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  • 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e Chapter 22 Wrestling with Modernity, 1918-1929 I. Conflicted Legacies of World War I A. Racial Strife B. Erosion of Labor Rights C. The Red Scare II. Politics in the 1920s A. Women in Politics B. Republican “Normalcy” C. Dollar Diplomacy D. Culture Wars 1. Religion in Politics 2. Nativism 3. The Klan Revived 4. The Election in1928 III. Intellectual Modernism A. Harlem in Vogue 1. Jazz 2. Marcus Garvey and the UNIA B. Critiquing American Life IV. From Boom to Bust A. Business After the War B. Consumers Culture 1. The Automobile 2. Hollywood C. The Coming of the Great Depression
  • 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e I. Conflicted Legacies of World War I A. Racial Strife a) African Americans emerged from World War I determined to insist on citizenship rights. b) The Great Migration drew hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South to Northern industrial cities, where they could secured good wartime jobs and found they could vote, advocate for political reforms, and use their new economic clout to build community institutions and work for racial justice. c) In Northern and Midwestern cities, the arrival of thousands of Southern blacks deepened existing racial tension. d) Racism turned economic and political conflicts into violent confrontations B. Erosion of Labor Rights a) The National War Labor Board (NWLB), formed in April 1918, established an eight-hour day for war workers, with time-and-a-half pay for overtime, and endorsed equal pay for women. b) Worker’s expectations rose as the war economy brought higher pay and better working conditions. c) In 1919, more than 4 million wage laborers went on strike. Meanwhile, business leaders in rising industrial resolutely resisted unions, leading to the creation of more and more non-unionized industrial jobs. d) Coronado Coal Company V. United Mine Workers (1925): the Court ruled that a striking union could be penalized for illegal restraint of trade. e) Adkins V Children’s Hospital (1923): the Court struck down federal legislation regulating child labor and it voided a minimum wage for women workers in the District of Columbia, revising many of the gains that had been achieved before World War I through the groundbreaking decision in Muller V. Oregon. f) Welfare Capitalism: a system of labor relations that stressed management’s responsibility for employees’ well-being. Employers hoped this would build a loyal workforce and head off strikes and labor unrest. C. The Red Scare a) The socialist outlook of some recent immigrants frightened native-born citizens, and the communist ideologies of the Russian Bolsheviks terrified them. b) When Bolsheviks founded the Third International (Comintern) in 1919, an organization intended to foster revolutions, some Americans began to fear that dangerous radicals were hiding everywhere. c) The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) had been weakened by wartime repression and internal dissent. d) Mitchell Palmer set up an antiradicalism division in the Justice Department and appointed his assistant J. Edgar Hoover to direct it; shortly afterwards, it became the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). e) The “Palmer Raid” peaked on a notorious night in January 1920, when federal agents invaded homes and meeting halls, arrested six thousands citizens and aliens, and denied the prisoners’ access to legal counsel. f) In May 1920, at the height of the Red Scare, police arrested Nicola Sacco for the murder of two men during a robbery of a shoe company in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Sacco and Vanzetti were Italian aliens and self-proclaimed anarchists who had evaded the craft. The execution of Sacco and Vanzetti was one of the ugly scars left by the ethnic and political hostilities of the Great War.
