specimen collection&handling,Lusubilo2012

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This details on specimen collection and handling base on the presentation made by Lusubilo malakibungu,muhsin jabir and mwendesha mathias BMLS3 at Muhimbili University.

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specimen collection&handling,Lusubilo2012

  1. 1. COLLECTION AND HANDLING OF SPECIMENS FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS: lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  2. 2. <ul><li>Malakbungu Lusubilo </li></ul><ul><li>Simsokwe Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>Mwendesha Mathias </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  3. 3. <ul><li>At the end of this seminar, the following should be understood: </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of proper specimen collection </li></ul><ul><li>Handling of collected specimen </li></ul><ul><li>Proper transportation of specimen </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection criteria for mishandled specimen. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  4. 4. <ul><li>Specimen collection is a prior procedure towards a better diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection should be of a quality, that means; right specimen, collected at right time and transported at a right way to the right laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection should be from a right patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Handling ensures right collection and quality of specimen as specified by SOP. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  5. 5. <ul><li>The specimen collected must be labelled and date the container appropriately in the request form. </li></ul><ul><li>Other details to be included in the request form during the collection include:- </li></ul><ul><li>Patient full name </li></ul><ul><li>Patient address </li></ul><ul><li>Patient sex </li></ul><ul><li>Date of birth </li></ul><ul><li>Date and time of specimen collection and ordering. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant medication history. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  6. 6. <ul><li>Apply strict aseptic techniques throughout the procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands before and after collection. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect the specimen at the appropriate phase of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and place specimen aseptically in a sterile and appropriate container. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the outside of the specimen container is clean and uncontaminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Close the container tightly to prevent leaking of contents. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  7. 7. <ul><li>Some of the specimens collected in microbiology laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>-blood </li></ul><ul><li>-Cerebral spinal fluid </li></ul><ul><li>-sputum </li></ul><ul><li>-urine </li></ul><ul><li>-stool </li></ul><ul><li>-throat swab </li></ul><ul><li>-bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>-rectal swab </li></ul><ul><li>-vaginal swab </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  8. 8. <ul><li>BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>-C ollect blood during early stage of disease . </li></ul><ul><li>-C ollect blood during paroxysm of fever since the number of bacteria is higher. </li></ul><ul><li>-Collect blood in the absence of antibiotic administration for the case of bacterial infections. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  9. 9. <ul><li>Age Volum e </li></ul><ul><li><2years 2ml </li></ul><ul><li>2-5years 8ml </li></ul><ul><li>6-10years 12ml </li></ul><ul><li>>10years 20ml </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  10. 10. <ul><li>Whole blood is required for bacteriological examination </li></ul><ul><li>Serum separated from blood is used for serological techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Skin antisepsis is IMPORTANT at time of collection of blood sample. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  11. 11. <ul><li>Key; </li></ul><ul><li>LIGHT BLUE-EDTA Light purple-EDTA </li></ul><ul><li>ORANGE-ACD solution B </li></ul><ul><li>RED- </li></ul><ul><li>GREEN-heparin </li></ul><ul><li>PURPLE-EDTA </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  12. 12. <ul><li>Essential for diagnosis of any patient with evidence of meninged irritation or affected cerebrum. </li></ul><ul><li>Three to 5 millilitres are collected and part of it is used for biochemical,immunological and microscopic examination. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  13. 13. <ul><li>Collect CSF before antimicrobial therapy is started. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect CSF in a screw capped sterile container. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not delay transport </li></ul><ul><li>Store at 37C if delay is in processing is inevitable. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  14. 14. <ul><li>Sputum is processed in the laboratory for aetiological investigation of bacteria and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract.Eg MTB. </li></ul><ul><li>During collection </li></ul><ul><li>-Select a good wide mouthed sputum container. </li></ul><ul><li>-Give the patient a sputum a container with the laboratory serial number written in it. </li></ul><ul><li>-Instruct the patient to inhale deeply 2-3 times,cough up deeply from chest and spit in the sputum container. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  15. 15. lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  16. 16. <ul><li>Urine is sterile under normal circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower part of urethra and the Genitalia are normally colonized by bacteria which may also cause UTI’s </li></ul><ul><li>For microbiological examination urine must be collected as a “clean catch-mid-stream ” specimen. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  17. 17. <ul><li>Collected for diagnosis of acute infection diarhoeas aetiologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Collected prior adminstration of antimicrobial. </li></ul><ul><li>Faeces specimens should not contaminate with urine. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not collect the specimen from the bed pan </li></ul><ul><li>1 to 2g is sufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh stool specimen should be received 1-2hrs of after passage. </li></ul><ul><li>Store at 2-8C. </li></ul><ul><li>Modified cary and Blair medium is recommended as a good transport medium </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  18. 18. lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  19. 19. <ul><li>Depress the tongue with a tongue blade. </li></ul><ul><li>Swab the inflammed are of the throat,pharynx or tonsils with a sterile swab taking care to collect the PUS. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  20. 20. <ul><li>COLLECTED by a doctor and a well trained personell. </li></ul><ul><li>Decontaminate the skin overlaying the site from where specimen is to be collected. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirate 1ml or more of bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect in a sterile screw-cap tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Send to laboratory immediately. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  21. 21. lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  22. 22. <ul><li>Insert swab at least 2.5cm beyond the anal sphincter so that it enters the rectum. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate it once before withdrawing. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport in Cary and Blair transport medium </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  23. 23. <ul><li>Every specimen collected should be considered as a potentially hazardous. </li></ul><ul><li>Those delivering,receiving and examining specimens must be informed when a specimen is likely to contain highly infectious . </li></ul><ul><li>Such specimen should be labelled HIGH RISK </li></ul><ul><li>SIGNS/SYMBOLS such as a red dot,star or triangle to recognize the dangerment of specimen. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  24. 24. <ul><li>Example of specimens of HIGH RISK include; </li></ul><ul><li>-sputum for Microbacterium tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>-faecal specimen for vibrio cholerae </li></ul><ul><li>-fluid from ulcers that contain anthranx bacilli </li></ul><ul><li>-specimens from patients with suspected HIV infections. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  25. 25. lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  26. 26. <ul><li>Specimens require special attention during transportation to the laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>Specimens should be placed UPRIGHT. </li></ul><ul><li>For long distance transport it should be placed in three containers </li></ul><ul><li>-A primary container which has the specimen and is leak proof. </li></ul><ul><li>-A secondary container which is durable,water proof and made of metal and plastic with a screw cap. </li></ul><ul><li>-A tertiary container is ussually made of wood or cardbox </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  27. 27. lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
  28. 28. <ul><li>&quot;http://www.w3c.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/loose.dtd </li></ul><ul><li>Cheesebrough M.District Laboratory practice in tropical countries,Volume 2. </li></ul>lusu'11,mwendesha,sunday
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