101_1大興高中第一次校內研習
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101_1大興高中第一次校內研習

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101_1大興高中第一次校內研習 101_1大興高中第一次校內研習 Presentation Transcript

  • Communicative Teaching Theories and Methods Presenter Wei-Lun Lu
  • Why Taiwanese Students couldn’t SpeakEnglish well? Chinese education environment is heavily influenced from Confucianism (Tuan, 2010, p.64), even though it was a notion centuries ago. 1. Students may assume that the teacher is the only role conveying knowledge for them and not from their peers, leading to the consequence that if they have group work they may not accept opinions. error correction, or tutoring from their peers (Tuan,p.64). 2. Consequently, if students don’t trust their peers or group members, any speaking activity used in class will be useless because no one would like to practice in groups. 3. Ex. My elementary and junior high school experiences. 2
  • Why Taiwanese Students couldn’t Learnand Use English well? Teacher-Fronted Direct Lecturing (Teacher-centered method) 1. English is traditionally characterized by “teacher-fronted direct lecturing” (Ning, 2010, p.1), or in other words “teacher- centered method” (Zhang, 2010, p.81). 2. Teacher-centered lecturing predominantly includes “text explanation, vocabulary illustration, grammar instruction, and intensive drills on language forms” (Ning, p.1). 3. According to Zhang. “Students are seen as acquiring knowledge of language rather than communicative ability directly and they simply passively acquire the new knowledge” (p.81). 3
  • Why Taiwanese Students couldn’t Learnand Use English well? As a result, having studied English for over 10years, many students are still found to be far from proficient in speaking and communicating skills (Ning, p.2), due to the possible reasons of students’ misassumption and teacher-centered instruction mentioned above.  Ex. frustrated in class experience in the US. /My Mom’s Singapore observation. As a second language teacher, I have found that output activities such as speaking activities are largely used in ESL setting, it might be one of the solution for both language teachers and students. 4
  • Output process in human brains Traditionally, the term output has been describe as a notion that ELL students are able to produce and use English through speaking or writing. “Recently, however, output has been explored as a learning process as well—one in which the ELL student tests second- language understanding and learns from the feedback received” says Anthony (2008, p.473). 5
  • Three Possible Output Functions Three possible functions of output in the learning process:  Noticing/Triggering Function  Hypothesis Testing Function  And Metalinguistic/Reflective Function ( Anthony 2008 , p 473) 6
  • Three Possible Output Functions1. Noticing/Triggering: When learners try to produce the target language,noticing they that they don’t know how to effectively sayor write the desired message; then the production ofoutput might trigger their attention and direct them tonotice something they have to modify next time or in thefuture (Anthony. p. 474).Ex. Ordering vanilla latte 7
  • Three Possible Output Functions2. Hypothesis Testing:Language learners hypothetically test or try the targetlanguage by producing it, and then receive correction andconfirmation from others (Anthony, p.474). Ex1. Super Star Jay Chou interview: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZwjhQ0jG2o How Jay could avoid speak English, but still can solve his communication problems with the interviewer? Answer : Negotiation for meaning Ex.2 Memorizing five sentences (words like opportunity) 8
  • Three Possible Output Functions3. Metalinguistic/Reflective Functions:Metallinguistic (reflective) function, occurs when language is used toreflect on the language that a learner produces or is produced byothers” states Anthony (p.474). Ex. Cooperative dialog is one of the resources and examples, which can be used to describe how the reflective function process. In the process of dialog talking in small groups or with the teacher, students are free to talk and reflect what is said and how it is said on any topic is selected (Anthoy) Ex. A Korean girl’s self-introduction video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-pxAlMJUv4 9
  • How our brain processes output through two processes1. Access strategies2. Production strategies 10
  • How our brain processes output through two processes1. Access strategiesAccess strategies involve searching language database,such as vocabulary words or lexicon in our brains to findappropriate words and forms of words to express aparticular meaning (Anthony, p.473). For instance, if a childwants to talk about a dog, the child would need to searchthrough his/her lexicon to find the word dog. 11
  • How our brain processes output through two processes2. Production strategiesProduction is the other access strategy our brains use. It is usedin putting together a series of words accessed from the lexiconto formulate a sentence or utterance (Anthony, p.473). Thisrequires a couple words to be accessed and to be put together inthe logical order to express the desired idea.For example, after accessing the words dog and barked fromhis/her brain lexicon, the child would use production strategy toform the sentence “the dog barked” to tell a friend about whathe/she saw the dog doing. According to Anthony, “Theexpression of this idea using the accessed vocabulary is theoutput (p.473). VanPatten (2003) 12
