El Yunque National Rain Forest El Yunque national Rain Forest is a reserve located on the eastern side of theisland and have over 200 different species of plant and over 120 species of animals.For a forest to be categorize as a tropical rain forest it must have principally twoenvironmental factors: the location should be on the tropical equatorial zone and thequantity of rain that it receives a year that it should be 4 to 8 meters. In the national rain forest el Yunque they are 240 species that been seen andwhich 26 are endemic and only found in el Yunque. In addiction they have beenreports of 47 species that have been introduced, 88 species of wear trees, 50 species ofnatives’ orchids and 150 species of ferns. The characteristic of the forest may varyfrom elevation. The national rain forest is divided on four types of forest which are:the “tabonuco” forest, red tree forest, sierra palm forest and the cloud forest or dwarfforest.The plants that we found on the rain forest were: • Cadan Tree: Produces a fruit the size of a soursop, has a relationship with mycorrhizae to grow. • Yagrumo: Cecropia peltata. It is dioecious, meaning it has male and female flowers on different trees of the same species. The flowers of the female are tiny and are grouped in inflorescences up to 4 inches long, The male flowers are much thinner. The female flowers produce thousands of fruits that are eaten by birds and bats. This keeps flowering and fruiting throughout the year. This species grows rapidly and their roots are shallow. • Magohaby (Caboa): Is a valuable wood, light and attractive. Does not have moth. Mahogany has a generally straight grain and it has a reddish-brown color, which darkens over time, and displays a reddish sheen when polished. It has excellent workability and is very durable. It can be Cuban mahogaby or Dominican mahogaby, although the Dominican magohaby has smaller leafs. • Bamboo: Grass, stem free of branches, it doesn’t have growth under its branches. Bamboos are some of the fastest growing plants in the world and depend on local soil and climatic conditions. • Guava tree: It was used in coffee plantations for shadow and produces a very sweet fruit. The spread of the guavas is because the animals will eat the fruit
and disperse the seeds in their droppings The ants that live in this tree are called “abayarde”. • Guaraguao Tree: Guarea guara. It is made of light wood like mahogany. • Tree Fern (Helecho arbóreo): Cibotium spp. They are very primitive plants, lively ferns and often in danger of extinction in the regions of origin.The plants and trees that live on El Yunque have big leaves, long and strong roots andtall stems. The Darft Forest: The darft forest is located at the upper part of the forest were the clouds touch the top peaks. The soil is very acid and pours on drainage. Commonly this part of the forest is cover by clouds which reduces the temperature to 65.3F. In this part the trees and plant are small because of the little sunlight that it receives even if they are higher than the others on the forest the clouds block the sunlight and reduces the photosynthesis.
The Sierra Palm Forest: This forest is located at 600m over the sea level. It’s have a soil that is lessdeep and unstable. This part of the forest is characterized by a specific tree that is thesierra palm. This can be found near rivers. The trees have strong roots that sustainthe tree from the wild winds. And its seeds are the principal food of the portoricanparrot.MethodologyThe objective of The Yunque Rain Forest visit was to take soil samples to see if wecould find phages. 1. Take the soil sample 2. Coordinates 3. Wind Velocity 4. Soil Temperature 5. Ph
Flora in this area is limited due to its climate. In this area dry soils are relativelyunproductive because plants need sufficient quantities of liquid to live. This plantneed to go to some adaptations due to the extremely dry climate. Rain comesinfrequently but when it comes the vegetation is transformed. Many plants havehighly reduced leaves that resist excessive water loss. Other adaptation is the Cam(caarssulacean acid metabolism) in which the plant takes CO2 at night and thestomata remain close in the day. (Campbell biology) The most common one are thebutton mangrove, “uva de playa”, Acacia, Melocatus and Agave.●Button mangrove: it’s an introduce plant, located far away from the cost. Theseplants extract salts from soli. This inhibits the plant growth creating a hypertonicsolution.●Uva de playa: scientific name coccoloba. It’s an introduced tree, are located close tothe cost.●Acacia: plant native from Puerto Rico, this plants contain thorns that protect themfrom predators.●Melocactus: native from Puerto Rico●Agave: live close to limestone, product of ph of rain (5.5 acidic).ThornsIn this forest the plant have a commonly adaptation which are the thorns. The thornsare a transformation that has different purposes. The purposes of the thorns are: 1. Reduce the transpiration of the leaves, which prevent the tree from drying.
2. The photosynthesis is develop on the shaft 3. Prevent that some predators eat the plant. 4. Obligate the animal to eat the fruit which benefits the dispersion of the plantThe differences between the rain forest el Yunque and the Guanica dry forest are:distribution, precipitation, plants, animals, temperature and human interact.Quadrants Group 1Line Transept Group 1