1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
0 | P a g e
CHAPTER 4 STUDY GUIDE
Part I: Vocabulary Terms:Define the following terms toughly. This means that each term must
be defined using the five W’s at a minimum. What are the five W’s?
What is it?
When did it occur?
Where was it?
Who was it or who was influenced by it?
Why is this term important to the time or what is its lasting impact?
3. European Enlightenment
6. Great Awakening
7. French And Indian War
8. Albany Congress
9. Treaty Of Paris(1763)
10. South Carolina Regulators
Section 2: Short Answers
1. In what ways were the lives of women and men in New England similar? In what ways
were they different?
2. Who were the new migrants to the Middle Colonies? Why did they leave Europe? What
were their goals in British North America?
3. What were the main issues that divided the ethnic and religious groups of the Middle
4. How did the Baptist Insurgency in Virginia challenge conventional assumptions about
race, gender, and class?
5. What impacts did the Industrial Revolution in England have on the American Colonies?
6. What were the causes of unrest in the American backcountry in the mid-eighteenth
Section 3: Summary Questions
1. How did the three mainland regions in British North America New England, the Middle
Colonies and The South become more like one another between 1720 and 1750? In what
ways did they become increasingly different? Form these comparisons what conclusions
can you draw about the character of American Society in mid-eighteenth century?
2. Compare and contrast the ethnic complexity of the Middle Colonies with the racial (and
in the backcountry, the ethnic) diversity of the Southern Colonies. What conflicts did this
2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
1 | P a g e
A Freehold Society is where women are subordinated, men who migrate to colonies gain
land, economic motivation to marriages, brides give land and money to husband, father's
duty to provide inheritance, grain to livestock, land divided between children, and the
people looked to the west for land.
Puritans and many other migrants
The Freehold Society was important because the people had their own land outright,
without any higher authority, landlord or creditor to answer to in terms of ownership of
the land. It wasn’t like it used to be where they couldn’t own many things and have
products for their own benefits. In that society they could own and have much more
Quakers initially were marked by relative eco equality and became the dominant social
group at first because of numbers and later because of wealth and influence. They
believed that every person can experience an inner light given by God led to the founding
of the Religious Society of Friends.
William Penn (1644-1718) received a large land grant in payment for a debt the crown
owed his family.
The Quakers were important because they had to deal with many people who were
nonconformists, and accepted them and man y others when other communities would not
accept them. The Quakers in Pennsylvania accepted the Indians as citizens. Also, the
Quakers brought the beginning of the culture in Pennsylvania and the Americas because
they sort of started churches, preached religious acceptance and believed in peace, and
there are still signs of their culture in the America.
3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
2 | P a g e
The European Enlightenment is a European intellectual movement that applied the
lessons of the Scientific Revolution to human affairs and was noted for its commitment to
open-mindedness and inquiry and the belief that knowledge could transform human
society.Along with the Great Awakening promoted independent thinking and helped
transform American intellectual and cultural life. Newton, Locke, Franklin.
Science& scientist like Isaac Newton and writers like John Locke were challenging the
The European Enlightenment was important because it was an age where people were
enlightened because they opposed all forms of ignorance, prejudice, and superstition, as
these were well-known in social institutions, especially Christianity. The Enlightenment
expresses the value of using reason to improve the quality of life. So, science was most
respected if it made a practical application.
Deism is a belief that God had created the world but allowed it to operate in accordance
with the laws of nature.Deism is not a religion, but a religious philosophy. It develops the
theory that God exists and he created the universe, but does not interfere in the affairs of
humankind.Deists generally place their trust in reason and contempt exposure as well as
the teachings of a specific church.
Deism emerged during the Enlightenment in the 17th
It Initially started in England, later in France and other European countries, and then in
Washington, Franklin, Jefferson and Paine were prominent deists in 18th century
Deism was important because the ones who believe in the religious philosophy were
deists and were allowed to be individualists and free thinkers at the same time. Deism is a
very open-minded method to the concept of there being a higher being.
4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
3 | P a g e
The Religious revival was a renewal of attention to spiritual faith and service in a church
and/or community, typically following a period of comparative inactivity and frequently
marked by powerfuldedication. It was an outburst of religious enthusiasm, often driven
by the preaching of a charismatic Baptist or Methodist minister. The Great Awakeningof
the 1740s was significant, but it was the revivalthat swept across the United States
between the1790s and 1850s that imparted a deep religiosity tothe culture. Subsequent
revivals in the 1880s and1890s and in the late twentieth century helpedmaintain a strong
evangelical Protestant culture inAmerica.
