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Chapter 16 study guide
Chapter 16 study guide
Chapter 16 study guide
Chapter 16 study guide
Chapter 16 study guide
Chapter 16 study guide
Chapter 16 study guide
Chapter 16 study guide
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Chapter 16 study guide

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  • 1. Republican dominated Congress and made vigorous use of federal power, launching the transcontinental rail project, developing a new national baking system, and passing the Homestead Act. Congress also raised the Protective tariff on a range of manufactured goods, from textile to steel, and on some agricultural products. The massive economic depression that began in 1873 set limits on Republicans’ ambitious economic program, just as it hindered the Reconstruction policies in the South. Railroads development in the United States began well before the Civil War, with the first locomotives arriving before Britain in the early 1830’s. The U.S. chose the private approach when building railroads and its investment but the federal government provided essential incentives in the form of loans, subsidies and land grants. With it, railroads enjoyed an enormous boom and by 1900, virtually no corner of the country lacked rail service. a) The Civil War had left the Union with staggering debt of $2.8 billion. Tariff income, which totaled $2.1 billion during the 1800’s alone, erased that best in two decades and then generated huge surpluses. b) Protective tariffs play a powerful role in economic growth. Along with other policies that promoted development, they helped transform the United States from a largely agricultural country into a world of Industrial power. c) Protective tariffs helped foster trust, corporations that dominated whole sector of the economy and wielded monopoly or near-monopoly power. a) The rise of railroads and other giant corporations prompted many proposals for government regulation of these monster enterprises. b) In Munn V. Illinois (1877), the United States Supreme Court acknowledged that states did have the right to regulate those businesses that served important public purposes. c) Even the US took control over New Mexico and Arizona after the Mexican War (1846-1846), there was a slow economic progress. d) Between 1891 and 1904, the court invalidated most traditional land claims. Mexican Americans lost about 61% of the contested lands on which the court ruled. Much of the land was sold or appropriated through legal machinations like those of a notorious group of politicians and Santa Fe Ring lawyers. a) Great Britain had long been on Gold Standard. During the 1870 and 1880, the United States, Germany, France, Norway, and other countries also converted to gold. b) The United States switched to Gold Standards in part because treasury officials and financiers were watching developments out West. It directed the US Treasury to case mining silver dollars, and over a six-year period, to retire the Greenbacks
  • 2. that had been issued during the Civil War and replace them with notes from an expanded system of national Banks. c) Railroads and telegraphs tied the nation together. US manufacturers amassed staggering amounts of capita; and built corporations of national and even global scope. a) Britain agreed afterwards to submit to arbitration and pay the United States $15.5 million in damage. Many Americans expected more British or Spanish territories to all easily into the Union’s lap. Senator Charles Sumner initially proposed that Britain settle the Alabama claims by handing over Canada. b) The United States established dominant presence in the Hawaiian Islands, where US whalers and merchants ships stopped for food and repairs. Both the US Navy and private shippers wanted more refueling points in the Caribbean’ and Pacific. c) Americans wanted refueling station in Japan because supposedly international trade would extend what one missionary called “commerce, knowledge, and Christianity, with their multiplied blessings”. In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry succeeded in getting Japanese officials to sign a treaty at Kanagawa, allowing US Ships to refuel in two parts. By 1858, American and Japan had commerce trade, and a US consul took up residence in the Japanese capital, Edo or Tokyo. d) On May 5th , 1867, Mexico overthrew the French invaders and executed Emperor Maximilian, which is now celebrated as Cinco de Mayo. So, Mexico without and Emperor backing them up, t lay open to an economic design of its increasingly powerful Northern neighbor. e) William Sewards was the Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, under Lincoln and Johnson, but was Lincoln main rival for the presidential nomination in 1860. Seward urged the Senate to purchase sites in both the Pacific and the Caribbean for naval bases and refueling stations. He dispatched US Navy vessels to join those of Britain, France, and the Netherlands. He also, predicted that the United States would one day claim the Philippines and build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. However, he achieved only two significant victories: in 1868, he secured congressional approval for the Burlingame Treaty with China, which guaranteed the rights of the US missionaries in China and set of official terms for emigration of Chinese laborer. Finally, he negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia. f) The United States laid foundations for its military and economic ascendance closer to home, through final conquest of the American West.
