Chapter 25 study guide


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Chapter 25 study guide

  1. 1. Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e Chapter 25 Cold War America, 1945-1963 I. Containment in a Divided World A. The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1946 1. Yalta 2. Truman Steps In 3. Germany B. The Containment Strategy 1. Towards an Uneasy Peace 2. East and West in the New Europe 3. Nuclear Diplomacy C. Containment in Asia 1. Civil War in China 2. The Korean War 3. The Munich Analogy II. Cold War Liberalism A. Truman and the End of Reform 1. The 1948 Election 2. The Fair Deal B. Red Scare: The Hunt for Communists 1. Loyalty-Security Program 2. HUAC 3. McCarthyism C. The Politics of Cold War Liberalism 1. America under Eisenhower III. Containment in the Postcolonial World A. The Cold War and the Colonial Independence 1. Vietnam 2. The Middle East B. John F. Kennedy and the Cold War 1. The Election if 1960 and the New Frontier 2. Crises in Cuba and Berlin 3. Kennedy and the World C. Making a Commitment in Vietnam
  2. 2. Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e I. Containment in a Divided World A. The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1946 1. Yalta a) World War II set the basic conditions forCold War rivalry. b) Because the Soviet Union had been a victimof German aggression in both worldwars, Joseph Stalin was determined to preventthe rebuilding and re-arming of its traditional enemy; he insisted on a securityzone of friendly governments in EasternEurope for protection. c) At the Yalta Conference, America andBritain agreed to recognize this Soviet“sphere of influence,” with the provisothat “free and unfettered elections” would be held as soon as possible. After Yalta, theSoviets made no move to hold the electionsand rebuffed Western attempts to reorganizethe Soviet-installed governments. 2. Truman Steps In a) Recalling Britain‟s disastrous appeasementof Hitler in 1938, President Harry Trumandecided that the United States had to takea hard line against Soviet expansion. b) At the 1945 Potsdam Conference of theUnited States, Britain, and the SovietUnion, Truman used what he called“tough methods.” Negotiations on criticalpostwar issues deadlocked, revealingseriouscracks in the Grand Alliance. 3. Germany a) At Potsdam, the Allies agreed to disarmGermany, dismantle its military productionfacilities, and permit the occupyingpowers to extract reparations. b) Plans for future reunification of Germanystalled, and the foundation was laid forwhat would later become the division ofGermany into East and West Germany. B. The Containment Strategy 1. Towards an Uneasy Peace a) As tensions mounted, the United Statesincreasingly perceived Soviet expansionismas a threat to its own interests, and anew policy of containment began to takeshape, the most influential proponent was George F. Kennan. b) The policy of containment formed in1947 when suspected Soviet-backed Communistguerrillas launched a civil waragainst the Greek government, causing theWest to worry that Soviet influence inGreece threatened its interests in the easternMediterranean and the Middle East,especially Turkey and Iran. c) The resulting congressional appropriationreversed the postwar trend toward sharpcuts in foreign spending and marked anew level of commitment to the Cold War. d) The Marshall Plan sent relief to devastatedEuropean countries and helped to makethem less susceptible to communism; theplan required that foreign-aid dollars bespent on U.S. goods and services. e) The Marshall Plan met with opposition inCongress, until a Communist coup occurredin Czechoslovakia in February1948, after which Congress voted overwhelminglyto approve funds for the program. f) Over the next four years, the United Statescontributed nearly $13 billion to a highlysuccessful recovery;Western Europeaneconomies revived, opening new opportunitiesfor international trade, while EasternEurope was influenced not to participateby the Soviet Union. 2. East and West in the New Europe a) The United States, France, and Britain initiated a program of economic reform in West Berlin, which alarmed the Soviets, who responded with a blockade of the city. b) Truman countered the blockade with airlifts of food and fuel; the blockade, lifted in May 1949, made West Berlin a symbol of resistance to communism. c) In April 1949, the United States entered into its first peacetime military alliance since the American Revolutionin which twelve nations agreed that an armed attack against one of them would be considered an attack against all of them. d) NATO also agreed to the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in May 1949; in October, the Soviets created the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