  • 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e II. Politics in the 1920s After a few early victories for reform the dominant motif of the 1920s was limited government. The United States sought to reshape other nations’ economies and finances to enhance American business needs. A. Women in Politics a) Many progressive women hoped to change the status of industrial poverty and created the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee, a Washington-based advocacy group. b) The group accomplished the first federally funded health-care legislation, the Sheppard-Towner Federal Maternity and Infancy Act (1921). Sheppard-Towner provided federal funds to subsidize medical clinic, prenatal education programs, and visiting nurses. Sheppard-Towner improved health care for the poor and significantly lowered infant mortality rates. c) In 1919, women activists created the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), whose leading members included Jane Addams. Through the 1920s and beyond, members if WILPF denounced imperialism, stressed the suffering caused by militarism, and proposed social justice measures. d) The WILPF came under fierce attack during the Red Scare because of the presence of Socialist women among its rank. e) Many congressmen had initially supported the Sheppard-Towner Act because they feared the voting power of women, but Congress ended the program in the late 1920s. B. Republican “Normalcy” a) Democrats nominated Ohio governor James M. Cox for president and Republicans dominated Ohio senator Warren G. Harding. On Election Day Warren G. Harding won and the era of Republican dominance lasted until 1932. b) Harding’s Secretary of Commerce was Herbert Hoover. Under Hoover’s direction, the Commerce Department helped create two thousand trade associations representing companies in almost every major industry. c) When President Herding died suddenly of a heart attack in August 1923, evidence was just coming to light that parts of his administration were damaged with corruption. d) Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall was eventually convicted of taking $300,000 in bribed and became the first cabinet office in U.S. history to serve a prison sentence. e) Vice Pre. Calving Coolidge became the President and was campaigning for election in his own right in 1924. He called for limited government, isolationism in foreign policy, and tax cut for businesses. f) For the most part, Republicans declined to carry forward progressive initiatives from the prewar years. The Republican-dominated Federal Trade Commission (FTC) failed to enforce antitrust act. C. Dollar Diplomacy a) Republican presidential administration sought to advance U.S. business interest, especially by encouraging private banks to make foreign loans. b) Where stronger actions were needed, the United States intervened militarily, often to force repayment of debt. c) At home, critics denounced loan guaranteed and military interventions as Dollar Diplomacy. The term was coined in 1924 by Samuel Guy Inman, a Disciple of Christ missionary who had toured U.S. occupied Haiti and the Dominican Republic. d) By the late 1920s, Dollar Diplomacy was on the defensive, in keeping with a broader mood of isolationism and disgust with international affairs. Dollar Diplomacy usually managed to get loans repaid, securing bankers’ profit. But the
  • 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e loans often ended up in the pockets of local elites; U.S. policies failed to build broad-base prosperity overseas. D. Culture Wars The lives and belief or urban Americans often differed dramatically from those in small towns and farming areas. 1. Religion in Politics a) Rural and native-born Protestants started the decade with the achievement of a longtime goal: national prohibition of liquor. b) Congress also limited brewers’ and distillers’ use of barley, hops, and other scarce grains, causing consumption to decline. The Eighteen Amendment in 1917 and ratified in 1919 in almost every state and effective in January 1920 prohibited the “manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors” anywhere in the United States. c) The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), which had been formed during the Red Scare to protect free speech rights, challenged the Tennessee law’s constitutionality. The ACLU intervened in the trial of John T. Scoped, a high school biology teacher who taught the theory of evolution to his class and face a jail sentence for doing it. 2. Nativism a) Many native-born Protestants saw unrestricted immigration as the primary cause of cultural and religious dispute. b) Nativism: recalled hostility toward the Irish and Germans in the 1840s and 1950s, was widely shared. c) Nativists charged that there were too many Europeans immigrants, some of whom undermined Protestantism and imported anarchism, socialism, and other radical doctrines. d) The National Origins Act (1924) used thirty-four-year-old census data to establish a baseline: in the future, annual immigration from each country could not exceed 2% of the nationality’s population as it had stood in 1890. e) The new laws permitted unrestricted immigrants from the Western Hemisphere. f) Nativists lobbied Congress to cut this flow; so did labor leaders, who argued that impoverished migrants lowered wages for other America workers. g) Relentless hostility denied Asians both citizenship and citizenship and land rights, left Japanese Americans in a vulnerable position at the outbreak of World War II, when anti-Japanese panic swept the United States. 3. The Klan Revived a) The 1920s also brought a nationwide rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), the white supremacist group formed in the post-Civil War South. b) KKK members didn’t limit their harassment to blacks but targeted Catholics and Jews as well, with physical intimidation, arson, and economic boycotts. c) At the height of its power, the Klan wielded considerable political clout and counted more than three million members, including many women. 4. The Election in1928 a) By 1928, the Northern urban wing gained firm control. Democrats nominated Governor Al Smith of New York, the first presidential candidate to reflect the aspiration of urban working class. b) Smith proved no match for Republican Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, an outstanding administrator who embodied the technological promise of the modern age. He promised voters that individualism and cooperative endeavor would banish poverty. He won.