  • 3. Republicans sought to attract families to the West through the Homestead Act, which gave free public plots of 160 acres each to applicants who occupied and improved them. They also hoped that hardworking families would cross the Mississippi River, claim homestead, and help build up a continental empire. In 1862, Congress created the federal Department of Agriculture to conduct research and distribute experimental seeds and advice to farmers. In that same year, the Congress set aside 140 million acres of federal land to be sold by the states to raise money for public universities through the Merrill Act. Moreover, European investors sank millions into mines and cattle operations. Railroads overlapped the West, and home steaders and their families filed land claims by the thousands. The United States began to fully exploit its continental resources. a) In the 1870’shunters decreased the amount of animals in the US territories. b) In 1865, the Missouri Pacific Railroad reached Sedalia, Missouri, far enough West to be accessible as the Confederacy surrendered and Texas reentered the Union. Texas ranchers inaugurated the Long Drive, hiring cowboys to her cattle hundreds of miles North to the new rail lines, which extended to Kansas. c) North of Texas, the grass was free and open lands drew investors and adventures eager for a taste of the West. By the early 1800’s, as many as 7.5 million cattle were destroying the native grasses and trampling water holes on the plains, which created long-term ecological destruction. However, thanks to new strategies, cattle ranching survived and became part of the integrated national economy. Ranchers had abandoned the Long Drive as railroads reached Texas in the 1870’s. d) Hispanic shepherds from New Mexico also brought sheep to feed on the mesquite and prickly pear displaced native grasses. e) In the late 1850’s, as easy picking in the California gold rush reduced, prospectors had spread across the West in hoped of striking in rich somewhere else. They found gold at many sites, including Nevada, the Colorado Rockies, and in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Almost at the same time, booming California created a market for timber and produce from the Pacific Northwest. By the 1880’s, Portland and Seattle flowered into populous and important commercial centers. Powerful interest worked hard to overcome the popular idea that the grassland was the Great American Desert. Additionally, newcomers found the soil beneath the native prairie grasses deep and fertile. European immigrants brought strains of hard-kernel wheat that tolerated the extreme temperatures of the plains. When severe depression hot Northern Europe in the 1870’s, Norwegians and Swedes joined German emigrants in large numbers. At the peak of “American fever” in 1882, more than 105,000 Scandinavians left for the United States. Swedish and Norwegian became the primary languages in parts of Minnesota and the Dakotas.in 1879, some blacks communities chose to leave the South in a quest to scape poverty and white vengeance. They called themselves Exodusters and in the 1800 census reported 40,000 blacks in Kansas, which was the greatest population than in any other state.
  • 4. a) Women and children played critical role in running farms, which was the reason why farmers help a special place in republicans’ vision of a transformed nation. b) Women were committed to home, motherhood, and female Christian charity c) Amid the upheaval of Reconstruction, Polygamy and women’s voting rights became intertwined political controversies d) Wyoming Territory was the first to grants women full voting rights, in 1869. Western women could run for public office and helping government posts more often than in any other region in the country. Kansas women took the lead: Argonia in 1887, six towns elected women as mayors, and Oskaloosa boasted the nation’s first all-female city council. In the late 19th century because of the technological innovation and global expansion of export agriculture, farm products flooded world markets. In some years during the 1880’s, the price of corn fell so low that Iowa farmers found it more cost-effective to keep their r harvest and burn it in their stoves winter heat than to sell it. Farers faced another problem: they were individual businessmen in a marketplace that rewarded economic of scale. By the late 1880’s, some recently settled lands emptied as homesteaders fled in defeat. Around the 20th century, about half the nation’s cattle and sheep, one-third of its cereal crop, and nearly three-fifths of its wheat came from the Great Plains. In the 20th century, this renowned breadbasket was revealed to be one of the biggest agricultural disasters in American history. John Wesley Powell, veteran of the Battle of Shiloh, predicted this disaster. Powell, employed by the US Geological Survey, led celebrated expeditions in the West. He told the Congress bluntly that individual 160-acre homesteads would not work in dry regions. He proposed that the government develop the West’s water resources, building dams and canals and organizing landowners into local districts. Even though he was right, the Congress rejected his plan. a) As early as 1864, congress gave 10 square miles of the Yosemite Valley to California for “public use, resort, and recreation”. b) Congress responded in 1872 by setting aside 2 million acres of Wyoming’s Yellowstone Valley as a public park. Yellowstone and Yosemite became symbols of national pride, grander than Europe’s castles. The creation was an early, important step towards public ethnic of preservation and respect for land and wildlife. c) The US Army was dispatched to take charge of Yellowstone; only in the 1890’s and early 1900’s did consistent management policies emerge. d) In 1877, the federal government forcibly removed the Nez Perce tribe from their ancestral land in Idaho and tried to flee to Canada. For 13 days, Nez Perce men raided the valley for supplies. So it would be protected, in 1867 and 1868 treaties of the US signed that Indians could hunt safely but protect the wildlife.
