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    Chapter 11 study guide Chapter 11 study guide Document Transcript

    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e Part I: Vocabulary Terms: Define the following terms toughly. This means that each term must be defined using the five W’s at a minimum. What are the five W’s? ☆ What is it? ☆ When did it occur? ☆ Where was it? ☆ Who was it or who was influenced by it? ☆ Why is this term important to the time or what is its lasting impact? Terms 1. Transcendentalism 2. Socialism 3. Joseph smith 4. William Lloyd Garrison 5. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 6. Seneca Falls 7. Separate Spheres 8. Ralph Waldo Emerson 9. John Humphreys Noyes 10. Nat Turner’s Revolt Section 2: Short Answers 1. What were the main beliefs of Transcendentalism, and how did American writers incorporate them into their work? 2. What is the relationship between Transcendentalism and Individualism? Between Transcendentalism and Social Reform? Between Transcendentalism and the Middle Class? 3. In what respect were the new culture of the Mid-Nineteenth Century- those of Utopian Communist and of Urban Residents- different from the mainstream culture described in Chapter 8 and 9? How were they alike? 4. What accounts for the Proliferation of Rural Utopian communities in Nineteenth-Century America? 5. How did black social thought change over the first half of the Nineteenth Century? What role did black activists in the Abolition Movement? 6. How did the Abolitionists’ proposals and methods differ from those of earlier Antislavery Movements (see chapter 8)? Why did those proposals and methods arouse such hostility in the South and in the North? 7. How do you explain the appearance on the women’s rights movement? What were the movement’s goals and why did they arouse intense opposition? 8. What was the relationship between the Abolitionist and Woman’s Rights Movement? Why did women’s issues suddenly become so prominent in American culture? Section 3: Summary Questions 1. Did the era of reform increase or decrease the belief in and practice of liberty in American society? 2. Explain the relationship between religion and reform in the decades from 1820 to 1860. Why did many religious people feel compelled to remake society? What was their motivation? How successful were they? Do you see any parallels with social movements today?
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e Transcendentalism ☆ Transcendentalism is an intellectual movement that suggested the importance of an ideal world of spiritual understanding and harmony beyond the world of the senses. Transcendentalism called for the critical examination of society and emphasized individuality, self-reliance, and originality. Its first supporters were Unitarian ministers from New England families who questioned the constraints of their Puritan heritage. ☆ 19th century ☆ New England, United States ☆ Ralph Waldo Emerson of New England was the leading spokesman for Transcendentalism. ☆ Transcendentalism was important because it celebrated the self, an important step in the construction of American identity, better understood as the idea of American individualism. It allows for self-thinking and to use the mind as a person's guide, not social aspects. Also, for transcendentalists, nature and the soul were inseparably linked. In the social reforms, transcendentalists were considered thinkers in their attitudes toward such issues as social protest, elimination of slavery, women’s rights, creative and education for children, and labor reform. Transcendentalism became a venue for social reform because it revolved around the idea of liberation and they believed it would help the country. Socialism ☆ Socialism was a theory of social and economic organization based on the common ownership of goods. Utopian socialists of the early 19th century envisioned small planned communities and later socialists ran for state ownership of railroads and large industries. ☆ 1840’s ☆ America ☆ Arthur Brisbane ☆ Socialism was important because it promotes equality in many areas, like economics, political and social, however it mostly involves economic and goods. The economic decisions that had to be made by the government can be devastating. Socialism takes the rights, accountability, and profits of goods and the manufactures out of the hands of the elite few and puts them under the united hands of the people, which increases the quality of goods produced. With socialism the workers themselves own the businesses and means of fabrications so they have a real association and vested interest in the wellbeing of said companies. Socialism creates community values and reinforces the idea of unity instead of each man alone at any cost. This is likely to have positive social benefits while equally issuing the work load.
