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  • 1. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 0 | P a g e Chapter 10 Study Guide Part I: Vocabulary Terms: Define the following terms toughly. This means that each term must be defined using the five W’s at a minimum. What are the five W’s?  What is it?  When did it occur?  Where was it?  Who was it or who was influenced by it?  Why is this term important to the time or what is its lasting impact? Terms 1. Political Machines 2. Spoils System 3. American System 4. Nullification 5. Whigs 6. Election Of 1824 7. John Quincy Adams 8. Andrew Jackson 9. Indian Removal Act Of 1830 10. Taney Court Section 2: Short Answers 1. Was there a necessary connection between the growth of Democracy and the Emergence of political parties? Explain your answer. 2. How do you explain John Quincy Adams’ great success as secretary of state (chapter 7) and his relative lack of success as president? 3. Compare and Contrast the views of Jackson and John Marshall with respect to the status and rights of Indian People? 4. What were Andrew Jackson’s policies on banking and tariffs? Did they help or hurt the American economy? Why? 5. How did ideology of the Whig differ from that of the Jacksonian Democrats? 6. Why did the working Men’s and the Anti-Masonic Parties fail and the Whig Party succeed? What do their perspective fates suggest about the nature of the American political system? Section 3: Summary Questions 1. Explain the rise of the Second Party System. How would you characterize American politics in the early 1840’s? 2. The chapter argues that a Democratic Revolution swept American in the decades after 1820. What evidence does the text present to support this argument? How persuasive is the evidence?
  • 2. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 1 | P a g e Political Machines  Political Machines was a term for highly organized groups operating within and intending to control Political Parties when Buren was out of the states of New York. Machines were regarded as Anti-Democratic by political reformers and were the target especially of Progressive era leaders such as Robert La Follette.  Between 1817 and 1821  New York, United States  Van Buren  The Political Machines were important because they helped entrenched office-holders win elections that they wanted to win and organize the politics in a society. The primary factor was the Anti-Machine instruments because it made the selection of party candidates the product of a popular ballot rather than conventions that were weak to machine control.If the machine functions well, they will never be un-elected and the one being elected will have power. Spoils System  The Spoils System was the widespread award of public jobs topolitical supporters following an electoral victory.This practice was the view that in ademocracy revolution in office was desirable to apermanent class of politicians. In 1829 AndrewJackson began this practice on the national level,and it became a central, and corrupting, feature ofAmerican political life.  1817-1821  New York, United States  Van Buren  The Spoils System was important because it encouraged people to participate with the government and support a party because they knew they would be rewarded.It remained an important part of the political background until the civil service reforms toward the end of the century. American System  The American System was a government program consideredto expand economic developmentthrough a Federal funded system of internalimprovements like: roads, canals, tariffs, and national banks. Such policies marked a shift toward government involvement in the economy, impacting the growing strength of commercial interests.  Early 1820s  The United States
  • 3. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 2 | P a g e  Hendry Clay  The American System was important because with the system there were internal improvements and a national bank that helped develop the nation's economy. Additionally, the system would concentrate on developing America's infrastructure, commerce, building roads, and canals to encourage and facilitate trade throughout the nation. Nullification  Nullification was when a state was attempting to declare federallaws illegal if the laws were seen topass Congressional powers. South Carolinapoliticians advanced this idea as a responseto Congress’s “Tariff of Abominations,”which hurt their already depressed cottonindustry. The impliedthreat of nullification was secession and the Southlater acted on this threat when they felt the federalgovernment compromised their perceived right toslavery.  1828  South Carolina  During the presidency of Andrew Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun  The Nullification Act was important because it really showed the differences between the North and the South. The North was trying to protect itsmanufacturing industry by imposing import tariffs, mostly paid by the South with cotton. Whigs  TheWhigs was a political party that began with the opponents of Andrew Jackson,who the Whigs believed was treating the presidencylike a monarchy. They took their namefrom a British political party with a reputation forsupporting largevalues and reform. TheWhig party in the United States ended when the question of whether or not to extendslavery to the territories divided them.  1834-1850’s  In the United States  Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, and opponents  The United States Whig Party was important because the party embodied the growing gap between Pro-Slavery and Anti-Slavery Americans. The problems that the party faced predicted the problems that the country faced in the future since many wanted slave labor and some said that slavery was wrong. Election Of 1824  The Election Of 1824 marked the final breakdown of the Republican-Federalist political structure. Five Republican candidates campaigned for the presidency. Three were
  • 4. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 3 | P a g e veterans of President James Monroe’s cabinet and the other candidates were Henry Clay of Kentucky and General Andrew Jackson. The result of the very close election astonished political leaders. The winner in the Electoral College was Andrew Jackson, the hero of the War of 1812, but John Quincy Adams was after the "Corrupt Bargain.”  1824  United States  John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William Harris Crawford, Henry Clay, and John C. Calhoun  The Election of 1824 was important because it wasarguably a great impact in American History, which was later quoted by Washington, "The CorruptBargain." All the candidates were Democratic-Republicans, but personal and sectional interests were more important than politicalbelief. John Quincy Adams  John Quincy Adams won the presidency in 1824 after the "Corrupt Bargain,” and turned out to be the sixth president of the United States. Throughout his term, the National Republicans were made in support of him.In 1819, he drew up the Adams Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida. Adams embraced the American Systemproposed by Clay: Protective Tariffs, Federal Subsidized Transportation Improvements, and A National Bank.Adams’s policies favored the business eliteof the Northeast and the entrepreneursand commercial farmers in the Midwestbut won little support among Southernplanters and smallholding farmers.The most impacting battle of the Adams administration came over tariffs; Adams’sTariff of 1824 protected manufacturers inNew England and Pennsylvania againstimports of more expensive woolen, cotton textiles, and iron goods.  1767-1848  The United States  John Quincy Adams (Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, Anti- Masonic and member of the Whig parties)  John Quincy Adams was important because he was ahead of his day in his program of anactivist federal government creating a nationalinfrastructure to further business and culture. Furthermore, Adams’s programs for an active governmentwere not in harmony with the Jacksonian desireto decrease governmental authority and the powers of elites; so his contradictions were important to the nation because it created new ideas and controversy in society and the political worlds in the United States.
