Chapter 12 study guide


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Chapter 12 study guide

  1. 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e CHAPTER 12 STUDY GUIDE I. Creating The Cotton South A) The Domestic Slave Trade 1. The Upper South Exports Slaves 2. The Impact On Blacks B) The Dual Cultures of the Planter Elite 1. The Traditional Southern Gentry 2. The Ideology and Reality Of “Benevolence” C) Planters, Smallholding Yeomen, and Tenants 1. Planters Elite 2. Smallholding Planters and Yeomen 3. Poor Freemen D) The Settlements of Texas E) The Politics of Democracy 1. The Politics And Taxation 2. The Paradox Of Southern Prosperity II) The African American World A) Evangelical Black Protestantism 1. Black Protestantism B) Forging Families and Creating Cultures 1. African Influences C) Negotiating Rights D) The Free Black Population 1. Northern Free Blacks 2. Standing For Freedom In The South I) Creating The Cotton South
  2. 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e A) The Domestic Slave Trade The white people and slave holders believed that the large amount of slavery could keep growing and bringing benefit to them. 1. The Upper South Exports Slaves a) The south plantation system was increasing very fast and creating a better economy, however, slavery was growing.The population of blacks was growing naturally, an average of 27 percent per decade, creating a surplus of slave laborers. b) The slave states grew from eight in 1800 to fifteen by 1850. Between 1776and 1809 the Atlantic Slave Trade was outlawed; yet 115,000 Africans were brought to the US. c) By 1817 the southern plantation system was rapidly expanding, as was the demand for slave labor.By 1860 the slave frontier extended into Texas.The federal government played a major role in this expansion of slavery by securing Louisiana from the French in 1803, removing Indians from the southeastern states in the 1830s, and annexing Texas and Mexican territories in the 1840s. d) To cultivate this vast area, white planters turned first to Africa for slaves and then to the Chesapeake region. 2. The Impact On Blacks a) Henry Clay was a Whig politician and also a slave holder that knew that property rights were a key to slave discipline b) After the War of 1812 the internal slave trade expanded rapidly in size and scope, boosting the southern economy.High demand for slaves created a forced migration that was massive in scale, leading to the transfer of one million African Americans from the upper to the New South. c) The marriages of the slaves were unbroken, strong and their children lived with both or one parent. The impact on slave families was deep, including breaking up families and destroying one in four marriages even if they tried to keep their marriage. Despite sales, slave families remained strong. Many slave marriages remained unbroken, and the majority of children lived with one or both parents until puberty. d) By 1860 a majority of African Americans lived and worked in the New South.The internal slave trade took two forms: a coastal system through the Atlantic seaports and inland commerce using river and roads.Few southern whites questioned the morality of the domestic slave trade. B) The Dual Cultures of the Planter Elite Wealth was basically what defined who were the top class and the bottom class, and the Small Elite of wealthy families stood at the top of the Southern society. 1. The Traditional Southern Gentry a) Westward movement had a profound impact on the small elite of approximately three thousand wealthy planter families of southern society.The plantation elite consisted of two groups: traditional aristocrats of the Old South, and the market-driven entrepreneurs who made their wealth in the cotton industry.The Old South Gentry
  3. 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e dominated the Tidewater region of the Chesapeake and the low country of South Carolina and Georgia b) Tobacco and rice cultivation in the Chesapeake and Carolinas produced a wealthy class of southern planters by 1700. c) The Aristocratic culture survived the Revolution of 1776 and took a republican character d) Planters identified themselves with the English landed gentry and viewed their lives as embodiments of classical republican values; this was their justification for practicing slavery. 2. The Ideology and Reality Of “Benevolence” a) Most planters criticized the increasingly democratic polity and egalitarian society of the Northeast and Midwest, preferring a society led by wealthy men of talent. b) As the 19th century progressed, rice planters remained at the top of the plantation aristocracy.In tobacco-growing regions, the lives of planter aristocracy developed differently, in part based on the diffuse ownership of slaves. c) Planters defended slavery as a benevolent social system and a “Positive Good” based on Christian ideology. Slavery produced a civilized lifestyle for whites and tutelage for blacks, planters argued.Based on the desire to control their workers, extend Christian teachings, and counter abolitionism, planters increasingly intervened in the lives of their slaves, requiring them to attend religious services. d) Cotton was a demanding crop because of its long growing season, which motivated planters during the 1820s to begin to use a gang-labor system, a disciplined system of assigning work “gangs” closely supervised by black drivers and white overseers.Cotton planters’ use of Gang Labor had mixed results. The system produced enormous wealth for whites, approximately four million bales of cotton each year. C) Planters, Smallholding Yeomen, and Tenants Even though it seemed the black population was growing, slavery was decreasing. The percentage of white families who had slaves decrease from 36% in 1830 to 31% in 1850, and ~25% a decade later. 1. Planters Elite a) Although slavery impacted all of southern society, most whites did not own slaves. Slave ownership varied by region: in the cotton belt, 40% of whites owned slaves, compared to only 10% in the mountains. b) In 1860 the 5% richest planter families had over twenty or more slaves each. Along with the rest of the southern aristocracy, as a group owned 50% of all slaves. c) Middle-class planters owned 40% of the slave population. Most pursued dual careers as skilled artisans or professional men. 2. Smallholding Planters and Yeomen a) Smallholders constituted the majority of slave owners. They were similar to the yeomen of the north because they worked the land themselves along with their slaves.
