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Chapter 14 study guide Chapter 14 study guide Document Transcript

  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e CHAPTER 14: TWO SOCIETIES AT WAR, 1861-1865 I. SUCCESSION AND MILITARY STALEMATE, 1861-1862 A . T H E S U C C E S S I O N C R I S I S 1. The Lower South Secedes 2. The Crittenden Compromise B . T H E U P P E R S O U T H C H O O S E S S I D E S C . S E T T I N G W A R O B J E C T I V E S A N D D E V I S I N G S T R A T E G I E S 1. Union Trusts Towards Richmond 2. Lee Mover North: Antietam 3. The War Of The Mississippi Valley II. TOWARDS TOTAL WAR A . M O B I L I Z I N G A R M I E S A N D C I V I L I A N S 1. The Military Draft 2. Women In Wartime B . M O B I L I Z I N G R E S O U R C E S 1. Republican Economic And Fiscal Policies 2. The South Resorts To Coercion And Inflation III. THE TURNING POINT: 1863 A . E M A N C I P A T I O N 1. “Contrabands” 2. The Emancipation Proclamation B . V I C K S B U R G A N D G E T T Y S B U R G 1. The Battle Or The Mississippi 2. Lee’s Advance And Defeat IV. THE UNION VICTORIOUS, 1864-1865 A . S O L D I E R S A N D S T R A T E G Y 1. The Impact Of Black Troops 2. Capable Generals Take Command 3. Stalemate B . T H E E L E C T I O N O F 1 8 6 4 A N D S H E R M A N ’ S M A R C H 1. The National Union Party Versus The Peace Democrats 2. The Fall Of Atlanta And Lincoln’s Victory 3. William Tecumseh Sherman: “Hard War” Warrior 4. The Confederate Collapse
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e I. SUCCESSION AND MILITARY STALEMATE, 1861-1862 A . T H E S U C C E S S I O N C R I S I S 1. The Lower South Secedes a) In early January, white Mississippians happilypassed a secession order. Then Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas left the union. Then in February, the proud secessionists met in Montgomery, Alabama to proclaim a new nation: the Confederate States of America.They adopted a new constitution and named Jefferson Davis as its provisional president. b) The Civil War was called the “War between the States” by Southerners, and the “War of Rebellion” by Northerners. c) On December 20, 1860, the South Carolina convention voted to secede from the Union; “Fire-Eaters” elsewhere in the Deep South quickly followed. d) Secessionist passion was less intense in the slave states of the Upper South, and their leaders proposed federal guarantees for slavery in states where it existed.In December 1860 President James Buchanan declared secession illegal but denied that the federal government had the authority. 2. The Crittenden Compromise a) The plan proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky received the most support, his plain had two parts: the first was the one that the Congress approves, which called for constitutional amendment to protect slavery from federal interference in any state where it already existed; the second was unapproved by Congressional Republicans because he wanted Westward extension of the Missouri Compromise line (36o30’ North latitude) to the California border. b) Lincoln upheld the first part of the Crittenden plan to protect slavery where it already existed but was not willing to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the California border.Lincoln declared that secession was illegal and that acts against the Union constituted rebellion. Lincoln would apply federal laws and continue to possess federal property in seceded states. c) President Buchanan ordered the resupply of the fort by an unarmed merchant ship. When South Carolinians fired on the ship, Buchanan refused to order the navy to guide it into the harbor. d) South Carolina wanted the surrender of Fort Sumter, a federal garrison in Charleston Harbor.
