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  • 1. Chapter 24 The World at War, 1937-1945 I. The Road to War A. The Rise of Fascism 1. Japan and Italy 2. Hitler’s Germany B. Isolationists versus Interventionists 1. The Popular Front 2. The Failure of Appeasement 3. War Arrives C. The Attack on Pearl Harbor II. Organizing For Victory A. Financing the War B. Mobilizing the American Fighting Force C. Workers and the War Effort 1. Rosie the Riveter 2. Wartime Civil Rights 3. Organized Labor D. Politics in Wartime III. Life on the Home Front A. ―For the Duration‖ B. Migration and the Wartime City 1. Racial Conflict 2. Gay and Lesbian Community Formation C. Japanese Removal IV. Fighting and Winning the War A. Wartime Aims and Tensions B. The War In Europe 1. D-Day 2. The Holocaust C. The War in the Pacific 1. The Manhattan Project D. Planning the Postwar World
  • 2. I. The Road to War An antidemocratic movement known as Fascism, which had originate in Italy during the 1920s, developed in German, Spain, and Japan. By the mid-1930s, these nations had instituted authoritarian, militaristic governments led by powerful dictators: Benito Mussolini in Italy, Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany, Francisco Franco in Spain, and after 1940, Hideki Tojo in Japan. A. The Rise of Fascism 1. Japan and Italy a) In 1931, Japanese troops occupied Manchurian, an industrialized province in Northern China, and in 1937, the Japanese launched a full-scale invasion of China. b) In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, one of the few remaining independent countries in Africa. 2. Hitler’s Germany a) When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Reichstag (the German legislature) granted him dictatorial power to deal with the economic crisis. b) In 1936, Hitler began to rearm Germany, in violation of the Versailles treaty. In 1936, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, a demilitarized zone under the term of Versailles. France & Britain did nothing. Later that year, Hitler and Mussolini formed the Rome-Berlin Axis, a political and military alliance between the two fascist nations. B. Isolationists versus Interventionists The Neutrality Act of 1935 imposed an embargo on selling arms to warring countries and declared that Americans traveling on the ships of belligerent nations did so at their own risk. 1. The Popular Front a) Between 1935 and 1938, Communist Party membership peaked at about 100,000 in the United States. b) Many supporters in the United States grew uneasy with the Popular Front: a party or coalition representing left-wing elements, in particular an alliance of communist, radical, and socialist elements formed and gaining some power in countries such as France and Spain in the 1930s 2. The Failure of Appeasement a) At the Munich Conference in September 1938, Britain and France gain capitulated, agreeing to let Germany annex the Sudetenland- a German-speaking order area of Czechoslovakia- in return for Hitler’s pledge to seek no more territory. b) In August 1939, Hitler and Stalin shocked the world by signing a mutual nonaggression pact. On September 1, 1939, Hitler launched a blitzkrieg against Poland. Two Days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany and World War II had officially begun. c) Two days after the European War started, The United States declared its neutrality. d) German conquest Poland in September 1939. On April 9, 1940, German forces invaded Denmark and Norway. In May, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France were invaded France surrendered inn June 22, 1940. Britain stood alone. 3. War Arrives a) In response, in 1940 isolationists formed the America First Committee (AFC), with well-respected figures such as the aviator Charles Lindbergh and Senator Gerald Nye speaking on the AFC’s behalf, to keep the nation out of war. b) In May, Roosevelt created the National Defense Advisory Commission and brought two prominent Republicans, Henry Stimson and Frank Knox, into his cabinet as secretaries or war and the navy. c) Being reelected, Roosevelt undertook to persuade Congress to increase aid to Britain, whose survival he viewed as key to American security
  • 3. d) Two months later, in March 941, with Britain no longer able to pay cash for arms, Roosevelt convinced Congress to pass the Lend-Lease Act. The legislation authorized the president to ―lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of‖ arms and equipment to Britain or any other country whose defense was considered vital to the security of the United States. C. The Attack on Pearl Harbor a) Japan sought to match overseas empires of Britain, France, Holland, and the United States. b) Early on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, killing more than 2,400 Americans. c) Three days later, Germany and Italy declared was on the United States, which in turn declared war on the Axis powers. II. Organizing For Victory When Congress passed the War Powers Act in December 1941, it gave President Roosevelt control over all aspects of the war effort. This act market the beginning of what historians call the imperial presidency: the far-reaching use (& sometimes abuse) of executive authority during the latter part of the 20th century. A. Financing