  • 5. Congress reserved the Great Pains for nomadic people way before the Civil War. But in the era of railroads, steel plows, and Union victory, Americans suddenly had the power and desire to incorporate the whole plains. a) In August 1862, the attention of most Unionists and Confederates was riveted on Generals George McClellan’s failed campaign on the Chesapeake Bay Peninsula. In 1858, the Dakota Sioux agreed to settle on a strip of and reserved for them by the government, in exchange for receiving regular payments and supplies. But Indian agents, contractors, and even Minnesota’s territorial governor pocketed most of the funds meant for the Dakotas. b) Corruption was so egregious that one leading Minnesota clergyman, Episcopal bishop Henry Whipple predicted its outcome. He was right. In the summer of 1862, a decade of anger boiled over. In a surprise attack, Dakota warriors fanned out through the Minnesota countryside, killing settlers and burning farms. A hastily appointed military court sentence 307 Dakotas to death. Dakotas were hanged just after Christmas 1862 in the largest mass execution in US history. c) The Civil War had created two dangerous conditions in the West: the Union Army fighting the Confederacy and fearful westerner found that when they chose to, they could fight Indians with minimal federal oversight. Colorado militia leader John M. Chivington, an aspiring politician, determined to quell public anxiety and make his own career. In May 1864, Chivington’s militia attacked a Cheyenne encampment, shooting down a chief who had made peace terms with the United States. For this, on November 29, 1864, Chivington’s Colorado militia attacked Sand creek in astern Colorado while most of the warriors were out hunting. General William Tecumseh Sherman swore to defeat the Plain Indians. In 1868, the Sioux, led by Oglala band under Chief Red Cloud, told a peace commission they would not sign any treaty unless the United States pledged to abandon all its forts along the Bozeman Trail. Ulysses S. Grant inherited an Indian policy in disarray when he entered the White House. There was a mass killing of friendly Indians in January 1870, this time on the Marias River in Montana, by an army detachment that shot and burned to death 173 Piegan (Blackfoot) women and children. Reformers aimed to destroy native languages, culture, and religions. a) Assimilation (adoption of white rays) was difficult when children lived at home, agents and missionaries worked hard to enroll children in off-reservation schools. b) Indians were dislocated and placed somewhere else where they were easily exposed to foreign diseases and infections. In the meantime, Quaker,
  • 6. Presbyterian, and Methodist reformers fought nasty turf battle among themselves and with Catholic missionaries. c) In 1871, the House of Representatives passed a bill to abolish all treaty making with Indians. Eventually, the US Supreme Court ruled in Lone Wolf V. Hitchcock (1903) that Congress could make whatever Indian policies it chose, ignoring all existing treaties. There ruling remained in force until the New Deal of the 1930’s. a) Reformers made another effort to assimilate them through the Dawes Severalty Act passed in 1887. This act was the dreams of Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts and leader of the Indian Rights Association. He hoped to break up tribal landholding and give Indians severalty by dividing reservations into homestead. b) The Dawes Act was a disaster. The bureau of India Affairs (BIA) implemented the law carelessly. Before the Dawes Act, American Indians had held more than 155 million acres of land across the United States: by 1900, this had dropped to 77 million acres. c) By the time of the Indian Reorganization, native people had also lost 66% of their individually chosen lands through fraud, BIA mismanagement, and pressure to sell whites. Americans by the mid-1870s believed that they had solved the “Indian Problem” in the lands West of the Mississippi. The Navajo (or Diné) people, exiled under horrific conditions during the Civil War, were permitted to reoccupy their traditional homeland and abandoned further military resistance. a) In 1984, the Lakotas faced a direct provocation. General Armstrong Custer led an expedition into South Dakota’s lack hill and loudly proclaimed the discovery of gold. The United States, reneging on its 1868 treaty, pressured Sioux leaders to sell the Black Hills, but the chief said no. however, the government demanded in 1876 that all Sioux at the federal agencies. b) Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapahos, and refused to report and joined SittingBull. c) On June 25-26, General Custer had led 210 men of the Seventh Cavalry in an ill- considered assault on Sitting Bull’s camp beside the Little big Horn River in Montana. d) Long after American forgot the massacre of Cheyenne women and children at Sand creek and Piegan people on the Marias River, prints of the Battle of Little Big Horn hung in bathrooms across the country. a) Indian people had to try and fit in with the white by attending to school, learning English and dressing like them, so they wouldn’t be excluded from places and highlighted as different.
  • 7. b) The Ghost dance movement in the late 1880’s fostered the hope that native people could, through sacred dances, resurrect the bison and create a great storm that would drive whites back across the Atlantic. The ghost dance drew significant Christina elements as well as native ones. c) However, the outcome of the Ghost dance movement led to lethal exertion of authority by misunderstanding whites. When a group of Lakota Sioux Ghost dancers left their South Dakota reservation after police there killed sitting Bill in December 1890, they were pursued by the US Seventh Cavalry, in the fear that further spread of the Ghost Dance would provoke war. d) General William T. Sherman died in New York less than two months after the Wounded Knee massacre. e) At his death in 1891, the nation boasted forty-four states, in settled territory stretching to the Pacific Coast. f) The United States now resembled Britain and Germany as an industrial successor, and its dynamic economy was drawing immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Eastern and Southern Europe to join those from African and Western Europe.

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