  3. 3. Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e e) The Soviets organized the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance in 1949 and the military Warsaw Pact in 1955. 3. Nuclear Diplomacy a) In September 1949, American military intelligence had proof that the Soviets had detonated an atomic bomb; this revelation called for a major reassessment of American foreign policy. b) To devise a new diplomatic and military blueprint, Truman turned to the National Security Council (NSC), an advisory body established by the National Security Act of 1947 that also created the Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. c) The National Security Council gave a report, known as NSC-68, recommending the development of a hydrogen bomb, increasing U.S. conventional forces, establishing a strong system of alliances, and increasing taxes in order to finance defense building. C. Containment in Asia 1. Civil War in China a) American policy in Asia was based asmuch on Asia‟s importance to the worldeconomy as on the desire to contain communism. After dismantling Japan‟s military forcesand weaponry, American occupation forcesdrafted a democratic constitution andoversaw the rebuilding of the economy. b) In China, a Civil War had been raging sincethe 1930s between Communist forces, ledby Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, and conservativeNationalist forces, under ChiangKai-shek. c) For a time the Truman administration attemptedto help the Nationalists by providingmore than $2 billion in aid, but inAugust 1949 it cut off that aid when reformdid not occur; in October 1949, thePeople‟s Republic of China was formallyestablished under Mao, and Chiang Kai- shek‟sforces fled to Taiwan. d) The “China lobby” in Congress viewedMao‟s success as a defeat for the UnitedStates; the China lobby‟s influence blockedU.S. recognition of “Red China,” leadinginstead to U.S. recognition of the exiledNationalist government in Taiwan. 2. The Korean War a) At the end of World War II, both the Soviets and the United States had troops in Korea and divided the country into competing spheres of influence at the 38 parallel.On June 25, 1950, North Koreans invaded across the 38 parallel; Truman asked the United Nations Security Council to authorize a “police action” against the invaders. b) The Security Council voted to send a “peacekeeping” force to Korea; though fourteen non- Communist nations sent troops, the U.N. army in Korea was overwhelmingly American, and, by request of Truman to the Security Council, headed by General Douglas MacArthur. c) MacArthur, who believed that the future of the United States lay in Asia and not in Europe, tried to execute his own foreign policy involving Korea and Taiwan and was drawn into a Republican challenge of Truman‟s conduct of the war. d) Truman relieved MacArthur of his command based on insubordination, though the decision to relieve him was highly unpopular; after failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1952, MacArthur faded from public view. e) Two years after truce talks began, an armistice was signed in July 1953; Korea was divided near the original border at the 38 parallel, with a demilitarized zone between the countries. f) During the war, American defense expenditures grew from $13 billion in 1950 to $50 billion in 1953; though they dropped after the war, they remained at more than $35 billion annually throughout the 1950s. 3. The Munich Analogy a) The generation of politicians and officials who designed the containment strategy had come of age in the shadow of Munich, the Conference in 1938 at which the Western democracies had appeased Hitler by offering part of Czechoslovakia, paying the road to World War II. b) In Germany, Greece, and Korea, and later Iran, Guatemala, and Vietnam, the United States staunchly resisted the Soviets- or what it perceived to be Soviet influence.
