Chapter 18 study guide


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Chapter 18 study guide

  1. 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e Chapter 18 The Victorians Meet the Modern, 1880-1917 I. Women, Men, and the Solitude of Self A. Changes In Family Life B. The Rise Of High School C. College Men And Women 1. African American Education 2. Higher Education For Women D. Masculinity And The Rise Of Sports 1. The YMCA and “Muscular Christianity” 2. America’s Game 3. Rise of the Negro Leagues 4. American Football E. The Great Outdoors 1. preservation II. Women in the Public Sphere A. Negotiating Public Spaces B. From Female Moral Authority To Feminism 1. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union 2. Women, Race, and Patriotism 3. feminism C. Domesticity And Missions III. Science and Faith A. Darwinism And Its Critics B. Realism In The Arts C. Religion: Diversity And Innovation 1. Immigrant Faiths 2. Protestant Innovations
  2. 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e I. Women, Men, and the Solitude of Self Elizabeth Cady Stanton rejected the claim that women had no need for equal rights because they enjoyed the protection of a male. What Stanton said and claimed suited the era because women were taking up reform work and had an employment outside their home. A. Changes In Family Life a) The average American family decreased in size in the post-Civil War decades. b) In an Industrial society, parents who had fewer sons and daughters could concentrate their resources, educating and preparing each child for success in the new economy. c) In 1873, Anthony Comstock, the crusading secretary of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, secured a federal law that banned obscene material from the U.S. mail. The Comstock Act prohibited circulation of almost any information about ex and birth control. B. The Rise Of High School a) Parents of the Civil War generation encouraged daughters to educate themselves for teaching or office work, so they could find employment before marriage and have skill if something went wrong in their lives. b) By 1900, 71% of Americans between the ages of five and eighteen attended school. c) Boys and girls engaged in friendly or not-so-friendly rivalry when girls captured an outsize share of academic prizes. C. College Men And Women Driven partly by expansion of public universities, the rate of people who attended to college began to rise steadily in the 1880’s, reaching 8% by 1920. Most universities emphasized agricultural and technical training. 1. African American Education a) In the South, one of the most famous educational projects was Booker T. Washington’s Tuskegee Institute, founded in 1881. Washington, born into slavery, taught and exemplified the goal of self-help. b) Tuskegee sent many female graduates into teaching and nursing and men more often entered the industrial trades or farmed by the latest scientific methods. c) Washington became the most prominent black leader of his generation. He believed that money was color-blind. Washington represented the hopes of millions of African Americans who expected that education, hard work, and respectability would erase white prejudice. As a tide of disfranchisement, segregation, and lynching rolled in during the 1890s, educated and prosperous blacks made white people mad. 2. Higher Education For Women a) Most women in the North and South went to single-sex schools. And for students from affluent families, private colleges offered an education equivalent to men’s. Vassar College started the trend when it opened in 1861. b) Some doctors warned that having education like men was dangerous because it was going to affect the women’s reproductive system and give off weak offspring’s’. However, the institutions had a strict exercise and diet routine to keep women healthy.