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e Joseph smith ☆ Joseph Smith believed God had singled him out to receive a special revelation of divine truth. He organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and affirmed traditional patriarchal authority. Smith also encouraged hard work, saving of earnings and entrepreneurship and started a church-directed community intended to inspire moral perfection. Smith believed in polygamy, which means having more than one wife at a time. ☆ 1805-then assassinated in 1844 ☆ Illinois, Vermont, Mexico ☆ Joseph Smith and the Mormons ☆ Joseph Smith was important because he is like the Prophet of the Mormon Church (Latter Day Saints), and discoverer and translator of the Book of Mormon, and without the Book of Mormon or Smith, there would be no Church and Mormonism. William Lloyd Garrison ☆ William Lloyd Garrison was an abolitionist leader and founded The Liberator in 1831 and led the formation of the New England Anti-Slavery Society. Garrison condemned the American Colonization Society, attacked the U.S. Constitution for its implicit acceptance of racial bondage, and demanded the immediate abolition of slavery. ☆ 1805-1875 ☆ The United States ☆ William Lloyd Garrison ☆ William Lloyd Garrison was important because he fought for the Antislavery movement and had moral beliefs that wanted equality among races. He also established his own Antislavery newspaper called “The Liberator”, started two Antislavery organizations and spoke out against women's suffrage, pacifism, and temperance. Elizabeth Cady Stanton ☆ Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a gathering in Seneca Falls, New York, that outlined a coherent statement of women’s equality. The Seneca Falls activists relied on the Declaration of Independence and rejected the idea that the task separate for men and women was the natural order of society. In 1850 the first national women’s rights convention began to strike out a reform program and began a concerted campaign for more legal rights and to win the vote for women. ☆ 1815-1902
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e ☆ New York, United States ☆ Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and along with other women. ☆ Elizabeth Cady Stanton was important because she fought for women's suffrage and women rights and didn't think it was fair that women got treated with the same rights as slaves. Stanton believed that all rights should be equal for all humanity because we aren’t different. Seneca Falls ☆ Seneca Falls was an assembly held on New York, which sprung the woman suffrage movement in the United States. This was the first women's rights convention, which was called so that both men and women could talk over the overall rights of women. Seneca Falls was the home of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who, along with Lucretia Mott, conceived and directed the convention. ☆ July 9th and 20th ,1848 ☆ Seneca Falls, New York ☆ Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and along with many other women ☆ The convention is significant because it is considered a big early step in the equal and Women's rights movement. In the convention, the Declaration of Sentiments, resolutions for women's rights, and voting was discussed. Separate Spheres ☆ Separate Spheres is term to view that men and women have different gender-defined characteristics and, consequently, that the sexes inhabit different social worlds. Men should dominate the public sphere of politics and economics, while women should manage the private spheres of home and family. This cultural understanding was both sharply defined and hotly contested by mid-19th century. ☆ Late 18th century through the 19th century ☆ America ☆ Mary Walker Ostram, and many other middle-class women rejected this notion ☆ Separate Spheres was important because in the end women were kept out of most public activities even though they had their assembly to talk about how they could have more right as men do. Ralph Waldo Emerson ☆ Ralph Waldo Emerson was the leading voice of Transcendentalism. English romantics and Unitarian activists believed in an ideal world and that to reach this deeper reality, people
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e had to transcend the rational ways in which they normally comprehended the world. Emerson thought people were stuck in unquestioned and unexamined customs, institutions, and ways of thinking. Emerson’s genius lay in his capacity to translate vague ideas into examples that made sense to ordinary middle-class Americans. Emerson believed that all nature was filled with the presence of God, and he criticized the new industrial society, predicting that it would drain the nation’s spiritual energy. ☆ 1803-1882 ☆ New England, United States ☆ Ralph Waldo Emerson And his belief in Transcendentalism ☆ Ralph Waldo Emerson was important because he became the chief spokesman for Transcendentalism. His philosophy is considered by its reliance on insight as the only way to comprehend reality. His message reached hundreds of thousands of people through writings and through lectures on the Lyceum circuit. Emerson celebrated the individual who was liberated from social controls but remained a self-disciplined and responsible member of society. John Humphrey Noyes ☆ John Humphrey Noyes was a minister of a community that defined sexuality and gender roles in new ways. Noyes was inspired by the preaching of Charles Finney and also expelled from his Congregational Church and became a leader of “Perfectionism.” Perfectionists believed that the Second Coming of Christ had already happened and that people could seek to perfection in their lives and reach complete freedom from sin. The Oneida community became financially self-sufficient when one of its members invented a steel animal trap, and others turned to silver manufacturing. ☆ 1811-1886 ☆ New York, Vermont, and Canada ☆ John Humphrey Noyes ☆ John Humphrey Noyes was important because he, and many others, attempted to live their lives in what they conceived of as a more egalitarian social order and left their countercultural blueprints to posterity. Also, Noyes sought to free women from being regarded as their husbands’ property and to free them from endless childbirth and childcare. Nat Turner’s Revolt ☆ Nat Turner’s Revolt was a bloody revolt in Virginia. He was a slave that believed that he was chosen to carry Christ’s burden of grief in a race war. Turner’s men killed sixty whites in 1831 and he hoped other slaves would gather to his cause, but only a few did.
