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  • 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 CHAPTER 2 STUDY GUIDE Part I: Vocabulary Terms:Define the following terms toughly. This means that each term must be defined using the five W’s at a minimum. What are the five W’s? What is it? When did it occur? Where was it? Who was it or who was influenced by it? Why is this term important to the time or what is its lasting impact? Terms 1. Jesuit 2. New Netherlands 3. Jamestown 4. Common Law 5. Freeholds 6. Indentured Servitude 7. Bacons Rebellion 8. Joint-Stock Corporation 9. Puritans 10. Town Meetings Part 2: Short Answers 1. What were the colonial goals of the Spanish, French and Dutch? How successful were they in achieving those goals? 2. What happened to the Five Nations between 1600 and 1700? Was the Iroquois better off the beginning of the period or the end? Why? 3. What were the various systems of bound labor that took hold in the Chesapeake colonies? What accounts for their appearance? 4. Compare the Indians uprising in Virginia with Bacon’s Rebellion in 1675. What were the consequences of each for Virginia’s development? 5. Why did the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay create an established church and persecute dissenters when they had fled England to escape those things? 6. What was the social and political structure of the New England colonies? Why did they develop in that fashion? 7. Compare the causes of the uprisings led by Pope in New Mexico and the Metacom in New England. Which rebellion was more successful? Why? 8. What were the major social and environmental changes that made America a New World for Indians? Part 3: Summary Questions 1. Outline the goals of the directors of the Virginia Company and the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Where did they succeed? In what ways did the fall short? 2. Why were there no major witchcraft scares in the Chesapeake colonies and no uprising like Bacon’s Rebellion in New England? Consider the possible social, economic and religious causes of both phenomena.
  • 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 TERMS Jesuit Jesuits are members of a Society Of Jesus& It was a Catholic religious order founded to combat the Protestant Reformation. The Jesuits did not exploit the Indian labor & won converts by adapting to Christian beliefs to the Indians’ needs. Between 1625& 1763, but founded around 1534 There was people of the Jesuits in the Americas & England Founded by the Spanish priest Saint Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) with the aims of defending the papacy & Catholicism against the Reformation & to undertake missionary work among the heathen The Jesuits were important because after the protestant revolt started breaking out in Europe, the Jesuits brought over half of the protestant converts back to the Christianity. Therefore they impacted in the Christians religion by making more believers that the creator is Jesus. New Netherlands The Netherlands is the State’s General of the United Provinces chartered the United East India Company with the mission of exploring for a passage to the Indies & claiming any territories for the United Provinces. 1609-1621 New Netherland was located where New York is now & became part of New York in colonial times. West India company The New Netherlands was important because Hudson found a lovely landscape, sufficient harbors, fertile valleys &, most important, plenty of fur-bearing animals. The New World offered riches of its own. Additionally, The New Netherlands offered products for trade with the powerful Iroquois.
  • 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 Jamestown Jamestown is the America’s first permanent English colony that sparked a series of cultural encounters that helped form the nation & the world. The government, language, customs, beliefs & aspirations of these early Virginians are all part of the United States’ heritage today. The colonists arrived at Jamestown on May 13, 1607 13 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth in Massachusetts Virginia The colony was supported by the Virginia Company of London, a group of stockholders who wanted to profit from the venture. The name taken by King James I. Jamestown is important because it was the first permanent English settlement in North America & is like the America’s birthplace. The Virginia Company of London also reinforced English nationwide objectives of balancing the expansion of other European nations abroad, seeking a northwest passage to the Orient, & converting the Virginia Indians to the Anglican religion. Common Law Common Law is a system of law in place in England & its colonies. Common Law was based on the principle that the rulings made by the King's courts were made according to the common custom of the realm, as opposed to decisions made in local & manorial courts which judged by provincial laws & customs. During the 18th & 19th centuries Almost everywhere in the United States The crafting of English Common Law was begun in the reign of Henry II, who had foreign legal learning &founded legal reform in England. It established by Parliament, the Crown, & the judiciary. The English Common Law is important because is the basis of the current legal systems in most English speaking countries. The US followed it until the Constitution was
  • 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 established& it continues to be referenced whenever there are no specific laws passed on a subject. Freeholds Freeholds were plantations owned & farmed by families or male planters. Today Freeholds had many meanings, but from history, it was tobacco plantations that after 1650 it was owned by wealthy migrants from gentry or nobles families that established along the Coastal Rivers. Freehold Township was formally established by an act of the Legislature on October 31, 1693 One of the three original townships in Monmouth County. Most of the people came from Southern England to buy in the Chesapeake region. Chesapeake people (families & male planters that had a farm) Freeholds were important because it kept the Chesapeake business going on by selling tobacco to the English people. Indentured Servitude Indentured Servitude was the method of choice employed by many planters before the 1680s. This system provided encouragements for both the master & servant to increase the working population of the Chesapeake colonies. The servants signs & is bounded by agreements to work for specified time particularly in return for payment of travel expenses & care. Is stated about 1607& ended around the early 1900’s The Chesapeake Colonies The Chesapeake people The Indentured Servitude was important because it affected economy & it was good for the people that worked for them. It had mutual benefits. In contrast, slaves worked until they died & didn’t receive any benefits.