  3. 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e c) By 1910, 58% of America’s 1,083 colleges and universities were coeducational. d) As women began to earn degrees, gain footholds in respectable and professional employments, and live independently, it became harder to argue that women depended on men and did not need to vote. D. Masculinity And The Rise Of Sports By the late 19th century, more and more men and women worked in salaries positions or wages. Over the next six decades sports became a fundamental part of American manhood. 1. The YMCA And “Muscular Christianity” a) One of the first promoters of physical fitness was the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA). Adapted from Britain and introduces to Boston in 1852, the YMCA combines vigorous activities for young men with an evangelizing appeal. b) The YMCA also developed a substantial industrial; program between 19900 and 1917. Sports fostered men’s competitive spirit, teamwork and company pride. c) Theodore Roosevelt became one of the first American devotees to jujitsu; during his presidency from 1901 to 1909, he designated a judo room in the White House and hired an expert Japanese instructor. 2. America’s Game a) In the post-Civil War years, no other sport in America was a successful as baseball. b) Big-time professional baseball arose after the war, with the launching of the National League in 1876. c) Team owners were profit-minded businessmen who shaped the sport to please fans. By 1900, boys collected lithographed cards of their favorite players, and baseball hats came into fashion. d) In 1903, the Boston Americans defeated Pittsburg Pirates in the first World Series. e) Until the 1870s, most players were clerks and white-collar workers who had their leisure time to play and the income to buy their own uniforms. After the Civil War, employers came to see baseball like other athletic pursuits, as healthy and uplifting. Additionally, baseball set a pattern for how other American sport developed. 3. Rise Of The Negro Leagues a) In the 1880s and 1890s, managers hired a few African American players into the major leagues. However, white leagues didn’t like it. These emerged as early as Reconstruction, showcasing both athletic Talen and race price. 4. American Football a) Football, which began at elite Ivy League College during the 1880s. b) Walter Camp was in the Yale Team and was a legendary coach. He emphasized drill and precision, drawing on the emerging ideals of scientific management, which taught humans to move with machinelike efficiency. c) The first professional teams emerged around the turn of the 20th century in western Pennsylvania’s steel towns. Executives of Carnegie Steel organized teams in Homestead and Braddock, and the first league appeared during the anthracite coal strike on 1902.
  4. 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e d) Like baseball, football initially encouraged men to develop their own strength and skills, but its professional from encouraged most men to buy in as spectators and fans. E. The Great Outdoors Americans started to explore the outdoor and got involved in the environment. A craze for bicycle swept the country; in 1890, the U.S. manufacturer sold an astonishing ten million bikes. Also, by the 1890s even elite women donned lighter clothes and took up sports like archery and golf. In an industrial and increasingly urban society, the outdoor became a site of leisure and renewal rather than danger and hard work. 1. Preservation a) National and state government set aside more public lands for preservation and recreation. b) During Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency, the U.S. and Roosevelt extended the reach of National Forest. By 1916, President Woodrow Wilson provided reliablemanagement oversight of the national parks, signing an act creating the National Park Service. c) The Lacey Act in 1906 allowed the U.S. president to set aside “objects of historic and scientific interest” as national monuments. d) John Muir, who fell in love with the Yosemite Valley in 1869, was one of the first famous voices of the environmental movement. Muir was an imaginative inventor who grew up on a Wisconsin Farm, but was raised in a Stern Scot Presbyterian family, and knew the Bible by heart and had a spiritual relationship with nature and the entire natural world. Muir founded the Sierra Club in 1892 and was dedicated to preserve end enjoy mountain regions. e) In 1903, Theodore Roosevelt created the first National Wildlife Refuge at Pelican Island, Florida. By the end of his term as the U.S. President, Roosevelt had signed fifty-one executive orders creating wildlife refuges in twenty territories and states. f) Many states also passed game laws to protect wildlife. g) In the South, conservationists got may game laws passes in the early 20th century, but not until the late 1910s and 1920s did judges and juries begin taking them seriously.