the War a) Between 1940 and 1945, the annual gross national product doubled, after-tax profits of American businesses nearly doubled, and farm output grew by one-third. b) The Revenue Act of 1942 expanded the number of people paying income taxes from 3.9 million to 42.6 million. c) The powerful War Production Board (WPB) awarded defense contracts, allocated scare resources for military uses, and persuaded businesses to convert to military production. d) To secure maximum production, the WPB preferred to deal with major corporations rather than with small businesses. e) By 1945, the largest one hundred American companies produced 70% of the nation’s industrial output. B. Mobilizing the American Fighting Force a) The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and other civil rights groups reprimanded the government, but the military continued to separate African Americans and assign then menial duties. b) Native Americans were ―Code Talkers‖ because they spoke differently among each other and the opponent didn’t understand what they said. c) About 140,000 served in the Women’s Army Corps (WAC), and 100,000 served in the navy’s Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES). d) Most of the jobs that women did in the military resembled women’s jobs in civilian life. C. Workers and the War Effort By 1943, with the economy operating at full capacity, the breadlines and double-digit unemployment of the 1930s were a memory. 1. Rosie the Riveter a) Women made up 36% of the labor force in 1945, compared with 24% at the beginning of the war. b) Wartime work thus remained bittersweet for women. The majority remained clustered in low-wage service jobs. 2. Wartime Civil Rights a) In 1940, only 240 of the nation’s 100,000 aircraft workers were black, and most of them were janitors.
  • 4. b) In Chicago, James Farmer helped to found the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1942, a group that would become known nationwide in the 1960s for its direct-action protest such as sit-ins. c) The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the Congress of Spanish Speaking Peoples, pressed the government and private employers to end anti-Mexican discrimination. d) Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez began to fight this labor system in the 1940s. 3. Organized Labor a) Many wartime agencies extended thepower of the federal government, one ofthe most important of which was the WarProduction Board (WPB), which awardeddefense contracts, evaluated military andcivilian requests for scarce resources, andoversaw the conversion of industry to militaryproduction. b) The WPB preferred to deal with majorcorporations; these very large businesseswould later form the core of the military-industrialcomplex of the postwar years. c) Working together, American business and government turned out a prodigious supplyof military hardware: 86,000 tanks 296,000 airplanes, 15 million rifles and machine guns, 64,000 landing craft, and6,500 cargo ships and naval vessels. d) Dissatisfaction peaked in 1943, a year inwhich a nationwide railroad strike wasnarrowly averted and John L. Lewis ledthe United Mine Workers on a strike;Lewis won wage concessions, but he alienatedCongress and the public.Congress passed the anti-union Smith-Connally Labor Act over Roosevelt’s veto,and strikes were entirely prohibited in defenseindustries. D. Politics in Wartime a) Roosevelt began to drop New Deal programsonce mobilization began to bringfull employment.Later into the war, Roosevelt called for asecond bill of rights, yet his commitmentto it remained largely rhetorical since itreceived no congressional support. b) The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act(1944), known as the GI Bill, providededucation, job training, medical care, pensions,and mortgage loans for those whohad served during the war.Roosevelt’s call for social legislation was part of a plan to woo Democratic voters;the 1942 elections saw Republicans gainseats in both houses and increase theirshare of governorships. c) In 1944 Roosevelt sought a fourth termbecause of the war; Democrats droppedHenry Wallace as vice president, as hisviews were seen as too extreme, andteamed Roosevelt with Harry S. Trumanto run against Governor Thomas E.Dewey of New York. d) In the closest election since 1916, Rooseveltreceived only 53.5 percent of the popularvote; the party’s margin of victorycame from the cities, and a significant segmentof this urban support came from organizedlabor. III. Life on the Home Front A. “For the Duration” a) People on the home front worked on civiliandefense committees, collected oldnewspapers and scrap material, served onlocal rationing and draft boards, andplanted ―victory gardens‖ that produced40 percent of the nation’s vegetables. b) The Office of War Information (OWI)strove to disseminate information andpromote patriotism; the OWI urged advertisingagencies to link their clients’products to the ―four freedoms.‖ c) Popular culture reflected America’s newinternational involvement and builtmorale on the home front; many movieshad patriotic themes, demonstrated heroismof ordinary citizens, or warned of thedangers of fascism, while newsreels andon-the-spot radio broadcasts kept thepublic up-to-date on the war.