  • 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 Bacons Rebellion TheBacons Rebellion is a popular revolt in colonial Virginia in which the lower class of farmers &the poor peasants rose up against the wealthy land owners & the corrupt House of Burgesses. It was a rebellion of Virginian settlers against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. 1676 Virginia Nathaniel Bacon Bacons Rebellion was important because it was the first rebellion of the American colonies. Is historically significant because, at the time, it affected all the inhabitants of the Eastern shore of Virginia. The rebellion led to the elimination of the hated governor, Sir William Berkeley& most importantly, it also marked the beginning of America's journey for independence. Joint-Stock Corporation The Joint-Stock Corporation was an economic arrangement by which a number of investors pool their capital for investment.It was a financial organizationdevised by English merchants that subsequently facilitated the colonization of NorthAmerica. In these companies, a number of investors pooled their capital &, in return, receivedshares of stock in the enterprise in proportion totheir share of the total investment. Around 1550. General court of Shareholders of the New England Colonies It was organized by a governor, councils, & assembly. The company is owned by shareholders, & the shares are freely traded on the open market, but the shareholders' liability is not limited to the price they paid for the stock. The Joint-Stock Corporation was important because many of the early settlements in the United States were established by joint stock companies. Like Jamestown was funded by the Virginia Company, which was a joint stock company.
  • 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 Puritans The Puritans wanted to totally reform (purify) the Anglican Church of England & they grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England. The Puritans were some of the earliest settlers in America. Initiated in the 1530’s & then in the late 16th century (1620-1640) The Puritans created colonies in New England in America seeking land & freedom. The Christianity faith & were under the siege from church & crown The Puritans are important because they basically shaped our nation& were the first people in America to introduce an early form of democracy& somewhat were responsible for our Nation’s successful economy. They started the New England shipbuilding industry that is still prominent today. They also founded two of the best colleges in the country & among the best in the world, Harvard & Yale. Town Meetings Town Meetings are town-wide meeting that was used to decide the issues facing the village & choose a group of people to govern the town for the coming year. 1630-1700, but was also practice later on New England Colonies New England town proprietors awarded the largest plots to men of high social status who often became selectmen & justices of peace. Town meetings were & are still important because it was the only way the Town people could have a say in what was going on in the town & it was an opportunity for Politicians & elected officials to meet face to face with their constituents & hear first-hand the people concerns without those concerns passing through the filters.
  • 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 PART 2: SHORT ANSWERS 1. What were the colonial goals of the Spanish, French and Dutch? How successful were they in achieving those goals? Spanish French Dutch All Europe COLONIALGOALS Defend their Empire Christianize the Indian people Smashed Indian religious idols & punished those who worshiped traditional gods. Cultural assimilation Forced labor Significant settlement in Mesoamerica, SW USA, Florida & the Caribbean Gold When they arrived they stated to build shelters & quickly plant crops. Have a larger French population. To convert Indians to Catholics & force them to mine gold & farm large estates. Fur Trading Major settlement in Quebec, Canada, Mississippi River Valley Wanted gold Fur Trading colonies Major settlement in New York & Hudson Wanted trade & Commerce Small population to begin with, so they wanted to increase it Fur trading Wanted to own territory & expand They wanted to settle HOWSUCCESSFULWERETHEY Since they had Spanish treasure ships, they were doing well for themselves. Spain established a fort at St. Augustine in 1565, & made it the first permanent European settlement for the future of the US. They learned Indian Language & That gave them a good advantage to communicate with the Natives. With the forced labor they could extract good They seized corn & clothing from the Natives They were looking for gold & didn’t need to settle colonies Blew money on forts & their large armada Disease- small pox Forced conversion Franciscans, tried to end N.A. culture Pope revolt The French people were immune to the Diseases they brought & the Natives weren’t, therefore it killed them. Christianity religion Weapons gave them an advantage over everything Disease- small pox Jesuits Adaptive They sparked deadly wars They owned guns & goods that gave them benefits over the Indians No motivation to move there because they could make money from the Netherlands Their Diseases like small pox decreased the Native population Guns were given to the Iroquois who used the Mohawk language Iroquois in war with Algonquians The Republic were the powerhouse of the 17th century Europe Dominated European banking, insurance, & textile industries Had ships & sailors that managed much of the world’s commerce English people were a threat to the Natives & the Natives were scared Most of the French, Spanish & Dutch were successful but they brought devastating wars & diseases that impacted the life of the Natives in a horrible way. Some of the settlers had to leave because of the wars that they had, but overall they had a tremendous impact on the New World, both positive & most, but not all, negative.