  5. 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e II. Women in the Public Sphere Women of all classes and backgrounds began to claim their rights to public space. A. Negotiating Public Spaces a) P.T. Barnum (1810-1891) used the country’s expanding rail network to develop his famous traveling circus. b) Barnum set out to make his show a family entertainment for audiences of all classes and races. However, in the South, Blacks sat in segregated seats. c) To make the show comfortable for women, Barnum’s circus featured female performers and emphasized their respectability and refinement. d) Railroad companies made their cars comfortable for families. However, there was an accommodation in first class cars, which opulence marked passengers’’ wealth and their desire for domesticity. e) Before the Supreme Court sanctioned segregation in 1896, blacks often succeeded in securing seats. At the turn of the century, the exclusion of blacks from first-class cars became one of the most public and painful marks of racism. f) By the late 19th century, women became the main shopper, especially in urban places. B. From Female Moral Authority To Feminism Starting in the 1880s, women’s clubs sprang up, in cities and towns across the United States. Women’s clubs began to study pollution, unsafe working conditions, and urban poverty. Maternalims was an intermediate step between domesticity and modern arguments for gender equality. 1. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union a) The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), founded in 1874 and spread rapidly after 1879 with Frances Willard as a leaders, advocated for prohibition of liquor and launched women in public reform. WCTU became the first national organization to identify and combat domestic violence. b) Middle-Class city dwellers saw a ban on drinking as beneficial to society. c) Willard advocated laws establishing an eight-hour workday and abolishing child labor. He was one of the first mainstream American reformers to call for woman’s suffrage, leading considerable amount of support to the women’s rights movement that had emerged during Reconstruction. d) Willard threw the WCTU’s influence behind a new political party, the Prohibition Party, which had considerable influence in the 1880s. The WCTU and Prohibition Party met formidable obstacles since liquor was a big business and they weren’t popular enough. Willard was discourage by the movements failure, so she retired to England and died in 1898. e) After 1900, groups took up the banner and after World War I they finally won a constitutional amendment prohibiting “the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors”. f) The movement for women’s voting rights benefited the entry of temperance support. The movement reunited in 1890 in the National American Woman Suffrage Association. g) By 1913, the majority of women living west of the Mississippi River had the vote.
  6. 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e 2. Women, Race, And Patriotism a) Patriotic activism became women’s special province in the post-Civil War decades. b) Members of the Daughter of the American Revolution (DAR), founded in 1890, devoted themselves to celebrating the memory of Revolutionary War heroes. The DAR excluded African American women. c) The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), founded in 1894 celebrated the memory of the South’s “lost cause”. The UDC’s elite southern members played a central role in shaping Americans’ memory of the Civil War by building monuments, distributing Confederate flags, and donating portraits of Robert E. Lee to Southern schools. d) African American women by 1896 created the National Association of Colored Women to gain community support. Black club women arranged for the care of orphans, founded home for elderly, worked for temperance, and undertook public health campaigns. e) The largest African American group arose with the National Baptist Church (NBC), which by 1906 represented 2.4 million churchgoers. Founded in 1900, the Women’s Convention of the NBC promoted and funded night schools, health clinics, kindergartens, day care centers, and outreach programs for men and women in prison. 3. Feminism a) The National Trade Union Leagues, founded in New York in 1903, trained working-class leaders. b) When New York States held suffrage votes in 1915 and 1917, strong support came from Jewish and Italian grounds where many unionized garment workers lived. c) A famous site of sexual rebellion was New York’s Greenwich Village, where radical intellectuals created a vibrant community by the 1910s. d) Women in Greenwich Village founded her Heterodoxy Club (1912); open to any woman who pledged not to be “orthodox in her opinions”. e) Feminism: the advocacy of women's rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men. f) As women entered the public sphere, feminists argued that they should not just fulfill Victorian expectation of self-sacrifice for others, but also work on their behalf. C. Domesticity And Missions a) In San Francisco, elite and middle-class white women built a rescue home for Chinese women who had been sold into sexual slavery. The project made white residents mad because they hated Chinese immigrants. The project helped Chinese women scape prostitution, and let them start a new family. b) By 1915, American religious organizations sponsored more than nine thousand overseas missionaries. These workers were supported at home by missionary society volunteers, including more than three million women. c) By the turn of the century, many unmarried women went overseas as missionary administrators, teachers, doctors, and nurses. And in many places, missionaries won converts, in part by offering medical care and promoting scientific progress and women’s education.