  • 5. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 4 | P a g e Andrew Jackson  Andrew Jackson was the Seventh President of the United States who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans. I can infer that he literally hated the British and the Indians (created the Indian Removal Act).As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to Nullify dislikableFederal Laws, and increased the presidential powers.He defeated Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.  1829-1837  The United States  Andrew Jackson  Andrew Jackson was important because he was tough with his military strategies. He was an influential leader who supported the rights of Americans and their freedoms. Also, he allowed common people to work with the government and provide them with ideas, and believed that sovereignty belonged with the people. However, he disliked Indians, which makes me dislike him Indian Removal Act Of 1830  The Indian Removal Act Of 1830 removed Indians from Southern states and put them on reservations in the Midwest authorizing the president to grant unsettled lands West of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few people in the tribes went calmly in peace, but many repelled the relocation procedure.  1830  South of the United States, places were Indians settled, and areas that was home to the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole nations  Andrew Jackson  The Indian Removal Act Of 1830 was important because each tribe would surrender its homeland in the East and rearrange a home within a statedperiod of time to a new territory. Also, the act was the first major treaty violation of the United States because the act showed the Indians that the white man and his government could not be trusted because they did actions that didn’t bring any positive benefit to the country. Additionally, the act was just unfair to the Indians, which were here first, because they weren’t causing any damage to anybody or anywhere so there was no need to remove them from where they were established. Taney Court  The Taney Court persuadedthe Court to give constitutionallegitimacy to Jackson’s policies of antimonopoly. Also,Taney’s ruling challengedthe legal positions of
  • 6. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 5 | P a g e commissionedcompanies and encouraged competitive enterprise. In 1837 Taney’s decisions enhanced theregulatory role of state government and restoredsome of the states’ economic powersand states’ rights.  1836  United States  Secretary of the TreasuryRoger B. Taney  The Taney Court was important becauseitpermittedStates’ Rights over nationalcentralization and control, and alsoviewed the constitution as a document stabilizingcapitalist competition by reducing the role ofgovernment in shaping the economy throughtariffs and banks, which he Taney didn’t want.
  • 7. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 6 | P a g e Andrew Jackson *Supported Indian removal because of racist and constitutional reasons * Believed it was the racial destiny of Americans to possess the land of the Indian people * Believed that the national government was constitutionally entitled to remove the Indians and pay them for their lands to fulfill this national destiny * He also crafted his military and political career on removing Indians from the southeastern portion of North America **Removal eradicated traditional Indian culture by reducing the population of tribes, removing them from ancestral lands, and completely wiping out tribes and cultures** John Marshall * The Taney Court’s decisions undermined the Marshall decisions, reversing the nationalist and property rights decisions of Marshall and giving constitutional legitimacy to Jackson’s policies endorsing states’ rights and free enterprise. Taney helped Jackson kill the Bank of the United States, reduce high tariffs, and remove more Native Americans from their lands. * Ruled that the Cherokee Nation was entitled to federal protection over those of the state laws of Georgia. * He wasn't like Jacksn that disliked Indias, instead he sort of liked them in a way. * Welcomed then not in adifferent status SECTION 2: SHORT ANSWERS 1. Was there a necessary connection between the growth of Democracy and the Emergence of political parties? Explain your answer. The connection among the growth of a Democracy and the Political Parties was that the emergence of political parties shaped the growth ofDemocracy by encouraging party competition, public debate over key issues impacting the nation, and general interest by white male voters in the election process. Under the smart management of Van Buren, the Democratic Party political organization emerged. It stood for liberty and equality, and supported the cause of every man.The rise of parties increased voters. Parties now reached out to voters through an active system of employment. The explosion of political parties allowed for diverse voting choice, leading to a more democratic political process. 2. How do you explain John Quincy Adams’ great success as secretary of state (chapter 7) and his relative lack of success as president? As secretary of state, Adams’s conservative values and rigid morals were adjust with that earlier era without prejudiceof politics. He achieved great diplomatic successes, such as acquiring Florida from the Spanish through the Adams- Onis Treaty.As president, Adams’s political style was out of date because the way he thought was different from its current time. He ignored his lack of popularity and the hostility of many others in power, and supported Indian land rights and the Tariff Of Abomination (1828).The most far-reaching battle of the Adams administration during his presidency came over tariffs, like the Tariff of 1824 that protected industrialists in New England and Pennsylvania against imports of more expensive woolen, cotton textiles, and iron goods. 3. Compare and Contrast the views of Andrew Jackson and John Marshall with respect to the status and rights of Indian People?