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e B . T H E U P P E R S O U T H C H O O S E S S I D E S a) When Lincoln dispatched an unarmed ship to resupply Fort Sumter, Jefferson Davis and his associates in the Provisional Government of the Confederate States decided to seize the fort. Jefferson Davis forced the surrender of Fort Sumter on April 14, 1861; Lincoln called in state militiamen to put down the insurrection.Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and NorthCarolina joined the Confederacy after thefall of Fort Sumter. After Lincoln interfered,Missouri, Delaware,Maryland, andKentucky stayed with the Union. b) Although some Northerners were wary of Lincoln’s Republican administration, they remained supportive of the Union cause and responded positively to Lincoln’s call for the mobilization of the militias. c) The states of Middle and Border Southwere forced to choose sides in the dispute.Support from these states was crucial tothe Confederacy because of these states’high populations and access to industryand fuel. d) In October 1861, the Yeoman dominated electorate voted to set up a separate breakaway territory, West Virginia (admitted into the Union in 1863). C . S E T T I N G W A R O B J E C T I V E S A N D D E V I S I N G S T R A T E G I E S Jefferson Davis’s focus was on the defense of the Confederacy rather than conquering western territories; the Confederacy only needed a military stalemate to guarantee independence. Lincoln portrayed secession as an attack on popular government, and he insisted on an aggressive military strategy and a policy of unconditional surrender. 1. Union Trusts Towards Richmond a) In July 1861 General Irwin McDowell and 30,000 troops were routed by P. G. T. Beauregard’s force of 20,000 Confederate troops near Manassas Creek or also called Bull Run b) Lincoln replaced McDowell with George B. McClellan and enlisted an additional million men, who would serve for three years in the newly created Army of the Potomac.In 1862 McClellan launched a thrust toward Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, but he moved too slowly and allowed the Confederates to standanattack. c) Washington was threatened when a Confederate army under “Stonewall” Jackson marched north up the Shenandoah Valley in western Virginia and Jackson won a series of small actions, tying down the larger Union forces. Jackson returned quickly to Richmond to bolster the main Confederate army commanded by General Robert E. Lee. Lee launched a ferocious attack that lasted from June 25 to July 1.
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e 2. Lee Mover North: Antietam a) General Robert E. Lee launched an attack outside Richmond and suffered heavy casualties, but McClellan failed to use the advantage, and Richmond stayed secured. b) Jackson and Lee routed a Union army in the Second Battle of Bull Run in August 1862. c) The battle at Antietam Creek on September 17, 1862, was the bloodiest single day in U.S. military history. Jackson’s troops arrived just in time to save Lee’s troops from defeat. d) Lincoln replaced General McClellan with Ambrose E. Burnside, who later resigned and was replaced by Joseph (“Fighting Joe”) Hooker. 3. The War Of The Mississippi Valley a) The Union dominated the Ohio River Valley, and in 1862 General Ulysses S. Grant took Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River. b) Union victories in the West had significantly damaged Confederate strength in the Mississippi Valley. c) In April a Confederate army caught Grant by surprise near Shiloh and Grant forced a Confederate removal but suffered a great number of losses. d) Union naval forces commanded by David G. Farragut captured NewOrleans, the South’s financial center and largest city, giving it a base for future maritime operations.
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e II. TOWARDS TOTAL WAR The Civil War resembled the total was, which means that the government mobilized the entire resources of their societies and decreed that the lives and property of enemy civilians were legitimate object to attack, that would come in the 20th century. A . M O B I L I Z I N G A R M I E S A N D C I V I L I A N S 1. The Military Draft a) After the defeat at Shiloh in April 1862, the Confederate Congress imposed the first legally binding draft in American history.The Confederate draft had two gaps: it excused one white man for each twenty slaves on a plantation, and it allowed drafted men to hire alternatives. b) To prevent damage and rigorousbattles to the war effort in the Union, Lincoln postponedHabeas Corpus and imprisoned about 15,000 Confederate sympathizers without trial. He also extended martial law to civilians who resisted the draft. c) The Union government’s Militia Act of 1862 set a quota of volunteers for each state, which was increased by the Enrollment Act of 1863. The Northerners could hire replacements.Hostility to the Enrollment Act of 1863 draft and to African Americans fell into New York City when Irish and German workers fired thehomes of Republicans, killed a dozen African Americans, and forced hundreds of black families from their homes. Lincoln rushed in Union troops to stop the revolt d) In 1861, prominent New Yorkers established the U.S. Sanitary Commission to provide medical services and prevent the spread of epidemic disease among the troops. Despite these efforts, dysentery, typhoid, and malaria spread through the camps. Diseased and infections killed about 250,000 Union soldiers. For this cause, women also played a role, which made thousands of them volunteer as nurses even though the Confederate army’s health system was poorly organized. 2. Women In Wartime a) The Union Army Medical Bureau and the United States Sanitary Commission provided medical services to the soldiers and tried to prevent deaths from disease, which killed more men than fighting. b) Women took a leading role in the Sanitary Commission and wartime agencies and Dorothea Dix was the 1stwoman to receive a big federal job. c) Women ran growing bureaucracies, volunteered as nurses, and filled positions traditionally held by men.A number of women took on military duties as spies, scouts, and (disguised as men) soldiers.