  7. 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e III. Science and Faith The late 19th century brought increasing public attention to another kind of belief: faith in science. By 1900, paleontologists had traced the rise and fall of the dinosaurs, and many scientists and people accepted the theory of evolution. By the 1910s, astronomers had identified distant galaxies and scientists could measure the speed of light. A. Darwinism And Its Critics a) Evolution is the idea that species are not fixed, but ever changing. This theory was not a simple idea on which all scientists agreed in the late 19th century. In nature, Darwin argued that all creatures struggle to survive and when individual members of a species are born with a random genetic mutation, it helps them to better fit in their particular environment. These survival characteristics become dominant as future generations inherit it. b) Social Darwinism:a sociological theory that sociocultural advance is the product of intergroup conflict and competition and the socially elite classes (as those possessing wealth and power) possess biological superiority in the struggle for existence. c) Many scientists accepted evolutionary ideas but rejected Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection: organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. d) Some Americans embraced Eugenics, a so called science of human breeding. Eugenicists argued that mentally deficient people should be prevented from reproducing. In early 20th-century-America, almost half of the states enacted eugenic laws. e) Eugenicist helped win passage of immigration restriction in the 1920s. B. Realism In The Arts a) American authors rebelled against the 19th century’s most important artistic movement of Romanticism. Instead they took up literary Realism: the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. b) Stephen Crane and Jack London help create literary Naturalism: human beings were not so much rational agents and shapers of their own destinies, but blind victims of forces beyond their control- including their own subconscious impulses and desires. c) Samuel Langhorne Clemens/Mark Twain became one of the bitterest voices criticizing America’s idea of progress. He denounces Christianity as a hypocritical delusion. d) Realist and Naturalists writers had laid the groundwork for literary Modernism: rejection of traditional canons of literary taste and sought to overturn convention and tradition. Modernism became the first great literary and artistic movement of the 20th century. e) The Nebraska-born artist Robert Henri became fascinate by the eastern cities. Henri and John Sloan called themselves New York Realists. In 1903, New York Realists participated in one of the most controversial events in American art history, the Armory Show. f) A striking feature of both realism and modernism was what that many of the movements leading writers and artists were men.
  8. 8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e g) These writers and artists contributed to a broad movement to masculinize American culture. C. Religion: Diversity And Innovation By the turn of the 20th century, new scientific, literary, and artistic idea posed a significant challenge to religious faith. By 1920, almost two million children attended Catholic elementary schools instead of public schools, and Catholic dioceses across the country operated more than fifteen hundred high schools. The era of mass immigration and the rise of great cities was marked by both religious innovations and tension among people or different faiths. 1. Immigrant Faiths a) Arriving in the United States in dominant assumptions and belief of Protestants, Catholics and Jews wrestled with many changes. The Catholic hierarchy, dominated by Irishmen, felt that the integrity of the church itself was at stake. b) In the late 19th century, many prosperous native-born American Jews embraced Reform Judaism. 2. Protestant Innovations a) Protestants found their religious beliefs challenged by modern ideas and ways of life. b) Overall, in 1916, Protestants(~60%) still constituted a majority of Americans affiliated with religious body c) Social Gospel: Christian faith practiced as a call not just to personal conversion but to social reform. d) The Salvation Army, which arrived from Great Britain in 1879, spread a message of repentance among the urban poor, offering assistance programs that ranged from soup kitchens to shelters for former prostitutes. e) The Salvation Army succeeded because it managed to bridge an emerging divide between Social Gospel reformers and Protestants who were taking a different theological path. f) By the 1910s, a network or churches and Bible institutes emerged from conferences/ these Protestants called their movement Fundamentalism: the belief in the fundamental truth of the Bible and its central place in Christian Faith. g) The pioneer modern evangelist was Dwight L. Moody, a former Chicago show salesman and YMCA official who won fame in the 1870s. Moody’s successor, Billy Sunday (1862-1935), a former professional baseball player and Protestant Preacher, helped bring evangelism into the modern era and tool political stances that were grounded in his Protestant beliefs. h) Sunday supported some progressive reform cause; he opposed child labor, and advocated voting rights for women. i) His views anticipated the nativism and antiradicalism that would dominate American politics after World War I. j) Billy Sunday found his own way to break free of the influence of the Victorian Era, and to participate in the project of “masculinizing” American culture. k) Sunday’s revivals showed that older belief and valued would endure in new forms.