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e Unforgiving whites began to take the lives of blacks at random, and Turner was captured and hanged. Shaken by Turner’s Rebellion, the Virginia legislature debated a bill for emancipation and colonization, but the bill was rejected and the possibility that Southern planters. ☆ 1831 ☆ Southampton County, Virginia ☆ Nat Turner ☆ Nat Turner’s Revolt was important because even after he was killed, all of the whites’ actions hunted them because they treated slaves horribly bad. So, he had a lasting impact I the Southern states. Also, Nat Turner’s rebellion was one of the largest slave rebellions ever to take place in the US, and it played an important role in the development of 19th century slave society.
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e Section 2: Short Answers 1. What were the main beliefs of Transcendentalism, and how did American writers incorporate them into their work? Transcendentalism was an intellectual movement rooted in New England Puritanism, in which young men and women questioned the Puritan constraints of their heritage and are in a quest for truth. They believed in Romanticism, a European concept that excluded the ordered, balanced world of the 18th century Enlightenment in courtesy of getting the passionate characteristics of the human spirit. And that the best way to find this truth is to communicate with Nature and one’s self. Transcendentalism reflected major social changes brought by the industrial and market revolutions and the Second Great Awakening, which reordered the relationship between the individual and society. Rapid economic development and geographical expansion weakened many traditional institutions and social rules, enabling individuals to define morality themselves. Even though many transcendentalist writers used the essay form to write about the concept, Whitman used poetry, specifically free verse. Since Transcendentalists embraced humanity and the human spirit and believed strongly in democratic ideals and human potential, the writers would write about emotions and work from their own to build a good passage. The feelings created by Transcendentalist writers are penetrating and very intense, the ideas serious, the reflection deep and meaningful. 2. What is the relationship between Transcendentalism and Individualism? Between Transcendentalism and Social Reform? Between Transcendentalism and the Middle Class? Transcendentalism empowered the individual to reject traditional social restraints but retain self- discipline and civic responsibility. The movement called on individuals to improve the self and society along moral lines, which made Transcendentalism a powerful force for Social Reform. Emerson argued that the new market society had diverted the nation’s spiritual energies away from faith in Christianity, requiring a reform movement to bring the nation closer to God. With the Middle Class, Transcendentalism taught them personal improvement through spiritual awareness and self- discipline, just like with the other people. The transcendentalists wanted people to feel like in a utopian place where everything can be found within one’s self and spirits. 3. In what respect were the new culture of the Mid-Nineteenth Century- those of Utopian Communist and of Urban Residents- different from the mainstream culture described in Chapter 8 and 9? How were they alike? The new culture of the Mid-19th Century- those of Utopian Communalist and of Urban Residents- were different from the mainstream culture described in Chapter 8 and 9, in that the new cultures rejected traditional philosophies of Christianity and moral improvements in favor of more radical experiments in social living. They altered traditional notions of gender relations, clothing apparel, and sexual behavior. They were alike because both new and mainstream cultures were bent by the economic and social forces of the era, like the Industrial Revolution, Market Revolution, Panic of 1837, and the Second Great Awakening. Both were dominated by Anglo American youth who advocated individualism and were being influenced by Transcendentalism.
