery, and the possibility of national government and its power over individual states kept the Constitution debatable and important.