  • 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e III. Intellectual Modernism Intellectual movements emerged from the social and economic upheavals that the Great War had wrought at home. A. Harlem in Vogue Talented black artists and writers flocked to the district, where they broke with genteel traditions and asserted ties to Africa 1. Jazz a) To millions of Americans, the most notable part of the Harlem Renaissance was jazz. As a musical form, jazz coalesced in New Orleans and other parts of the South before World War I. The majority of early jazz musicians were blacks, but white performers added elements of European concert music. In the late 1920s, as jazz spread nationwide, musicians developed its signature mode of performance, the improvised solo. b) Louis Armstrong showered an inexhaustible capacity of melodic inventions. c) By the late 1920s, radio also helped popularize jazz, as the emerging record industry churned out records of the latest tunes. d) Visiting a mixed-race club became known as “slumming” e) The breakthrough came in 1920, when Otto K.E. Heinemann, a producer who sold immigrants records in Yiddish, Swedish, and other languages. 2. Marcus Garvey and the UNIA a) The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which arose in the late 1920s to mobilize African Americans workers, was based in Harlem. The UNIA’s charismatic leader, Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey, championed black separatism. b) The UNIA grew rapidly in the early 1920s and soon claimed 4 million followers, including many recent migrants to Northern industrial centers. c) But the UNIA declined as quickly as it had risen. In 1925, Garvey was imprisoned for mail fraud because of his solicitation for Black Star Line. President Coolidge commuted his sentence but ordered his deportation to Jamaica. Without Garvey’s leadership, the movement collapsed. d) Garvey and his followers represented an emerging Pan-Africanism: they argued that people from African descent had a common destiny and should cooperate in political action. B. Critiquing American Life a) The Cataclysm of World War I challenged intellectuals’ belief in progress. b) The war also accelerated a literary trend of exploring the dark side of the humans psyche. c) In a decade of conflict between traditional and modern worldviews, many writers exposed what they saw as the hypocrisy of small-town and rural life. d) Sinclair Lewis, whose novel Babbitt(1922) depicted the disillusionment of an ordinary small-town salesman. Critics found Lewis’s work superb, and in 1930 he became the first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature.
  • 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e IV. From Boom to Bust With the rapid American economic growth and development, these were the factors in 1929 that triggered the Great Depression A. Business After the War a) Rarely did any single corporation monopolize an entire field; rather, an oligopoly of a few major producers tended to dominate each market. b) Seeking cheaper livestock, big American meatpackers opened plants in Argentina. The United Fruit Company developed plantations in Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala. General Electric set up production facilities in Latin America, Asia, and Australia. c) After World War I the United States experienced a series of economic shocks. d) The U.S. economy had areas of significant weakness throughout the 1920s. B. Consumers Culture Middle-class Americans during the 1920s started to have even better lives than before and by 1929, 40% of American households owned a radio. When every dollar counted, the lure of consumer culture often created friction. However, the poor and affluent families often had one thing in common: they stretched their income by taking advantage of new forms of borrowing. 1. The Automobile a) Mass production of cars played a major role in the boom of the 1920s. Cars changed the way Americans spent their leisure time. b) The American Automobile Association, founded in 1902, estimated that in 1929 almost a third of the population took vacation by car, patronizing “autocamps” and cabins. c) In rural areas, cars contributed to a consolidation of churches, schools, and post offices. d) Rural Southern blacks, if they could get use of a car, found they could travel three countries away and secure a loan that white bankers in their own country might be reluctant to offer 2. Hollywood a) By 1910, the movie making industry had moved to Southern California to take advantage of cheap land, sunshine, and varied scenery within easy reach. The large studios –United Artists, Paramount, and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer- were run mainly by Eastern European Jewish immigrants. b) By the end of World War I, Hollywood reigned as movie capital of the world, producing nearly 90% of all films. c) Decked out in knee-length skirts, flappers shocked the older generation by smoking and wearing makeup. d) In 1919, with government support, General Electric spearheaded the creation of Radio Corporation of America (RCA), to expand U.S. presence in foreign radio markets. e) The United States was experimenting with what historians call Soft Power- the exercise of popular cultural influence- as radio and movies exuberantly celebrated the American Dream. C. The Coming of the Great Depression a) By 1927, consumers lending had become the tenth-largest business in the country, topping $7 billion a year.The economy grew, jobs were plentiful and the stock market climbers; however, those conditions did not last b) Even when the stock market crashed, in a series of plunges between October 25 and November 13, 1929 few onlookers understood the magnitude of the crisis.
  • 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e c) The market rose in late 1929 and early 1930. The nation had entered the Great Depression and over the next four years, industrial production fell by 37%, and construction plunged by 78%. d) In late 1930, several major banks went under, victims of overextended and reckless management. Since the government did not insure bank deposit, savings in failed banks vanished. e) The Great Depression was a global crisis that emerged from the aftermath of World War I. While many factors caused the Great Depression, adherence to the gold standard was a major factor in its length and severity in the United States. Faced with economic catastrophe, both Britain and Germany abandoned the gold standard in 1931 and that helped to recover their economy. f) Thus the Federal Reserve, the central banking system that had been created in 1913, was forced to do two contradictory things at once: try to revive the economy and protect the nation’s gold supply. So, the United States left the gold standard in 1933, under Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration. g) Adhering to their long-standing faith in high protective tariffs, Republican s not only protected the gold standard but also enacted the Smooth-Hawley Tariff of 1930, hoping to stimulate domestic manufacturing. h) Adopting a more helpful measure, in 1932, President Hoover created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to provide loans to banks, railroads, and utilities. i) In 1932, voters replaced Herbert Hoover with Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. Faced with cataclysm of the Great Depression, Americans transformed their government and created a modern welfare state.