  • 8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 2. What happened to the Five Nations between 1600 and 1700? Was the Iroquois better off the beginning of the period or the end? Why? They Five Nations of the Iroquois had a strategic location in the central of New York, where they obtained guns & goods from the Dutch. They were along the Mohawk River & traveled North via Lake Champlain & the Richelieu River to Quebec &alsowent by the West via the Great Lakes to exploit the rich fur-bearing lands by the Mississippi River Valley. During 1600 & 1700 the Five Nations had a civil war & suffered through war & sickness. The Five Nations were: Senacas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas, & Mohawks. The Iroquois waged series of devastating wars around the 1630’s & 1660’s against the Huron’s (1649), Neutrals(1651), Erie’s(1657), & Susquehannocks(1660). The infighting made them vulnerable to attacks from the surrounding Algonquian tribes. This period, known in the Iroquois oral tradition as the "dark times," reached a nadir during the reign, but in this terrible era, though, two heroic figuresentered. Additionally, I believe that it was better for them at the end of the period after the wars ended because all that they have to care is about being safe & being protected. 3. What were the various systems of bound labor that took hold in the Chesapeake colonies? What accounts for their appearance? The Chesapeake colonies brought wealth to planters & religious freedom to Catholics in Maryland, but then again European settlement demolished Native American communities & subjected European indentured servants, African &immigrant work slaves to cruel exploitation for the sake of profit. For the rich & poor, their lives were cruel in the Chesapeake colonies. Families were scare because of the lack of females, marriages didn’t last because the spouse died fast, & pregnant women had a bagger chance of getting malaria. Most children of about 13 years or less lost their parents in Middlesex Country, Virginia. In conclusion, there were two major systems of forced labor that took hold in the Chesapeake colonies: indentured servitude & slavery. In both systems, people were forced to work for others for no pay & had their lives completely controlled by those who owned their labor. The major difference was that indentured servitude was a contractual agreement that lasted a specific amount of time& after that, the servant became free. In the other hand, a slave was enslaved for life & the law came to say that the offspring of a slave would also be enslaved for life. 4. Compare the Indians uprising in Virginia with Bacon’s Rebellion in 1675. What were the consequences of each for Virginia’s development? The Indian Uprising in Virginia is a conflict that happened in 1622 between the Powhatan Confederation of native Indian tribes in Virginia & their colonial masters, the English under the
  • 9. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 8 Virginia Company. Powhatans’ way of life was endangered for damage by the settlers hence they had to act. After the demise of the friendly Chief Powhatan in 1617, the more aggressive Chief Opechancanough came to power & ordered the assault on the Virginia settlements on March 22, 1622. The Indians burned down houses, killed livestock & scattered property. In contrast, the Bacon’s rebellion in 1675 was in the colony of Virginia pitting small farmers & frontier men led by Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia governor William Berkeley. The governor was unpopular to the settlers due to several reasons like restraint on right to vote, high taxes & low tobacco prices. Though, the main reason for the uprising was the governor’s welcoming rules to the Native Indians, particularly his refusal to react for a series of Indian attacks on the settlements. The Bacon’s rebellion started after Indians killed a laborer on Nathaniel Bacon’s plantation. He then led the men to the capital, Jamestown, & demanded that Governor Berkeley give him commission to clear Indians from their reservations to which Berkeley refused. Bacon issued a Declaration of the people & led his men to destroy the capital & force Berkeley out. Some of the consequences were that after the Indian uprisings, the Virginia Company administration came to an end. The colony was left in total disarray & the company itself declared bankrupt. In 1624, Virginia was put under the royal government colonial administration & remained so until its independence. Bacon’s rebellion saw him take charge of the General Assembly & pass several liberal laws alongside attacking innocent native tribes. Most of the liberal laws passed by Bacon were repealed, with Berkeley responding harshly by hanging nearly two-thirds of the rebels & seizing their plantations. 5. Why did the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay create an established church and persecute dissenters when they had fled England to escape those things? Puritans of Massachusetts Bay create an established church because they wanted to create their own type of society.They only had each other in the New World, so disagreement was a worry of theirs as it posed numerous challenges which could tear their newly found freedom apart. The Massachusetts Bay had legally established churches, an elected governor, assembly, & it granted voting rights to most property-owning men, not just the church members as in the original Puritans colony. Additionally, the Puritans established to protect themselves from persecution from rival groups & fulfill a divine mission to serve as a “City upon a Hill,” the Puritans of North America sought to remove dissenters from their midst.
