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Main Words in 1st semester

Main Words in 1st semester

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  • 1. Leisler’s Rebellion an uprising in colonial New York, reflecting colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Captain Jacob Leisler became the head of a new government of direct popular representation in lower New York from 1689 to 1691. New York's predominantly Anglican merchant and aristocratic classes and the Albany Convention opposed Leisler's rule. Stono Rebellion Early on the morning of Sunday, September 9, 1739, 20 black slaves met in secret near the Stono River in South Carolina to plan their escape to freedom. Minutes later, they burst into Hutcheson's store at Stono's bridge, killed the two storekeepers, and stole the guns and powder inside. The group of slaves grew in number as they headed south. Metacom’s Uprising 1675-1676 Known as King Philip When his people copied English ways by rising hogs & selling pork in Boston, Puritans officials accused them of selling at “an under rate” & restricted their trade. Was a deadly affair Indians destroyed one-fifth of the English towns in Massachusetts & Rhode Island & killed 1,000 settler About 4,500 Indians died Concluded that Europeans had to be expelled Women 1600-1800 Wartime: American women entered the workforce to take the place of men fighting overseas. Learning a variety of trades, women worked in all aspects of wartime industry including shipyards, aircraft factories, and munitions plants. Frequently referred to as "Rosie the Riveter," these individuals broke new ground and showed that women could compete in the industrial workforce. These images from the Library of Congress, with their original wartime captions, provide a sampling of the valuable service provided by Why did Europeans settle in the New World? These Europeans who settled in Massachusetts were looking for religious freedom. They were very pious Christian people who raised a lot of money to sail across the Atlantic to start a new life away from the restrictions of their governments. Spanish Franciscan Missionaries tried to impose cultural assimilation and forced labor along with religious conversion of indigenous peoples Bacons Rebellion: The Bacons Rebellion is a popular revolt in colonial Virginia in which the lower class of farmers & the poor peasants rose up against the wealthy land owners & the corrupt House of Burgesses. It was a rebellion of Virginian settlers against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. 1676 Virginia Nathaniel Bacon Bacons Rebellion was important because it was the first rebellion of the American colonies. Is historically significant because, at the time, it affected all the inhabitants of the Eastern shore of Virginia. The rebellion led to the elimination of the hated governor, Sir William Berkeley & most importantly, it also marked the beginning of America's journey for independence. Navigation Acts The Navigation Acts were passed by the English Parliament in the seventeenth century. The Acts were originally aimed at excluding the Dutch from the profits made by English trade. The mercantilist theory behind the Navigation Acts assumed that world trade was fixed and the colonies existed for the parent country. The Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1696 restricted American trade in the following ways; 1. Only British ships could transport imported and exported goods from the colonies. 2. The only people who were allowed to trade with the colonies had to be British citizens. 3. Commodities such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton wool which were produced in the colonies could be exported only to British ports. Mercantilism Is the idea that colonies existed for the benefit of the Mother Country. In other words, the American colonists could be compared to tenants who 'paid rent' by providing materials for export to Britain. According to the beliefs at the time, the wealth of th world was fixed. In order to increase a country's wealth, they needed to either explore and expand or conquer wealth through conquest. Colonizing America meant that Britain greatly increased its base of wealth. To keep the profits, Britain tried to keep a greater number of exports than imports. The most important thing for Britain to do was keep its money and not trade with other countries to get necessary items. The colonists role was to provide many of these items to the British. This idea of a fixed amount of wealth was the target of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations(1776). Smith's work had a profound effect on the American founding fathers and the nation's economic system.