  • 8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e 1. The National War Labor Board: a federal agency created on April 8, 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson. It was composed of twelve representatives from business and labor, and co-chaired by Former President William Howard Taft. Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers in order to ensure labor reliability and productivity during the war. 2. Elbert H. Gary: U.S. businessman, chief organizer of the U.S. Steel Corp. He began practicing law in 1871, becoming an authority on corporate law, and he served as judge of DuPage County, IL. In 1898 he became president of Federal Steel Co.; when Federal merged with other companies to become U.S. Steel Corp. 3. Coronado Coal Company V. United Mine Workers (1925): the Court ruled that a striking union could be penalized for illegal restraint of trade 4. Adkins V. Children’s Hospital (1923): holding that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract, as protected by the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment 5. Welfare Capitalism: combination of an economy's capitalist practices with programs benefiting its citizens. 6. Communism: a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs. 7. Russian Bolsheviks: a mass organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. 8. Mitchel Palmer:was elected U.S. Congressman in 1908, 1910 and 1912. Palmer became custodian of alien property in 1917. In 1919, he was appointed attorney general and launched the infamous Palmer Raids. 9. J. Edgar Hoover: he long-time director of the FBI (1924-1972) and spent much of his career gathering intelligence on radical groups and individuals. Hoover's methods included infiltration, burglaries, illegal wiretaps and planted evidence, and his legacy is tainted because of it. 10. Red Scare: the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism, used by anti-leftist proponents. In the United States, the First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare was focused on national and foreign communists influencing society, infiltrating the federal government, or both. 11. Women’s International League of Peace and Freedom: The first WILPF president, Jane Addams, had previously founded the Woman's Peace Party in the United States, in January 1915, which later became the US section of WILPF. It is a non -profit non- governmental organization working "to bring together women of different political views and philosophical and religious backgrounds determined to study and make known the causes of war and work for a permanent peace" and to unite women worldwide who oppose oppression and exploitation. 12. Herbert Hoover: humanitarian in World War I by leading hunger-relief efforts in Europe as head of the American Relief Administration. From there he moved into the post of U.S. secretary of commerce and spearheaded the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Hoover Dam. In 1928, Hoover was elected president, but eight months later the stock market crash of 1929 occurred, ushering in the Great Depression. Hoover’s policies could not overcome the economic destruction and despair that resulted, and he lost his reelection bid in 1932. 13. Nativism: favoring the interests of established inhabitants over those of immigrant and the reestablishment or perpetuation of native cultural traits, especially in opposition to acculturation. 14. National Origin Act (1924): A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. The policy stayed in effect until the 1960s.
  • 9. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 8 | P a g e 15. Universal Negro Improvement Association: their objectives was to establish a Universal Confraternity among the race, promote the spirit of race pride and love, reclaim the fallen of the race, administer to and assist the needy, and assist in civilizing the backward tribes of Africa. 16. Marcus Garvey: was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).He founded the Black Star Line, part of the Back-to-Africa movement, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands. 17. Harlem Renaissance: the name given to the cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem between the end of World War I and the middle of the 1930s. During this period Harlem was a cultural center, drawing black writers, artists, musicians, photographers, poets, and scholars. Many had come from the South, fleeing its oppressive caste system in order to find a place where they could freely express their talents. 18. Pan-Africanism:an ideology and movement that encourages the solidarity of Africans worldwide. It is based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, social, and political progress and aims to “unify and uplift” people of African descent. The ideology asserts that the fate of all African peoples and countries are intertwined 19. Soft Power: a persuasive approach to international relations, typically involving the use of economic or cultural influence. 20. Great Depression: was the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world. In the United States, the Great Depression began soon after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors. Over the next several years, consumer spending and investment dropped, causing steep declines in industrial output and rising levels of unemployment as failing companies laid off workers. By 1933, when the Great Depression reached its nadir, some 13 to 15 million Americans were unemployed and nearly half of the country’s banks had failed. Though the relief and reform measures put into place by President Franklin D. Roosevelt helped lessen the worst effects of the Great Depression in the 1930s, the economy would not fully turn around until after 1939, when World War II kicked American industry into high gear.