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e B . M O B I L I Z I N G R E S O U R C E S The Union entered the war with a distinct advantage because its economy was far superior to the South’s, and its arms factories were equipped for mass production. Richmond with its Tredegar Iron Works was an important manufacturing center, and in 1861 its armory acquired the gun-making machinery from the U.S. armory at Harpers Ferry. Confederate leaders counted in King Cotton to purchase clothes, boots, blankets, and weapons from abroad. Although Britain never recognized the Confederacy as an Independent nation, it treated the rebel government as an aggressive power. 1. Republican Economic And Fiscal Policies a) To boost agricultural output, the Republicans offered “Free Land” to farmers. The Homestead Act of 1862 gave settlers the tittle to 160 acres of public land after five years of residency. b) The Confederates had substantial industrial capacity, and by 1863 they were able to provide every infantryman with a modern rifled-musket. c) Expansion to the Pacific, the California Gold Rush, and more discoveries of gold, silvers, copper, and other metals in Nevada, Montana, and other Western lands had revived demands. In 1862, Congress hired the Union’s Pacific and Central Pacific companies to build a transcontinental railroad line and granted them lavish subsides. d) The Legal Tender Act of 1862 authorized$150 million in paper currency, known as Greenbacks, and required the public to accept them as legal tender. Greenbacks couldn’t be exchanged for specie 2. The South Resorts To Coercion And Inflation a) The Confederate government’s economic policy was less coherent. The Davis administration built and operated shipyards, armories, foundries, and textile mills; commandeered food and raw materials; and requisitioned slaves to work on forts. b) The Confederacy lacked a central government. It financed about 60 % of its expenses with unbacked paper money that created inflation. This caused the citizens’ property rights to be violated in order to sustain the war. By 1865, the prices had risen to ninety-two times their 1861 level.
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e III. THE TURNING POINT: 1863 A . E M A N C I P A T I O N 1. “Contrabands” a) As war lossesarose in 1862, Lincoln and some Republican leaders accepted Frederick Douglass’s argument and began to redefine the war as a fight against slavery. b) Exploiting the disorder of wartime, tens of thousands of slaves escaped and sought refuge behind Union lines, where they were known as “contrabands.” c) Congress passed the First Confiscation Act in 1861 to authorize the seizure of all property and slaves used to support the rebellion. d) In April 1862 Congress passed legislation ending slavery in the District of Columbia, and in June it enacted the Wilmot Proviso saying that the slaves were “Forever Free”. 2. The Emancipation Proclamation a) The president drafted a general proclamation of emancipation in July 1862, and he publicly linked black freedom with the preservation of the Union in August. Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation of emancipation on Septermber22, 1862, and based its legal authority on his duty as commander in chief tosuppress the rebellion. The proclamation stated that slavery would be legally abolished in all states that remained out of the Union on January 1, 1863. This proclamation changed the nature of the conflict: Union troops became agents of liberation. b) To reassure Northerners who sympathized with the South or feared race warfare, Lincoln urged slaves to abstain from all violence. B . V I C K S B U R G A N D G E T T Y S B U R G 1. The Battle Or The Mississippi a) Vicksburg, Mississippi, surrendered to the Union army on July 4, 1863, and Port Hudson, Louisiana, five days later, establishing Union control of the Mississippi. b) Grant had cut off Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas from the rest of the Confederacy; this caused hundreds of slaves to desert their plantations. c) The battle at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was a great Union victory and the most fatal battle of the Civil War.