  4. 4. Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e II. Cold War Liberalism A. Truman and the End of Reform 1. The 1948 Election a) In 1946 Republicans gained control ofboth houses of Congress and set aboutundoing New Deal social welfare measures,especially targeting labor legislation. b) In 1947 the Republican-controlled Congresspassed the Taft-Hartley Act, a rollbackof several pro-union provisions ofthe 1935 National Labor Relations Act.The secondary boycott and the unionshop, labor rights that workers had foughthard for, were eventually undone bythe Republican Party. c) Truman‟s veto of the Taft-Hartley Actcountered some workers‟ hostility to hisearlier antistrike activity and kept labor inthe Democratic fold. d) In the election of 1948, the Republicansagain nominated Thomas E. Dewey forpresident and nominated Earl Warren forvice president.To the nation‟s surprise, Truman won theelection handily, and the Democrats regainedcontrol of both houses of Congress. 2. The Fair Deal a) The Fair Deal was an extension of the NewDeal‟s liberalism, but it gave attention tocivil rights, reflecting the growing importanceof African Americans to the Democraticcoalition. It also extended the possibilitiesfor a higher standard of living andbenefits to a greater number of citizens, reflectinga new liberal vision of the role ofthe state. b) Congress adopted only parts of the FairDeal: a higher minimum wage, an extensionof and increase in Social Security, andthe National Housing Act of 1949. c) The activities of certain interest groups- Southern conservatives, the AmericanMedical Association, and business lobbyists-helped to block support for the Fair Deal‟s plan for enlarged federal responsibilityfor economic and social welfare. B. Red Scare: The Hunt for Communists 1. Loyalty-Security Program a) To insulate his administration against charges of Communism infiltration, Truman issued Executive Order 9835 on March 21, 1947, which created the Loyalty-Security Program. The order permitted officials to investigate any employee of the federal government for “subversive” activities. b) In the labor movement, where Communists had served as organizers in the 1930s, charges of Communist domination led to the expulsion of a number of unions by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1949. c) Communist members of the labor movementwere expelled, as were Communistmembers of civil rights organizations suchas the NAACP and the National UrbanLeague. 2. HUAC a) In 1938, a group of conservatives hadlaunched the House Un-American ActivitiesCommittee (HUAC) to investigateCommunist influence in labor unions andNew Deal agencies. b) In 1947, HUAC intensified the “GreatFear” by holding widely publicized hearingson alleged Communist activity in thefilm industry. Those accused of subversionfound themselves on an unofficial blacklistthat made it impossible to find future work in the industry. 3. McCarthyism a) As American relations with the SovietUnion deteriorated, a fear of communismat home started a widespread campaignof domestic repression, often called“McCarthyism.” b) McCarthy‟s accusations of subversion inthe government were meant to embarrassthe Democrats; critics who disagreed withhim were charged with being “soft” oncommunism. c) McCarthy‟s support declined with the endof the Korean War, the death of Stalin, andwhen his televised hearings to investigatesubversion in the U.S. Army revealed hissmear tactics to the public in 1954.
  5. 5. Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e C. The Politics of Cold War Liberalism 1. America under Eisenhower a) In 1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower securedthe Republican nomination and askedSenator Richard M. Nixon to be his runningmate. b) Eisenhower‟s “New Look” in foreign policycontinued America‟s commitment to containmentbut sought less expensive waysof implementing U.S. dominance in theCold War struggle against internationalcommunism.Under the “New Look” defense policy, theUnited States economized by developing a massive nuclear arsenal as an alternativeto more expensive conventional forces. c) Eisenhower then turned his attention toEurope and the Soviet Union; Stalin diedin 1953 and after a power struggle, NikitaS. Khrushchev emerged as his successor in1956. d) By 1958, both the United States and theSoviets had intercontinental ballistic missiles. III. Containment in the Postcolonial World A. The Cold War and the Colonial Independence The American policy of containment soon extended to new nations emerging in the Third World. U.S. policymakers tended to support stable governments, as long as they were notCommunist; some American allies were governed by dictatorships or repressive right-wing regimes.The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was created in 1954 to complement the NATO alliance in Europe. The Central Intelligence Agency moved beyond intelligence gathering into active, albeit covert, involvement in the internal affairs of foreign countries.In 1953, the CIA helped to overthrow Iran‟s premier after he seized control of British oil properties; in 1954, it supported a coup against the duly elected government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala after he expropriated land held by the United Fruit Company and accepted arms from Communist Czechoslovakia. 