  4. 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e b) Influenced by the patriarchal ideology of the planter class, these yeomen farmers ruled their Smallholdlings with a firm hand. c) The female role was like the one from the past. They could go to the church, but even the church believed that men had total control over their home and family. d) Most yeomen lived and died hardscrabble farmers, working alongside their slaves in the field and moving regularly in search of new lands to farm. 3. Poor Freemen a) Planter-dominated legislatures forced all white men to serve in the patrols and militias that deterred black uprising. b) Some whites lost their properties due to debts, enjoying few of the benefits of slavery and suffering many of its ill consequences. Many fled the slavery region to work farms in the free labor regions and further west. D) The Settlements of Texas a) Stephen F. Austin, son of Moses Austin (an American land speculator), acquired land from the Mexican government (180,000 acres) and sold it to Newcomers. b) Stephen Austin led the “Peace Part” and the members accepted the Mexican rules but wanted greater political independence and more of a “Federalist” state. c) Austin won significant concession from Mexican authorities, but in 1835 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna nullified them and wanted to impose national authority throughout Mexico. d) On March 6, 1836, a Mexican army of 4,000 created a war in San Antonio’s fort known as the Alamo and killed 250 Texan defenders and 1,500 Mexicans. Then his soldiers captured Goliad and executed 371 rebel prisoners. New Orleans and New York newspapers idealized the bravery of the Texans and the deaths at the Alamo. General Sam Huston won De Facto Independence by routing Santa Anna’s overconfident army in the Battle of San Jacinto in April 1836 E) The Politics of Democracy Despite their economic and social prominence, the slave-owning elite did not dominate the political life of the Cotton South. Planters lived in a republican society with democratic institutions that had granted suffrage to all white men, and provided for a Secret Ballot and apportionment based on population. Thus they had to compete with other classes of whites for popular favor 1. The Politics And Taxation a) Southern Democrats validated low taxes to improve popular support while Whigs encouraged government support for banks, high taxes, and internal improvements. b) Most southern state legislatures passed policies that reflected the interest of the slave-owning population because the majority of legislators were slave owners. c) In some southern states, wealthy planters divided the white population along class lines by influencing legislators to exempt taxes on slaves and luxury goods.