  • 8. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 7 | P a g e 4. What were Andrew Jackson’s policies on banking and tariffs? Did they help or hurt the American economy? Why? Andrew Jackson wanted to put an end to the banks because he believed that it concentrated the nation's financial strength in anindividualbody,visiblefor the government to control by foreign interests, served mainly to make the rich wealthier, implemented too much control over allies of Congress, and preferred Northeastern states over Southern and Western states.His refusal to renew the charter of the charter of the Bank led to a huge financial crisis in the American Economy.Furthermore, the Jackson Era gave growth to aninnovativeDemocratic political revolution, with an expansion of theFranchise that weakened the political system run by public figure of high status. Party politics increased the growth of Democracy and the modern political parties were now run by skilled politicians, mostly of Middleclass origins.Jackson also pull to pieces the political baseof the mercantilist system, the American System of national advances through state support, and the Commonwealth system of government charters and supports to private businesses.His decentralized economic policies evolved over time in response to state and private attempts, such as South Carolina’s Nullification Ordinance and the re-chartering of the Second Bank of theUnited States, to create high tariffs and central banks. Additionally, Jackson’s dispersed economic policies hurt the American economy because they destroyed the American System of protective tariffs and innerdevelopments causing a profound dropin the economic activities and energy of the federal government. 5. How did ideology of the Whig differ from that of the Jacksonian Democrats? The Whigs ideology believed that in theEvangelical religion and politicsit was dominated by men of talent and wealth. Also, they celebrated the entrepreneur, and the imaginative individuals. They supportedThe Industrial Revolution, high tariffs, and a centralized banking system to promote economic growth. Finally, the Whigs supported the supremacy of the Congress over that of the President and reinforced renewal and economic safety. In the other hand, the Jacksonian Democrats ideology was Traditional Protestants and Catholic immigrants thatopposed high tariffs and a centralizedbank. They defended states’ rights and equalrights for all white men, and opposed government and private attempts at moral reform of social problems. 6. Why did the working Men’s and the Anti-Masonic Parties fail and the Whig Party succeed? What do their perspective fates suggest about the nature of the American political system? The Working Men’s Partyincluded of artisans and laborers, so this party wanted to abolish banks and create fair taxation policies and universal public education. They supported unions, artisan republicanism, and independence, and hoped to raise standard of living for workers and laborers. Even though they could be involved with the government and other political things, they didn’t have enough power to succeed over the Whig Party. The Anti-Masonic Party was the first Third
  • 9. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 8 | P a g e Party in the United States. It strongly opposed age groups and was originated as an individual party hopeful to become a major party. They didn’t have a lot of power so out powering the Whig was going to be hard, so that’s why they ailed, just like the Working Men’s Party. The nature of the American political system formation went through the role playedby ethno cultural factors in shaping voter allegiance and party focus. During the 19th century, the ones that were most involved in the change of the nation were the wealthy politicians, the white men and president. This suggests that Americans during the 1900’s followed the more “educated” people that supposedly knew how to run the country, even though some of the leaders didn’t have good decisions over the US.
  • 10. Lucero Castaneda AP US History Ms.Lampley 9 | P a g e SECTION 3: SUMMARY QUESTIONS 1. Explain the rise of the Second Party System. How would you characterize American politics in the early 1840’s? The Second Party System began during the 1830’s when professional politicians of Middleclass experience created the Whig Party in disapprovalto the surprisinggrowth of the Democratic Party under Andrew Jackson. During the 1840s, Whigs and Democrats competed for appeal to different cultural groups, making a very vigorousperiod of powerful political debate, expansion of the electorate, a rise in party loyalties and party competition, and appeal to cultural politics. The role of the unions and Working Men’s parties decreased as a consequence of the economic decline of 1837 and the Taney Court results.American politics in the early 1840’s was becoming very separated due to the different ideas and thoughts over states’ rights and slavery. 2. The chapter argues that a Democratic Revolution swept American in the decades after 1820. What evidence does the text present to support this argument? How persuasive is the evidence? The argument that a Democratic Revolution swept America in the decades after 1820 is based on the evidence given onthe economics, social changes, and political classes of breakdown.Economically, the Democrats held fiscal policies in banking and tariff decline increased free enterprise and capitalist opposition and reduced state monopolies and national funding of advances.In the social changes, more white men took part in politics than ever before, balancing out the class divisions within the American voting system. Finally, the Political changes included the rise of the Second Party System and political parties that involved a democratic expansion of the voters but at the expense of ethnic elements and women. So, even though women took more parts in after the 1820, they were still seen as inferior to men.