1. Vietnam a) In Southeast Asia, Truman mismanaged agolden opportunity to bring the Vietnamesenationalist leader Ho Chi Minhinto the American camp through domesticand military support against theFrench attempt after World War II to retakethe colony it had maintained since the mid-1800s. Truman incorrectly viewedHo Chi Minh as an ardent communistpledged against American interests. b) Eisenhower also failed to understand theimportance of embracing a united Vietnam.If the French failed to regain control, Eisenhower argued, the domino theorywould lead to the collapse of all non-Communist governments in the region. c) The result was the 1954 Geneva Accords,which partitioned Vietnam temporarily at the seventeenth parallel, committed France to withdraw from north of that line, and called for elections within two years that would lead to a unified Vietnam. d) The United States rejected the Geneva Accordsand immediately set about underminingthem.With the help of the CIA, apro-American government took power in South Vietnam in June 1954. e) As the last French soldiers left in 1956, theUnited States took over, with South Vietnamnow the front line in the Americanbattle to contain communism in SoutheastAsia. 2. The Middle East a) The oil-rich Middle East was playing anincreasingly central role in the strategicplanning of the United States and the Soviet Union, which presented one of the most complicated foreign policy challenges. b) When Gamal Abdel Nasser came to powerin Egypt in 1954, he pledged to lead notjust his country but the entire Middle Eastout of its dependent, colonial relationshipthrough a form of pan-Arab socialism anddeclared Egypt‟s neutrality in the ColdWar. c) Unwilling to accept this stance of nonalignment,John Foster Dulles abruptlywithdrew his offer of U.S. financial aid toEgypt in 1957; in retaliation, Nasser seizedand nationalized the Suez Canal, throughwhich three-quarters of Western Europe‟soil was transported. d) After months of negotiation, Britain andFrance, in alliance with Israel, attackedEgypt and retook the canal. Eisenhowerand the United Nations forced France andBritain to pull back; Egypt retook the SuezCanal and built the Aswan Dam withSoviet support. e) After the Suez Canal crisis, the EisenhowerDoctrine stated that American forceswould assist any nation in the Middle East requiring aid against communism.Eisenhower invoked the doctrine
  6. 6. Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e when hesent troops to aid King Hussein of Jordanagainst a Nasser-backed revolt and whenhe sent troops to back a pro-U.S. governmentin Lebanon. B. John F. Kennedy and the Cold War Kennedy was a Cold Warrior who had come of age in the shadow of Munich, Yalta, and the McCarthy hearings. He projected an air of idealism, but his years in the Senate (1953-1960) had proved him to be a conventional Cold War politician. 1. The Election if 1960 and the New Frontier a) Kennedy attracted Catholics, blacks, and the labor vote; his vice-presidential running mate, Texas senator Lyndon Baines Johnson, helped bring in Southern democrats. 2. Crises in Cuba and Berlin a) Kennedy took Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev‟s words as a challenge. b) On landing at Cuba‟s Bay of Pigs on April 17, 1961, the force of 1,400 was crushed by Fidel Castro‟s troops. Kennedy had the good sense to reject CIA pleas for a U.S. air strike. c) In mid-August, to stop exodus of East Germans, the Communists regime began constructing the Berlin Wall, policed by border guards under shoot-to-kill orders. Until the 12-foot-high concrete barrier came down in 1989, it served as the supreme symbol of the Cold War. d) After a week of tense negotiation, both sides made concessions: Kennedy pledged not to invade Cuba, and Khrushchev promised to dismantle the missile bases. 3. Kennedy and the World a) Exhibiting the idealism of the early 1960s, the Peace Corps was also a low-cost Cold War weapon intended to show the developing world that there was an alternative to Communism. b) Kennedy persuaded Congress to increase funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), enabling the United State to pull ahead of the Soviet Union. Kennedy‟s ambition was realized when U.S. astronauts arrived on the moon in 1969. C. Making a Commitment in Vietnam a) Kennedy increased the amount of aid sent to the South Vietnamese military and dramatically expanded the role of U.S. Special Forces (“Green Berets”) in training the South Vietnamese army in unconventional, small-group welfare tactics. b) Starting in May 1963, militant Buddhist staged dramatic demonstrations, including self- immolations recoded by American television news crews covering the activities of the 16,000 U.S. military personnel the in Vietnam c) Kennedy himself was assassinated in late November and would not live to see the grim results of Diem‟s murder: American engagement in a long and costly civil conflict in the name of fighting communism. 