  • 2. "Rosie" during the conflict. Republican motherhood: is a term that is used to represent an attitude toward the role of women that became present in the US during the time around the American Revolution. It centers around the belief that the daughters of patriots should be raised to believe and uphold the ideals of republicanism, so that these ideals and values will be passed onto the next generation. The concept of Republican motherhood essentially meant mothers doing their civic duty to uphold the Republican way of life. Abolitionist: Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman were well known in their time and are still the most famous of the black women who worked against slavery. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper and Maria W. Stewart are not as well known, but both were respected writers and activists. Harriet Jacobs wrote a book that was important as a story of what women went through during slavery, and brought the conditions of slavery to the attention of a wider audience.LucretiaMott was raised in a Quaker community in Massachusetts, "thoroughly imbued with women's rights" (in her words). By 1818 she was serving as a minister. Like many Hicksite Quakers including Hicks, Lucretia Mott considered slavery an evil to be opposed. They refused to use cotton cloth, cane sugar, and other slavery-produced goods.Elizabeth CadyAn active abolitionist was outraged when the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, also in 1840, denied official standing to women delegates, including Lucretia Mott. In 1848, she and Mott called for a women's rights convention to be held in Seneca Falls, New York. That convention, and the Declaration of Sentiments written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton which was approved there, is credited with initiating the long struggle towards women's rights and woman suffrage.Harriet Beecher Stowe author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Deism The belief, based solely on reason, in a God who created the universe and then abandoned it, assuming no control over life, exerting no influence on natural phenomena, and giving no supernatural revelation. Quakers Are members of a family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious Society of Friends. Most Friends view themselves as members of a Christian denomination. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional conservative Quaker understandings of Christianity. Presbyterians Branch of Reformed Protestantism which traces its origins to the British Isles. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, which is government by representative assemblies of elders.The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the European Reformation of the 16th century, with the example of John Calvin's Geneva being particularly influential. Most Reformed churches who trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the Ecumenical Movement, including the World Council of Churches. Methodists a group of historically-related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were also significant leaders in the movement. It originated as a revival within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate Church following Wesley's death. French and Indian Wars The French and Indian War or also refereed as the Seven Years War was a last of series of Imperial Wars between European countries. Had a dramatic consequence in North America where portions of the French and English empires were conflicting. English colonists wanted to move but they were blocked. The French claimed territory and supported those of North America. This ended with the Treaty of Paris. 1754 - 1763 Eastern North America (but this countries were involved: Austria, England, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Sweden ) The French and British were involved in a dispute over the Ohio River territory and the allegiance of the Native American people nations found there. The people involved also included Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, Marquis de Vaudreuil, and Francois de Lignery. The French and Indian war was important because they caused an extraordinary growth of the colonies from a population of 250,000 in 1700, to over a million by the 1750’s. Britain required raw materials including copper, hemp, tar, and turpentine. They also needed a great amount of money, and so they provided that all of these American products be shipped exclusively to England through the Navigation Acts. The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament on March 22, 1765. The new tax was imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used. Ship's papers, legal
  • 3. Advantages and disadvantages in the Revolutionary War Continental Armythe: American army during the American Revolution led by George Washington Redcoats: British soldiers during the American Revolution. British Army advantages: had a large and well trained army; hired Germans to increase army size; government collected taxes to pay for army and the war British Army disadvantages:they were fighting far away from home; they were not familiar with the area, their style of fighting did not fit the land Continental Army advantages:fighting to defend their homes and families; knew the area well; received help from France and Spain; successfully blockaded the coastContinental Army disadvantages:Loyalists sided with the British; most citizens were against the war; they started out with a small weak army and navy Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation served as a bond between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the Constitution for the United States. The articles envisioned a limited central government, regulations in trade affairs, war, peace, and alliance, but should not have authority to interfere with the internal governance or domestic concern of any Colony. The article provided a loose union in which each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence. November 1777 The United States Colonies Agreed to by the Continental Congress, but man ideas came from Carter Braxton, John Hancock and documents, licenses, newspapers, other publications, and even playing cards were taxed. The money collected by the Stamp Act was to be used to help pay the costs of defending and protecting the American frontier near the Appalachian Mountains (10,000 troops were to be stationed on the American frontier for this purpose) Tea Act. The Tea Act of 1773 was one of several measures imposed on the American colonists by the heavily indebted British government in the decade leading up to the American Revolutionary War (1775-83). The act's main purpose was not to raise revenue from the colonies but to bail out the floundering East India Company, a key in the British economy. The British government granted the company a monopoly on the importation and sale of tea in the colonies. The colonists had never accepted the constitutionality of the duty on tea, and the Tea Act rekindled their opposition to it. Their resistance culminated in the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773, in which colonists boarded East India Company ships and dumped their loads of tea overboard. Parliament responded with a series of harsh measures intended to stifle colonial resistance to British rule; two years later the war began Sugar Act 1764 Act that put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine. It banned importation of rum and French wines. These taxes affected only a certain part of the population, but the affected merchants were very vocal. Besides, the taxes were enacted (or raised) without the consent of the colonists. This was one of the first instances in which colonists wanted a say in how much they were taxed. Intolerable (Coercive) Acts Was the Patriot name for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Massachusetts after the Boston Tea Party. The acts stripped Massachusetts of self-government and historic rights, triggering outrage and resistance in the Thirteen Colonies. They were key developments in the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775. Colonial Protest Boycott - colonists stopped buying British products; it was the most successful of the protests because the British repealed the taxes when the colonists boycotted. 1st and 2nd Continental Congress From 1774 to 1789, the Continental Congress served as the government of the 13 American colonies and later the United States. The First Continental Congress, which was comprised of delegates from the colonies, met in 1774 in reaction to the Coercive Acts, a series of measures imposed by the British government on the colonies in response to their resistance to new taxes. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress convened after the American Revolutionary War (1775-83) had already begun. In 1776, it took the momentous step of declaring America's independence from Britain. Five years later, the Congress ratified the first national constitution, the Articles of Confederation, under which the country would be governed until 1789, when it was replaced by the current U.S. Constitution. Gibbons Vs. Ogden In Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824, the Court voided a New York law that created a monopoly on steamboat travel into New York City and established federal authority over interstate commerce. This decision meat that the monopolies or tariffs would impede the flow of goods, services, and news across the nation. The Gibbons v. Ogden was important because it proven that the federal government had the power to regulate federal trade, under the commerce section of the Constitution. This helped create the legal background for the growth of the country’s manufacturing system.