Religious and Christian believers
Massachusetts and Connecticut were founded as havens for a Puritanized Protestantism
and Pennsylvania as a ideal example for religious acceptance
The religious Revival was important because during these periods is when people started
to think differently on the religion they were following and have diverse thoughts on how
religions work. It also had a movement, especially an evangelical Christian that seeks to
revive faith and hopes. So, it really had an impact on religious people and the society they
The First Great Awakening is a series of religious revivals among Protestants in the
American colonies, especially in New England. Had a profound impact on the course of
the United States, especially during the latter half of the Eighteenth Century. Although
not widely spoken of in modern times, the Great Awakening was a movement rooted in
spiritual growth which brought a national identity to Colonial America.
Around 1730’s to 1770
American colonies, mainly in New England.
Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, John Calvin & Protestants
The Great Awakening was important because of the rebellion against authoritarian
religious rule that spilled over into other areas of colonial life. Among the growing
5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
4 | P a g e
population of the colonies and mass public meetings, compellingcharacters such as
Whitefield and Tennent moved to deliver their messages. The religious movement had
consequences in cultural and political ranges as well. Practices and mind-sets were
changed by the Awakening like never before.
French And Indian War
TheFrench and Indian War or also refereed as the Seven Years War was a last of series of
Imperial Wars between European countries. Had a dramatic consequence in North
America where portions of the French and English empires were conflicting. English
colonists wanted to move but they were blocked. The French claimed territory and
supported those of North America. This ended with the Treaty of Paris.
1754 - 1763
Eastern North America (but this countries were involved: Austria, England, France, Great
Britain, Prussia, and Sweden )
The French and British were involved in a dispute over the Ohio River territory and the
allegiance of the Native American people nations found there. The people involved also
included Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, Marquis de Vaudreuil, and Francois de Lignery.
The French and Indian war was important because they caused an extraordinary growth
of the colonies from a population of 250,000 in 1700, to over a million by the 1750’s.
Britain required raw materials including copper, hemp, tar, and turpentine. They also
needed a great amount of money, and so they provided that all of these American
products be shipped exclusively to England through the Navigation Acts.
The Albany Congress had a daily meeting at the City Hall and the official delegates from
seven colonies considered strategies for Indian diplomacy and to put forth the Albany
Plan of Union that was to prepare a unified colonial resistance against the French and
their Indian allies.The meetings brought Benjamin Franklin and other significant
Americans to Albany and opened up a national community to the outside world.
June 19-July 11, 1754
Met in Albany, New York
Benjamin Franklin and Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson
6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
5 | P a g e
The Albany Congress was important because the plan called for the creation of new ways
of governing, including a president-general who would be chosen by the Crown and use
extensive powers over relationships with the natives, making war and governing the
frontier areas until new colonies were created.
Treaty Of Paris (1763)
The Treaty Of Paris was a treaty that officially ended the French and Indian War. The
British increased control over the area west of the 13 British Colonies to the Mississippi
River. The French decided to no longer support any colonies in North America, as well as
all of Canada. Since Spain had joined the war with France, the Spanish were also forced
to give up their claim to Florida. The area of North America to the north and east of the
Mississippi River was now under British rule. But the Spanish still held their territory
west of the Mississippi River and in Central and South America.
Signed by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain.
The Treaty Of Paris was important because England gained massive amounts of land and
France lost almost all of its land in North America and the treaty ended the seven year
war in North America.
South Carolina Regulators
The South Carolina Regulators was a Regulator movement among groups interested in
creating law and order. Fugitive gangs were in the area and the congress was
unsuccessful several timesinproviding peace. Establishments of citizens were formed to
regulate governmental concerns and ultimatelyworked the courts in some districts.
Western South Carolina
Was organized by background settlers
The South Carolina Regulators was important because they conveyed criminals to justice
and set up judges to resolve legal arguments. The assembly and the governor did not
attempt to crush the movement.
7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
6 | P a g e
Section 2: Short Answers
1. In what ways were the lives of women and men in New England similar? In what
ways were they different?
The lives of women and men in New England were similar in that both followed strict religious
values, generated families as the foundation of Puritan society, and practiced agriculture and
farming. However, the differences among them were infinite because women were always
inferior to males. As usual, men controlled families and society in law and custom. Women
raised their children and cared for the home. Women practiced the native arts like spinning and
weaving. Men didn’t have to follow many traditional constraints of European society. But, then
between 1700 and 1776, the gender roles in colonial America change. Women were
progressivelyengagedin the values and attitudes of a patriarchal system and as the farm size
decreased, women hadfewer kids. Women played asignificantpart in the Great Awakening in
both the North and the South. Although, women hadseveral importance, customs, laws, and
attitudes about women did not really change and women continuedinferior to men in society.
2. Who were the new migrants to the Middle Colonies? Why did they leave Europe?
What were their goals in British North America?