  • 5. d) The major inconveniences of the war werethe limitations placed on consumption: almosteverything Americans ate, wore, orused during the war was subjected to rationingor regulation by the Office ofPrice Administration. B. Migration and the Wartime City The war affected where people lived; families followed service members to training bases or points of debarkation, and the lure of high-paying defense jobs encouraged others to move. As a center of defense production, California was affected by the wartime migration more than any other state, experiencing a53% growth in population. 1. Racial Conflict a) As more than a million African Americansmigrated to defense centers in California,Illinois,Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania,racial conflicts arose over jobs andhousing. b) In Los Angeles male Latinos who belongedto pachuco (youth) gangs dressed in ―zootsuits‖; blacks and some working-classwhite teenagers also wore zoot suits as asymbol of alienation and self-assertion,but to adults and Anglos, the attire symbolizedwartime juvenile delinquency. c) In Los Angeles zoot-suiters became thetarget of white hostility toward MexicanAmericans; in July 1943 rumors that apachuco gang had beaten a white sailor setoff a four-day riot. 2. Gay and Lesbian Community Formation a) During the war, however, cities such as New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, and even Kansas City, Buffalo, and Dallas developed vibrant gay neighborhoods, sustained in part by sudden influx of migrants and the relatively open wartime atmosphere. C. Japanese Removal a) Despite some racial tension, the homefront was generally calm in the 1940s;German and Italian Americans usually didnot experience intense prejudice, and leftistsand Communists faced little repressionafter the Soviet Union became an ally. b) The internment of Japanese Americans onthe West Coast was a glaring exception toracial tolerance, a reminder of the fragilityof civil liberties in wartime. c) In early 1942 Roosevelt issued ExecutiveOrder 9066, which gave the War Departmentthe authority it needed for its planto evacuate Japanese Americans from theWest Coast and intern them in relocationcamps for the rest of the war. d) The War Relocation Authority rounded up112,000 Japanese Americans, two- thirds ofwhom were citizens, and sent them to internmentcamps in California, Arizona,Utah, Colorado,Wyoming, Idaho, andArkansas. The Japanese Americans who made upone-third of the population of Hawaiiwere not interned; the Hawaiian economycould not function without them. e) Furloughs for seasonal workers, attendanceat a college, and enlistment in thearmed services were some routes out ofthe internment camps. f) Nisei Gordon Hirabayashi was among thefew Japanese Americans who actively resistedincarceration. A student at the Universityof Washington, Hirabayashi was areligious pacifist who had registered withhis draft board as a conscientious objector.He challenged internment by refusingto register for evacuation; instead, he turned himself in to the FBI. g) Tried and convicted in 1942, Gordon appealedhis case to Supreme Court in Hirabayashi VS. United States (1943). In that case, andalso in Korematsu VS. United States (1944),the court allowed the removal of JapaneseAmericans from the West Coast on thebasis of ―military necessity‖ but avoidedruling on the constitutionality of the internmentprogram.