  • How our brain processes output through two processesAnthony concluded that both access strategies occur almostautomatically and without much effort in a first language.However, in the second language it requires conscious attentionas they are being acquired; automaticity occurs much later(p.473).Therefore, in order to achieve fluent speaking, second languagelearners have to do a lot of output practices such as in classspeaking activities with others to facilitate automaticity. 13
  • Swimming Learning Theory Learning a second language, such as English is like learning how to swim. If you want to learn how to swim, you have to practice swimming skills with your arms and legs in a swimming pool not from memorizing how to swim in a textbook. The same principle can be applied to English learning. If L2 learners do not use and practice their L2 skills with their tongues, they will be far from being proficiency. 14
  • Speaking ActivitiesMini presentation:It is also called prepared speech. Topics for students varydepending on student levels. Even though an average speech isone to three minutes, it might be frightening for presenters tospeak to the whole class, it is better to assign one or twolisteners in small group for presenters to practice their minipresentation several times before presenters give shortspeeches to the whole class (Lazaraton p.106). By doing so, itcan help students reduce their anxiety and build up theirconfidence.Ex. Questions in our textbooks 15
  • Speaking ActivitiesVideotaping of speeches:From self-evaluation aspect, “Students are usually surprised tosee how they appear and sound on the tape and can often comeup with their own ideas about how to improve theirperformances” says Lazaraton (p.107). From peer- and teacher-evaluation aspect, videos allow reviewers to do a more in-depthcritique at later time (Lazaration p.107). 16
  • Speaking ActivitiesThink-Pair Share (TPS)Think-Pair share involves three steps: students thoughtindividually on a given topic, take turns to exchange ideas withtheir partners, and they were selected to share their partners’ideas with the class (Ning p6 & Tuan p67).Questions:1. How was your weekend?2. Talk abut your habits and interests. 17
  • Speaking ActivitiesRole PlayWhen conducting a role-play, the teacher has to provide a context andsome roles for students to prepare and then perform in the class (Ding2009 p.140).While one group performs the other students listen. The teacher andstudents may discuss the performances from different groups latteron. “Depending on student level, role plays can be performed fromprepared scripts, created from a set of prompts and expressions, orwritten using and consolidating knowledge gained form instruction ordiscussion of the speech act and its various prior to the role playthemselves” described Lazaration (p.107).Ex. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZ2A7DYUF9E 18
  • Small Speaking ActivitiesPicture Description:It is usually played by two students. One is in charge ofdescribing a picture; the other guesses the meaning of thepicture described.Hand out the activity sheets to half participants. 19
  • Small Speaking ActivitiesRubricsThese activities can be assessed either formally or informally. Ifwe, as teachers, decide to assess our students formally, we willneed some formal rubrics, which provide grading standards forboth students and teachers.Some Rubric examples will be shown in the following IntegratedPerformance Assessment slides, videos, and your handouts (seelast few pages). 20
  • Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) 21
  • Integrated Performance AssessmentIPA Video 1:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUhS6zw_C2o&feature=relmfuIPA Video 2:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHhwtxEji9A&feature=relmfuAssessment practice:Assessing Presentation mode: the Korean Girl’s self-introductionAssessing Interpersonal mode: Jay Chao’s video 22
  • Links for designing Assessment Units and Teaching UnitsWebsites:CARLA IPA:http://www.carla.umn.edu/assessment/vac/CreateUnit/e_1.htmlCoBaLLTE CBI:http://www.carla.umn.edu/cobaltt/modules/curriculum/index.html 23
  • Obstacles We might encounter, and HowWe Overcome Them? Shy (Ning, p.8) Resistance (Tuan, p.70) Overuse Chinese (Ning, p.9) Unbalance in Contribution (Jiang p.138 ) What else we might encounter here in Daxing and how to overcome them if we want to try some output activities in the class? 24
  • Video Links Used in the WorkshopJay Chou’s interview:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZwjhQ0jG2oA Korean girl’s self-introduction video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-pxAlMJUv4The Annenberg Foundation:http://www.learner.org/resources/series185.html?pop=yes&pid=2003#IPA Video 1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUhS6zw_C2o&feature=relmfuIPA Video 2http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHhwtxEji9A&feature=relmfu 25
  • References Tuan, L. T. (2010). Infusing Cooperative Learning into an EFL Classroom. English Language Teaching, Vol.3, No.2, p 64-76 Zhang, Y. (2010). Cooperative Language Learning and Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 81-83 Ning, H. (2010). Adapting Cooperative Learning in Teriary ELT. ELT Journal, doi:10.1093/elt/ccqo21, p 1-11 Anthony, A. R. B. (2008). Output Strategies for English- Language Learniers: Theory to Practice. The Reading Teacher, 61(6), p.472-482 26