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e 4. What accounts for the Proliferation of Rural Utopian communities in Nineteenth- Century America? Farmers and artisans sought refuge and security during the Seven-Year Economic downturn known as the Panic of 1837. Americans who were displaced as a result of the Industrial Revolution also wanted to create communities as symbols of social protest and experimentation during a time of social change in the United States. Some Utopias became successful based on the charm of a particular leader, the ability of the community to make sufficient money, and the patience of the local community of the utopia’s existence Gender relationships were quite prominent since many of the communities viewed Christianity as central to their function. The social decline of America was associated to the lack of Christian values in society and the need to reject marriage and sexual pleasure. 5. How did black social thought change over the first half of the Nineteenth Century? What role did black activists in the Abolition Movement? Over time and in response to white violence, black social thoughts increasingly called for violence to free African Americans from slavery. Black activists like Frederick Douglass and David Walker were important in reminding white opponents of the horrors of slavery, and the necessity for black equality and the use of violence to end slavery. Black activists also claimed for a strategy of social and moral lift for poor free and enslaved blacks, which kept the focus on black rights and not just to end slavery. Black activists created white violence, which most of the time just brought devastating consequences and death to many people, but also kept abolitionism alive over time as a social movement. 6. How did the Abolitionists’ proposals and methods differ from those of earlier Antislavery Movements (see chapter 8)? Why did those proposals and methods arouse such hostility in the South and in the North? The Abolitionists’ proposals and methods differ from those of earlier Antislavery Movements because the earlier Antislavery movements were based more on republican values of liberty and equality. The Abolitionist Movement drew energy from the Second Great Awakening and the moral sin of slavery according to Christianity. As a moral sin, slavery needed immediate abolition, and not a slow phasing out over time. Those proposals and methods arouse such hostility in the South and in the North because the need to calls for immediate abolition conjured up images in the white mind of full black equality with whites in marriage and the law. High unemployment and racism in this slave- based nation joined to produce a violent backlash against those who called for immediate black equality. White Northerners feared a loss of status and income, while the white Southerners feared a slave revolt. 7. How do you explain the appearance on the women’s rights movement? What were the movement’s goals and why did they arouse intense opposition? The women’s rights movement appearance struggled to improve women’s equality with men in sexual behavior, marriage rights, and public life. Women wanted a more active political and economic role in society, while men wanted to maintain the patriarchal appearance to society and the superior look with their wife. The movement’s goals were to reach equality with men and to be
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 8 | P a g e treated like them so they could have a political part in society and not be inferior to the opposing sex. Opposition occurred particularly from men, based on their traditional Christian notions of the separate duties or “spheres” for men and women. Patriarchy or male rule did not permit women from realizing true equality. Some women resented women’s rights advocates who appeared t to claim superiority to other women. 8. What was the relationship between the Abolitionist and Woman’s Rights Movement? Why did women’s issues suddenly become so prominent in American culture? The relationship between the Abolitionist and Woman’s Rights Movement is that both movements reinforced one another. The Second Great Awakening discussed women as moral reformers of family and society. Women quickly entered into abolitionist spheres, letting them to further calls for women’s rights and full equality in American society. Becoming an abolitionist enabled women to speak in public and to criticize the institutions of American society that denied them, as well as African Americans, full equality. Women’s issues suddenly become so prominent in American culture because of the Second Great Awakening and the increasing prosperity of the white middle class got a result of the administrative and Industrial Revolutions that served to politicize women as the moral reformers of family and society. These events gave women more time at home to focus on family and its relationship to the larger social world. As the moral reformers of the era, white Middleclass Women sought to fix social problems, including heavy drinking by men, Sabbath breaking, and prostitution. Overall, women helped to popularize a feminist call for improving social problems and made a big impact in the United States.
    • Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 9 | P a g e Section 3: Summary Questions 1. Did the era of reform increase or decrease the belief in and practice of liberty in American society? The era of reform definitely increased the belief and practice of liberty in American society because people began advocating collective suffrage for everyone, especially women and blacks African American. The right of freedom was starting to include all the people of America, not caring about gender or color. Additionally, the moral reform movement increased liberty in American society by increasing the level of religious and social diversity through rural communes and other social experiments, providing Americans with more choice. Reform movements, such as women’s rights and the rise of abolitionism, combined with the rise of urban popular culture, represented an increase in freedom for women, blacks, and the urban poor in American society. 2. Explain the relationship between religion and reform in the decades from 1820 to 1860. Why did many religious people feel compelled to remake society? What was their motivation? How successful were they? Do you see any parallels with social movements today? Between 1820 and 1860 there was rapid expansion and great arguments about the morality and validity of slavery. The Second Great Awakening filled a greater Protestant religion into American society and culture. It was the religious people’s responsibility to improve the morality of American society to achieve God’s mission. Americans were successful at imposing reforms on society in the form of abolitionism, women’s rights, and the reform of certain forms of moral vice, such as prostitution and alcoholism. However, and sadly, no reforms were entirely successful. I think that some parallels exist today because of the moral reform movement to stop violence and sexual behavior in the media, and Anti-Abortion believers who argue for an increase in human morality to meet the expectations of the Christian moral tradition.