  • 6. IV. Fighting and Winning the War A. Wartime Aims and Tensions a) The Allied coalition was composed mainlyof Great Britain, the United States, and theSoviet Union, and its leaders (WinstonChurchill, Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin)set overall strategy. b) Churchill and Roosevelt’s Atlantic Charterformed the basis of the Allies’ vision of thepostwar international order, but Stalin hadnot been part of that agreement, a factthat would later cause disagreements overits goals. c) The Russians argued for opening a secondfront in Europe—preferably in France—because it would draw German troopsaway from Russian soil. d) In November 1943, Roosevelt andChurchill agreed to open a second front inreturn for Stalin’s promise to fight againstJapan when the war in Europe ended. e) The delay in creating the second frontmeant that the Soviet Union bore the bruntof the land battle against Germany; Stalin’smistrust of the United States and GreatBritain carried over into the Cold War. B. The War In Europe During the first seven months of the war, the Allies suffered severe defeats on land and sea in both Europe and Asia. The turning point in the war came when the Soviets halted the German advance in the Battle of Stalingrad; by 1944, Stalin’s forces had driven the Germans out of the Soviet Union. In North Africa, Allied troops, under the leadership of General Dwight D. Eisenhower and General George S. Patton, defeated Germany’s Afrika Korps led by General Erwin Rommel. The Allied command moved to attack the Axis through Sicily and the Italian peninsula; in July 1943, Mussolini’s fascist regime fell, and Italy’s new government joined the Allies. The Allied forces finally entered Rome in June 1944, although the last German forces in Italy did not surrender until May 1945. 1. D-Day a) The invasion of France came on D-Day,June 6, 1944; under General Eisenhower’scommand, more than 1.5 million American,British, and Canadian troops crossedthe English Channel. b) In August 1944, Allied troops helped toliberate Paris; by September, they haddriven the Germans out of most of Franceand Belgium. c) In December 1944, after ten days of fighting,the Allies pushed the Germans backacross the Rhine River in the Battle of theBulge, the final German offensive. d) As American, British, and Soviet troopsadvanced toward Berlin, Hitler committedsuicide in his bunker on April 30; Germanysurrendered on May 8, 1945. 2. The Holocaust a) As Allied troops advanced into Germany,they came upon the extermination campswhere 6 million Jews, along with 6 millionother people, were put to death. b) The Roosevelt administration had informationabout the camps as early as 1942,but so few Jews escaped the Holocaust becausethe United States and the rest of theworld would not take in the Jews. c) The War Refugee Board, established in1944, eventually helped to save about200,000 Jews who were placed in refugeecamps in various countries. d) Factors combining to inhibit U.S. actionwere anti-Semitism, fears of economiccompetition from a flood of immigrantrefugees to a country just recovering fromthe depression, failure of the media tograsp the magnitude of the story and topublicize it accordingly, and the failure ofreligious and political leaders to speak out. C. The War in the Pacific
  • 7. After Pearl Harbor, Japan continued its conquests in the Far East and began to threaten Australia and India. In May 1942, in the Battle of the Coral Sea, American naval forces halted the Japanese offensive against Australia, andin June, Americans inflicted crucial damage on the Japanese fleet at Midway. Over the next eighteen months, General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester W. Nimitz led the offensive in the Pacific, advancing from one island to the next. The reconquest of the Philippines began with a victory in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, in which the Japanese lost practically their entire fleet; by early 1945, triumph over Japan was in sight, with costly American victories at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. The use of kamikaze missions, combined with the Japanese refusal to surrender, suggested to American military strategists that Japan would continue to fight despite overwhelming losses. Based on the fighting at Okinawa and Iwo Jima, American military commanders predicted millions of casualties in an invasion of Japan. 1. The Manhattan Project a) When Harry Truman took over the presidency,he learned of the top-secret ManhattanProject, charged with developingthe atomic bomb. It cost more than $2 billionand employed 120,000 people. b) Truman ordered the dropping of atomicbombs on the Japanese cities ofHiroshima, on August 6, and Nagasaki, onAugust 9. c) At the time, the belief that Japan’s militaryleaders would never surrender unless theircountry was utterly devastated convincedpolicymakers that they had to deploy theatomic bomb. d) One hundred thousand people died atHiroshima and sixty thousand at Nagasaki;tens of thousands more died slowlyof radiation poisoning. e) Japan offered to surrender on August 10and signed a formal treaty of surrender onSeptember 2, 1945. D. Planning the Postwar World a) When Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin metat Yalta in February 1945, victory inEurope and the Pacific was in sight, butno agreement had been reached on thepeace to come. b) One source of conflict was Stalin’s desirefor a band of Soviet-controlled satellitestates to protect the Soviet Union’s westernborder. c) Roosevelt and Churchill agreed in principleon the idea