  • 10. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 9 6. What was the social and political structure of the New England colonies? Why did they develop in that fashion? The political structures in the New England colonies were different in colonial history. In the bottom level, the New England government was concentratedon town governments. These kindsof governmentstended to be very carefully tied to the Puritan church leadership. The nativeadministrationswanted to preserve their freedom from the larger colonial government. On the colonial level, the governments had a habit of to be partly appointed. They had a legislature with one house that was appointed by the governor & one that was elected by the people.The New England colonies were founded by people who left England to escape religious persecution, mostly called Puritans who also had strict beliefs of their own about proper conduct, & they disapproved of many customs & behaviors that their English people appreciated. The English were cheerful for the Puritans to leave, regardless of the sufferings they would face, to stop hearing them complain they encompassed the chance to start new in their own place. 7. Compare the causes of the uprisings led by Pope in New Mexico and the Metacom in New England. Which rebellion was more successful? Why? 8. What were the major social and environmental changes that made America a New World for Indians? Disease outbreaks diminished the Indian population & the ability of Indians to resist territorial takeover. The fur trade brought new goods to Indian communities, fostering dependence by Pope in New Mexico Metacom in New England 1680 Killed more than 400 Spaniards & forced 1,500 colonists to flee 300 miles to El Paso Burned “the seeds which the Spaniards sowed & planted Desecrated churched & rebuilt the sacred Kivas Was seeking to restore the traditional way of their life Concluded that Europeans had to be expelled 1675-1676 Known as King Philip When his people copied English ways by rising hogs & selling pork in Boston, Puritans officials accused them of selling at “an under rate” & restricted their trade. Was a deadly affair Indians destroyed one-fifth of the English towns in Massachusetts & Rhode Island & killed 1,000 settler About 4,500 Indians died Concluded that Europeans had to be expelled Pope’s revolt was more successful because of the comparativeabsence of losses, the driving out of the Spanish for over a decade, the lack of Indian refugees reducing from the conflict, & the minor improvement of conditions for Pueblo Indians after the Spanish returned. In the other hand, Metacom’s rebellion did not halt English advancement & was met with brutal retaliation in the form of executions & enslavement, leading to a 25 percent population loss. Refugees fled the community & lost their culture.
  • 11. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 10 Indians on European technology. Also, the Christian Church attempted to convert Indians. Though, the fur trade decreased animal populations of North America, but the arrival of Europeans brought new plants & animals that forever altered the environment of North America. PART 3: SUMMARY QUESTIONS 1. Outline the goals of the directors of the Virginia Company and the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Where did they succeed? In what ways did the fall short? The Virginia’s Company main goals involved supplyextractionovera formation of a permanent colony that would increase in population over time under direct control of the company’s directors. The Company controlled all of the land& became established &successful as a tobacco colony, but suffered population losses from disease, starvation, &Indian attacks that challenged any real territorial or population expansion for 50 years. In the Massachusetts Bay Company, their goals includedan establishment of a Self-controlled religious colony as a moral example to purify the Catholic Church. Colony’s freemen elected governor & colonial legislature. Experiment was largely successful, though religious dissenters increased over time as did Indian attacks due to territorial acquisition 2. Why were there no major witchcraft scares in the Chesapeake colonies and no uprising like Bacon’s Rebellion in New England? Consider the possible social, economic and religious causes of both phenomena. No witchcraft frights in the Chesapeake colonies principally due to the lack of strong family formation, the expansion of towns & cities, &established religion. High death rate & low population of women led to a male-orientated & orphan colony based more on secular economic hunts than religious inspirations as motivated the witchcraft scares in New England. No uprisings like Bacon’s Rebellion in New England mainly due to the more steady nature of family formation in New England, where a more healthy climate & the existence of enough land for sons & daughters to maintain freedom. In Virginia notenough land existed to provide prosperity to the lower classes because due the surplus of landless laborers & indentured servants, leading to rebellion. The strong control of the Puritan church & the imposition of hierarchical control by local church authorities over towns & congregations met with relative acceptance by the Puritan population as part of the patriarchal family model of obedience, hence no widespread revolts.