1. Richard Nixon: Born on January 9, 1913, in Yorba Linda, California, Richard Nixon was a Republican congressman who served as vice president under Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon ran for president in 1960 but lost to John F. Kennedy. Nixon then won the White House in 1968. In 1974, he resigned rather than be impeached for covering up illegal activities of party members in the Watergate affair. He died on April 22, 1994, at age 81,in New York City. 2. Harry Truman: the 33rd U.S. president, assumed office following the death of President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945). In the White House from 1945 to 1953, Truman made the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan, helped rebuild postwar Europe, worked to contain communism and led the United States into the Korean War (1950-1953). A Missouri native, Truman assisted in running his family farm after high school and served in World War I (1914-1918). He began his political career in 1922 as a county judge in Missouri and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1934. Three months after becoming vice president in 1945, the plain-spoken Truman ascended to the presidency. In 1948, he was reelected in an upset over Republican Thomas Dewey (1902-1971). After leaving office, Truman spent his remaining two decades in Independence, Missouri, where he established his presidential library. 3. George F. Kennan:An American adviser, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Soviet Union and the Western powers.In the late 1940s, his writings
  7. 7. Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e inspired the Truman Doctrine and the U.S. foreign policy of "containing" the Soviet Union, thrusting him into a lifelong role as a leading authority on the Cold War. 4. Truman Doctrine: An international relations policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman in a speech on March 12, 1947, which stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent them from falling into the Soviet sphere. Historians often consider it as the start of the Cold War, and the start of the containment policy to stop Soviet expansion. 5. George C. Marshall: American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, Marshall served as the United States Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 6. Marshall Plan: Also known as the European Recovery Program, channeled over $13 billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe between 1948 and 1951. The Marshall Plan successfully sparked economic recovery, meeting its objective of „restoring the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a whole.‟ The plan is named for Secretary of State George C. Marshall, who announced it in a commencement speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947. At the time, Americans perceived the plan as a generous subvention to Europe. The Soviet Union, however, viewed the Marshall Plan as an attempt to interfere in the internal affairs of other states and refused to participate. Ultimately, the Soviets prevented Poland and Czechoslovakia from taking part, despite their eagerness to do so. 7. Douglas MacArthur: American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army who was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur, Jr., the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the U.S. Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army. 8. Taft-Hartley Act (1947):An act of the U.S. Congress that supersedes but continues most of the provisions of the National Labor Relations Act and that, in addition, provides for an eighty-day injunction against strikes that endanger public health and safety and bans closed shops, featherbedding, secondary boycotts, jurisdictional strikes, and certain other union practices. 9. Fair Deal: The principles of the liberal wing of the Democratic Party under the leadership of President Harry S Truman, consisting largely of a continuation and development of the principles of the New Deal. 10. Joseph McCarthy: In 1946 he was elected to the U.S. Senate. In 1950 he publicly charged that 205 communists had infiltrated the U.S. State Department. Reelected in 1952, he became chair of the Senate's subcommittee on investigations, and for the next two years he investigated various government departments and questioned innumerable witnesses. 11. Eisenhower Doctrine: On January 5, 1957, in response to the increasingly tense situation in the Middle East, President Dwight Eisenhower (1890-1969) delivered a proposal to a joint session of the U.S. Congress calling for a new and more proactive American policy in the region. The Eisenhower Doctrine, as the proposal soon came to be known, established the Middle East as a Cold War (1945-91) battlefield. 12. John F. Kennedy: Born on May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts, John F. Kennedy served in both the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate before becoming the 35th president in 1961. As president, Kennedy faced a number of foreign crises, especially in Cuba and Berlin, but managed to secure such achievements as the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and the Alliance for Progress. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated while riding in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas. 13. Peace Corps: An agency of the United States government that sends American volunteers to developing nations to help improve living standards and provide training. Created by President John F. Kennedy in 1961, under the auspices of the Department of State, the Peace Corps provide an opportunity to share American wealth, technology, and expertise. During the cold war it also served as a means for spreading American influence and values in the hope of preventing developing nations from allying themselves with the Soviet Union.