of a Soviet sphere of influencein Eastern Europe. Roosevelt pressedfor an agreement that guaranteed self-determinationand democratic elections inPoland and neighboring countries but,given the presence there of Soviet troops,had to accept a pledge from Stalin to hold―free and unfettered elections‖ at a futuretime. d) Germany was to be divided into fourzones to be controlled by the UnitedStates, Great Britain, France, and theSoviet Union; Berlin would be partitionedamong the four. e) The Big Four made progress toward theestablishment of the United Nations; itsSecurity Council would include the fivemajor Allied powers, plus six other nationsparticipating on a rotating basis,and permanent members of the SecurityCouncil would have veto power overdecisions of the General Assembly. f) The United Nations was to convene in SanFrancisco on April 25, 1945; Rooseveltsuffered a cerebral hemorrhage and diedon April 12, 1945. 1. Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany: Born in Austria in 1889, Adolf Hitler rose to power in German politics as leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, also known as the Nazi Party. Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and served as dictator from 1934 to 1945. His policies precipitated World War II and the Holocaust. Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker. 2. Benito Mussolini of Italy: Born in 1883 in Dovia di Predappio, Forlì, Italy, Benito Mussolini was an ardent socialist as a youth, following in his father's political footsteps, but was expelled by the party for his support of World War I. In 1919, he created the Fascist Party, eventually making himself
  • 8. dictator and holding all the power in Italy. He overextended his forces during World War II and was eventually killed by his own people, on April 28, 1945, in Mezzegra, Italy. 3. Hideki Tojo in Japan: Born in 1884 and died in 1948. Hideki Tojo was Prime Minister of Japan when the attack on Pearl Harbor took place plunging the Far East into a war which was to end with the destruction of Hiroshima in August 1945. For his part in leading Japan into World War Two, Tojo was executed as a war criminal. 4. Francisco Franco in Spain:He was essentially demoted, but by 1935 he had been named chief of staff of the Spanish Army, a position he used to purge the army hierarchy of left-wing figures and strengthened military institutions. When the social and economic structure of Spain, in the governing hands of the left, began to crumble, 5. Gerald P. Nye: a U.S. Senator from North Dakota for 19 years. During his tenure, Nye gained national headlines for his leadership in several Senate investigations, including the Teapot Dome scandal and the inquiry into the business practices of munitions makers during World War I. He was a strong voice for American isolationism and vehemently opposed to U.S. involvement in World War II. 6. Neutrality Act of 1935: In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Neutrality Act, or Senate Joint Resolution No. 173, which he calls an "expression of the desire...to avoid any action which might involve the U.S. in war." 7. Ohio Senator Robert Taft: During World War II, he warned against the tremendous growth of presidential power, which he claimed threatened the people's liberties and freedom. This same kind of criticism also brought Taft into conflict with the American government's Cold War policies after World War II. He attacked President Harry S. Truman's policy of containment of the Soviet Union, arguing that the United States was provoking Russia into a war. He vigorously opposed the Marshall Plan, designed to give billions of dollars in aid to Western Europe, as far too costly. 8. National Legion of Mothers of America: Inspired by William Randolph Hearst, and he used his newspapers to promote the group, and thus, his preference for isolationism. The mothers who joined were ―grimly determined to fight any attempt to send their sons to fight on foreign soil.‖ The group was wildly successful, with 10,000 women signing up in Los Angeles during the first week of registration. The women sold pins featuring an American flag and white dove of peace to raise funds. 9. Popular Front:In 1935 the Seventh World Congress of the Comintern announced another change of direction. It now stressed the need for a "popular front," a movement to create political coalitions of all antifascist groups. In the United States, the Communists abandoned opposition to the New Deal; they reentered the mainstream of the trade union movement and played an important part in organizing new unions for the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), for the first time gaining important positions of power in the union movement. As antifascist activists they attracted the support of many non-Communists during this period. 10. Munich Conference: A settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe, without the presence of Czechoslovakia. 11. America First Committee (AFC): Influential political pressure group in the United States (1940–41) that opposed aid to the Allies in World War II because it feared direct American military involvement in the conflict. The committee claimed a membership of 800,000 and attracted such leaders as General Robert E. Wood, the aviator Charles A. Lindbergh, and Senator Gerald P. Nye. Though failing in its campaigns to block the Lend-Lease Act, the use of the U.S. Navy for convoys, and the repeal of the Neutrality Act, its public pressure undoubtedly discouraged greater direct military aid to a Great Britain beleaguered by Nazi Germany. 