  • 4. others The Articles Of Confederation were important because it was like the first constitution of The United States. The document made the union of the thirteen colonies legal and identified them as sovereign states. It helped the states reach concessions and agreements and was put into the Constitution so that everyone would be satisfied. Martha Washington Born on June 2, 1731, in New Kent County, Virginia, Martha Washington married a wealthy plantation owner before becoming a widow and inheriting his estate. She wed Colonel George Washington in 1759 and became U.S. first lady upon his eventual ascendancy to the presidency. Martha was known for her aplomb and large social events, though she actually preferred privacy. Louisiana Purchase With the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the United States purchased approximately 828,000,000 square miles of territory from France, thereby doubling the size of the young republic. What was known as Louisiana Territory stretched from the Mississippi River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west and from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to the Canadian border in the north. Part or all of 15 states were eventually created from the land deal, which is considered one of the most important achievements of Thomas Jefferson’s presidency. Bill Of Rights A statement of the rights of a class of people, in particular. the first ten amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791 and guaranteeing such rights as the freedoms of speech, assembly, and worship Abigail Adams (1744-1818) was an American first lady (1797-1801), the wife of John Adams, the second president of the United States, and the mother of John Quincy Adams, the sixth president. Often separated from each other due to John's political work, the self-educated Abigail oversaw the family's household and largely raised their four children on her own, all the while maintaining a lively lifelong correspondence with her husband on the political issues of the day. A strong advocate of women's rights, Abigail Adams encouraged her husband and other members of the Continental Congress to "...remember the ladies..." as they began the work of crafting a new American government. Ralph Waldo Emerson Was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet, who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. Market revolution (1793–1909) in the United States was a drastic change in how manual labor was conducted in the United States. This development was marked by improvements in how goods were processed and fabricated as well as by a transformation of how labor was organized to process trade goods for consumption. Traditional commerce was made obsolete by improvements in transportation and communication. This change prompted the reincarnation of the mercantilist ideas that were thought to have died out. Increased industrialization was a major component of the Market Revolution and it is closely connected with the Industrial Revolution as a result. The Nullification Crisis arose in the early 1830s when leaders of South Carolina advanced the idea that a state did not have to follow a federal law and could, in effect, "nullify" the law. The idea that "states' rights" superseded federal law was promoted by John C. Calhoun, one of the most experienced and powerful politicians in the country, and was, to some extent, a precursor to the secession crisis that would trigger the Civil War 30 years later Alexis de Torcqueville A nobleman, he was prominent in politics, particularly just before and just after the Revolution of 1848 (see revolutions of 1848), and was minister of foreign affairs briefly in 1849. His observations made in 1831–32 during a government mission to the United States to study the penal system resulted in De la démocratie en Amériqu Missouri Compromise In the years leading up to the Missouri Compromise of 1820, tensions began to rise between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions within the U.S. Congress and across the country. They reached a boiling point after Missouri’s 1819 request for admission to the Union as a slave state, which threatened to upset the delicate balance between slave states and free states. To keep the peace, Congress orchestrated a two-part compromise, granting Missouri’s request but also admitting Maine as a free state. It also passed an amendment that drew an imaginary line across the former Louisiana Territory, establishing a boundary between free and slave regions that remained the law of the land until it was negated by the Kansas- Nebraska Act of 1854. Andrew Jackson Polices Oppose a National Bank. Bash the Native Americans. Represent himself as a man of the people due to his war record,which he played up at every opportunity.