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e 2. Lee’s Advance And Defeat a) In June 1863, Lee maneuvered his army North through Maryland into Pennsylvania. Then on July 1, Lee and the Army of the Potomac met by accident at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and brought up a confrontation. After Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Republicans gained political gains in their elections, while Confederate elections went sharply against politicians who supported Davis. b) The Confederates’ defeats at Vicksburg and Gettysburg ended their hope of winning overseasrespect and obtaining advanced weapons from the British. c) British manufacturers were no longer reliant on the South for cotton, but instead, they were dependent on the North for cheap wheat.
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 8 | P a g e IV. THE UNION VICTORIOUS, 1864-1865 A . S O L D I E R S A N D S T R A T E G Y 1. The Impact Of Black Troops a) Lincoln initially refused to consider blacks for military service; however, by 1862 many African Americans had formed their own troops in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Kansas. b) The Emancipation Proclamation changed popular thinking and military policy. Northern whites argued that if blacks were benefitted from a Union victory, they should share the fighting and dying. c) As white resistance increased, the Lincoln administration was recruiting as many African Americans as it could. d) Military service did not end racial discrimination, yet African Americans volunteered for Union military service in uneven numbers. 2. Capable Generals Take Command a) Lincoln set Ulysses S. Grant in charge of all Union armies and directed him to progress against all major Confederate forces at once because they wanted a decisive victory before the election of 1864. b) Grant knew how to fight a modern war that relied on technology and focused on an entire society, and was willing to accept heavy losses in attacks on strongly defended positions. c) Lee was barely victorious in the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House. At Cold Harbor, Grant almost destroyed Lee’sforces;however the Union losses were even greater. 3. Stalemate a) Union and Confederate soldiers suffered through longconflict around Richmond and Petersburg. The enormous losses and military stalemate endangered Lincoln with defeat in the November 1864 election. b) To punish farmers who provided a base for Jubal Early and food for Lee’s army, Grant ordered General Philip H. Sheridan to turn the region into a “Barren Waste.”Grant’s decision to carry the war to Confederate civilians changed the conventional warfare. B . T H E E L E C T I O N O F 1 8 6 4 A N D S H E R M A N ’ S M A R C H 1. The National Union Party Versus The Peace Democrats a) In June 1864 the Republican convention permitted Lincoln’s war, demanded the surrender of the Confederacy, and called for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery.
  • Lucero Castaneda AP U.S. History Ms.Lampley 9 | P a g e b) The Republican Party temporarily renamed itself the National Union Party and voted Democrat Andrew Johnson for vice president. c) The Democratic convention nominated General George McClellan, who promised to praise an immediate settlement and peace convention if elected. 2. The Fall Of Atlanta And Lincoln’s Victory a) On September 2, 1864, William T. Sherman forced the surrender of Atlanta, Georgia and the success gave Lincoln a victory in November. b) The pace of emancipation accelerated and then Maryland, Missouri, Louisiana,Tennessee, and Arkansas freed their slaves. c) On January 31, 1865, the Republican dominated Congress approved the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery throughout the United States. 3. William Tecumseh Sherman: “Hard War” Warrior a) Sherman failed to follow the Confederate army into Tennessee after the capture of Atlanta, so instead he wanted something that would devastate Georgia and get a mental victory.After burning Atlanta, Sherman destroyed railroads, property, and supplies during his march to the sea, so many Confederate soldiers left and went home to protect their farms and families. b) In February 1865, Sherman invaded South Carolina with a desire to causerevenge upon the state where secession had begun.Because of class anger from poor whites, the Confederacy had a manpower absence that was going to arm the slaves in exchange for their freedom. c) The end to the war was on April 9, 1865, when Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, and by May the Confederate army and government was down. 4. The Confederate Collapse a) For the South, the Union armies had destroyed slavery and the Confederacy and much of the South’s economy. Almost 260,000 Confederate soldiers paid for secession with their lives. b) For the North, the struggle had conserved the Union and destroyed slavery, but the cost of victory was huge in money, resources, and lives because 360,000 Union soldiers died and many were injured.