12. Lend-Lease Action 1941: Was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II. It authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to ―the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States.‖ By allowing the transfer of supplies without compensation to Britain, China, the Soviet Union and other countries, the act permitted the United States to support its war interests without being overextended in battle. 13. Atlantic Charter: The United States and Great Britain issued a joint declaration in August 1941 that set out a vision for the postwar world. In January 1942, a group of 26 Allied nations pledged their support for this declaration, known as the Atlantic Charter. The document is considered one of the first key steps toward the establishment of the United Nations in 1945. 14. War Powers Act in December 1941: American emergency law that increased Federal power during World War II. The act was signed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and put into law on December 18, 1941, less than two weeks after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. 15. Imperial Presidency: U.S. presidency that is has greater power than the constitution allows. 16. Revenue Act of 1942: Increased individual income tax rates, increased corporate tax rates, and reduced the personal exemption amount from $1,500 to $1,200
  • 9. 17. War Production Board (WPB) (1942-1945): directed conversion of industries from peacetime work to war needs, allocated scarce materials, established priorities in the distribution of materials and services, and prohibited nonessential production. 18. Henry J. Kaiser: American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He established the Kaiser Shipyard which built Liberty ships during World War II, after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel. 19. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): organization composed mainly of American blacks, but with many white members, whose goal is the end of racial discrimination and segregation. 20. Rosie the Riveter: a cultural icon representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. 21. A. Philip Randolph: a leader in the African-American civil-rights movement, the American labor movement and socialist political parties 22. Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC): Requiring that companies with government contracts not discriminate on the basis of race or religion. It was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the home front industry during World War II 23. John L. Lewis: leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America. 24. Smith-Connally Labor Act of 1943: allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production, and prohibited unions from making contributions in federal elections 25. Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944: known informally as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans. Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low- interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend college, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It was available to every veteran who had been on active duty during the war years for at least ninety days and had not been dishonorably discharged; combat was not required. 26. Office of War Information (OWI): consolidate government information services and deliver propaganda both at home and abroad. OWI operated from June 1942 until September 1945. Through radio broadcasts, newspapers, posters, photographs, films and other forms of media, the OWI was the connection between the battlefront and civilian communities. 27. Pearl Harbor: The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan on Sunday, December 7, 1941 brought the United States into World War II 28. Executive Order 9066: Cleared the way for the deportation of Japanese Americans to internment camps 29. General John L. DeWitt:believed that Japanese and Japanese Americans in California, Oregon, and Washington were conspiring to sabotage the American war effort, and recommended they be removed from coastal areas. 30. War Relocation Authority:forced relocation and detention of Japanese, German, and Italian Americans during World War II. 31. Hirabayashi Vs. United States (1943):the United States Supreme Court held that the application of curfews against members of a minority group was constitutional when the nation was at war with the country from which that group originated. 32. Korematsu Vs. United States (1944):a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship 33. D-Day:the Battle of Normandy, which lasted from June 1944 to August 1944, resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control. Codenamed Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning. Prior to D-Day, the Allies conducted a large-scale deception campaign designed to mislead the Germans about the intended invasion target. By late August 1944, all of northern France had been liberated, and by the following spring the Allies had defeated the Germans. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of war in Europe. 34. Harry S. Truman:Born in Missouri on May 8, 1884. He was Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s vice president for just 82 days before Roosevelt died and Truman became the 33rd president. In his first months in office he dropped the atomic bomb on Japan, ending World War II. His policy of communist containment started the Cold War, and he initiated U.S. involvement in the Korean War. Truman left office in 1953 and died in 1972.