  5. 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e 2. The Paradox Of Southern Prosperity a) As white southerners grew rich from the King Cotton and agriculture, the standard of living for most southerners did not improve over time. b) Southerners invested most of their wealth in land and slaves, ignoring economic change and industrial investment in favor of short-term profits. Only 10% of the nation’s manufactured goods were produced in the South. Few planters invested in railroads, and only to service cotton regions. c) Slavery worked in other ways to prevent development. Fearing competition from slave labor, European immigrants avoided the South. d) The South remained an economic colony of Europe and the North, and did not enjoy real economic independence and diversity even with visible signs of wealth and success. II) The African American World A) Evangelical Black Protestantism The emergence of a black form of Evangelical Christianity exemplified the synthesis of African and European culture that composed a new African American culture. 1. Black Protestantism a) Evangelical Protestantism came to the South in the late 18th century with the Second Great Awakening and the conversion of thousands of whites and blacks. Until the Second Great Awakening, the majority of African American slaves engaged an African religious culture. b) Many adapted blacks struggled for Protestantism, and after being traded to the Deep South, spread evangelical Christianity to slaves there. Enslaved blacks and unofficial black ministers reinterpreted the teachings of Christianity to emphasize unity of people. c) Despite believing in a European religion, black slaves expressed their spirituality in African ways, including the use of ring shouts and the creation of a happy brand of Protestant worship to sustain them under slavery. B) Forging Families and Creating Cultures 1. African Influences a) The domestic slave trade mingled blacks from many states, erased regional differences, and prompted the emergence of core culture in the lower Mississippi Valley. b) The African influences remained important because they brought their regional cultures with them. c) By 1820 most black slaves in America had been born in the United States, helping to create a homogenous black culture based on evangelical Christianity, English as a common language, and labor in a slave regime.
  6. 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e C) Negotiating Rights a) Although the black population was becoming more equal, African cultural influences remained important. Unlike white marriages, slave marriages were not recognized in law, and followed African forms of union, such as jumping the broomstick, the naming of children, and adopting older unrelated slaves as aunts and uncles. b) Planters worried constantly that enslaved African Americans would rebel against them. African American resistance severely limited a master’s power. Slaves slowed the pace of work by faking illness, breaking tools, and running away. Fear of slave resistance reduced a white master’s use of violence and increased the use of positive motivations and work discipline as control mechanisms. c) Coordinated large-scale slave revolts, such as the Prosser revolt (1800) and Turner revolt (1831), were rare. Blacks realized the futility of violent resistance, and favored escape instead. But escape was difficult since families would be left behind and the distance to the North was great, leading some blacks to escape to Florida or form hidden communities in swamps and woods and intermarry with Indians.Given these limitations, most slaves created the best possible lives for themselves and their families, in part by demanding from masters a greater share of the fruits of their labor as slaves. D) The Free Black Population Nearly half of the black s in the United States in 1840 and 1860 lived in the free states of the North. Some enslaved blacks found freedom through escape or help. Between 1820 and 1840 it became 13%, and thendropped to 11% by 1860 because of southern white restrictions on black streets to freedom. 1. Northern Free Blacks a) Half of all free blacks lived in the North.Most were southern refugees. A minoritywere the children of families that hadbeen free for generations.Even in the North, few free blacks enjoyeda truly free existence. b) Most whites viewed blacks as socially inferioreconomic competitors, so confinedthem to low-paying menial work. In ruralareas they were farm laborers. In urbanareas they worked as domestic servantsand day laborers. Only a small numberowned any land. c) Only a few states allowed free black mento vote, attend public schools, and sit nextto whites in churches. Only in Massachusettscould blacks testify against whites incourt. The federal government forbadeblacks from being employed in postal service,claiming public lands, or holding aU.S. passport. d) Despite limitations, a few free blackshad relative wealth.MathematicianBenjamin Banneker, painter Joshua Johnston,and merchant Paul Cuffee achievedpublic distinction for their work for whites.To improve American institutions andgive blacks a sense of independence, prominentblacks formed groups to create churches, orphanages, and fellowshipgroups. One of the most famous was theAfrican Methodist Episcopal Church by Richard Allen.
  7. 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e 2. Standing For Freedom In The South a) Class distinctions developed in the blackcommunity based on elite appeals towhite charity and working-class rejectionof white violence and oppression.Most free blacks in the South (225,000 in1860, up from 94,000 in 1810) lived inlarge coastal cities, especially in the UpperSouth. b) Free southern blacks consisted almost entirelyof the artisan class of skilled workers because if the lack of Europeanimmigration to the South.Free southern blacks accused of crimeswere often denied a jury trial and weresometimes forced back into slavery. c) Free blacks had to possess freedom papers,and could be resold or kidnapped withoutthem. d) Some wealthy, free southern blacks distancedthemselves from working class freeblacks and identified more with theplanter aristocracy, even owning slaves.Most free blacks found racial unitywith other blacks and worked toward theend of slavery by helping fugitive slaves,officially supporting the antislavery movement,intriguerevolt, or enteringpolitics.