The new migrants included scot-Irish Presbyterians, English and Welsh Quakers, German
Lutherans and Moravians, and Dutch reformed Protestants. The migrants left Europe because the
religious liberty in Europe was strict and had to follow certain rules, whereas in the American
Colonies they were more liberal and free. Also, the abundant fertile land attracted the migrants
and grain exports to Europe and the West Indies financed the colonies’ rapid settlement. What
the migrants wanted in the British North American land was to farm and have agriculture so they
can trade to Europe. The income earned from the exports of gran and many other products and
crops pain for English manufactures, which the settlement in the Middle Colonies imported in
large quantities after 1750.
3. What were the main issues that divided the ethnic and religious groups of the
Some of the issues that divided the religious groups of the Middle Colonies included language,
cultural heritage, religious beliefs, political allegiances, and marriage choices. Since the migrants
were coming from Europe, they had diverse religions, beliefs, traditions and languages, so that
8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
7 | P a g e
made it hard to be around each other and it was difficult for them to agree since they had
4. How did the Baptist Insurgency in Virginia challenge conventional assumptions
about race, gender, and class?
The Baptist General Convention of Virginia through its permanent ministry staff and trained
volunteers provide planetary ministry through conferences, events, retreats, written resources and
modified workshops that happened. It also gave poor white farmers consolation and hope in a
troubled world, calling into question their class respect and dissimilarity with rich planters in
politics and society. Slaves and women were welcome at Baptist revivals, which challenged male
rule and white sovereignty.
5. What impacts did the Industrial Revolution in England have on the American
Before the Industrial Revolution America was an agricultural society. Nearly everybody farmed.
But after the Industrial Revolution, more people were living in cities and worked in factories
than ever before. Cities grew larger and more populated, which provoked the rise of better
transportation, land speculation, and a real estate boom. So, the way of living developed into a
better one. The Industrial Revolution created a “consumer revolution” that raised the living
standard of many Americans but landed many in debt for the first time, making Americans more
reliant on overseas creditors and international economic conditions.
6. What were the causes of unrest in the American backcountry in the mid-eighteenth
The major cause of unrest in the backcountry in this time period was dissatisfaction with the act
of the colonial governments. The colonial governments were run by elites from the coasts and
the backcountry people felt that these elites were insensitive to their needs. They wanted the
government to do more to protect them. In addition, backcountry people sometimes felt cheated
and abused by the coastal elites. Also, other cause of the unrest in the American backcountry
was that Indian threats of resistance to land taking by white farmers, interiorarguments between
colonists in the Eastern portion of the colonies with Westerners over Indian policy,
disagreements over political representation with low-country Southern slave planters, debt and
tax collection disagreements with more Eastern elites, religious practices, and extensive crime
9. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley
8 | P a g e
Section 3: Summary Questions
1. How did the three mainland regions in British North America New England, the
Middle Colonies and The South become more like one another between 1720 and
1750? In what ways did they become increasingly different? Form these
comparisons what conclusions can you draw about the character of American
Society in mid-eighteenth century?
The three mainland regions in British North America New England, the Middle Colonies and
The South became more like one another between 1720 and 1750 in that they increases
migration from England populated the colonies with British people. The Great Awakening and
Enlightenment impactedpopulations of each colony to think about religion and politics more
alike and nonspiritualexpressions. The French and Indian War United Colonies in policies
against Britain and each colony took land from Indians but the lack of land over time for large
colonial populations produced lower class angerto gentry’s leaders. They became increasingly
differentin thatthere was a setting of slavery in Southern Colonies and a reduction in Northern
and Middle Colonies, creatinganethnicclass system in the South. Also, New England continuedto
be a region of Puritan farm families while Baptists tested Anglican reign in the South. I can draw
characters of American Society in mid-18th
century in 1750that there was an increase of
individual freedom that wasresponded by the use of involuntary labor, such as slavery and
Indentured Servitude. The country farming economy provided fewer chances for economic
progress over time. Society was sufferinga major social force of political and social change in the
form of slavery. Migrants were stimulatingthe powerof local and colonial levels that resulted in
the Great Awakening and a decline of direct British control of the colonies during the 18th
2. Compare and contrast the ethnic complexity of the Middle Colonies with the racial
(and in the backcountry, the ethnic) diversity of the Southern Colonies. What
conflicts did this diversity cause?
Ethnic complexity of the Middle Colonies with the racial diversity of the Southern Colonies
conflicts included religious disputes like Baptist insurgency during the Great Awakening, racial
disputes regarding slavery, political disputes regarding control of colonial assemblies, and land
disputes between Native Americans and British colonists. The conflicts created many
disagreements that brought war to the country and devastating consequences.