Chemical Bonding in Sports
    BY: Glizyl Luna
What is hemoglobin?
●   It is a protein
●   It is found in red
    blood cells
●   They're responsible
    for carrying ox...
How is hemoglobin important in the
transport of oxygen in our bodies?
   It is the binding of
    oxygen to the iron
    ...
Why is the transport or oxygen by
       hemoglobin a real-life example of
              chemical bonding?
●   It is an ex...
How is hemoglobin related to a
     successful climb to the top of Mt.
                 Everest?
●   When you climb the
  ...
What does pH have to do with the
transport of oxygen by hemoglobin?
●   Temperature changes
    also influence the
    bin...
What is blood doping?
●   Blood doping is the
    act of increasing
    the number of red
    blood cells in
    circulati...
What is the difference between autologous
    and homologous blood doping?
●   Autologous blood
    doping is the use of
 ...
What is EPO and why is it used?
●   EPO stands for
    erythropoietin
●   It is a protein hormone
    produced by the kidn...
The Medical uses of blood doping
●   It was developed for
    treating the reduction
    in red blood cells that
    comes...
Why is blood doping used in sports?
●   It is used in sports
    because it can carry
    more oxygen to the
    muscles w...
A documented example of blood doping
                 used in sport
●   Pre-race favourite Alexandre
    Vinokourov tested...
nd
    A 2 documented example of blood
           doping in sports
The Vuelta a España has been rocked
this morning by new...
Side effects of blood doping
●   Bacterial infections
●   Heart disease
●   Stroke
●   Cerebral or
    pulmonary embolism
...
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Chemical Bonds

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Chemical Bonds

  1. 1. Chemical Bonding in Sports BY: Glizyl Luna
  2. 2. What is hemoglobin? ● It is a protein ● It is found in red blood cells ● They're responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to all other tissues of the body.
  3. 3. How is hemoglobin important in the transport of oxygen in our bodies?  It is the binding of oxygen to the iron inside hemoglobin that enables our blood to carry enough oxygen to our cells to keep the other tissues working.
  4. 4. Why is the transport or oxygen by hemoglobin a real-life example of chemical bonding? ● It is an example of chemical bonding because each hemoglobin molecule attaches to four oxygen atoms.
  5. 5. How is hemoglobin related to a successful climb to the top of Mt. Everest? ● When you climb the mountain your metabolism get high which means the pH is lower than normal and causes the hemoglobin to release more oxygen than usual. ● It increases the oxygen to the muscle.
  6. 6. What does pH have to do with the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin? ● Temperature changes also influence the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin. ● In the warmth of the interior organs, the curve is shifted to the right (the pH 7.2) helping to unload the oxygen
  7. 7. What is blood doping? ● Blood doping is the act of increasing the number of red blood cells in circulation in order to enhance the amount of oxygen that is carried into your muscles from your lungs.
  8. 8. What is the difference between autologous and homologous blood doping? ● Autologous blood doping is the use of one's own blood for transfusion. ● Homologous blood doping is the transfusion of blood from a donor, other than oneself.
  9. 9. What is EPO and why is it used? ● EPO stands for erythropoietin ● It is a protein hormone produced by the kidney. ● It is used to treat certain forms of anemia.
  10. 10. The Medical uses of blood doping ● It was developed for treating the reduction in red blood cells that comes with kidney disease, HIV, cancer, and those undergoing surgery. ● It also is used by increasing exercise performance.
  11. 11. Why is blood doping used in sports? ● It is used in sports because it can carry more oxygen to the muscles which is used by athletes who compete in high endurance races.
  12. 12. A documented example of blood doping used in sport ● Pre-race favourite Alexandre Vinokourov tested positive for blood doping after winning Saturday's time- trial stage of the Tour de France. ● Vinokourov has asked for a second blood sample to be tested, but his Astana team have now withdrawn from the race. ● Astana said two distinct types of red blood cells were found in Vinokourov's sample indicating he had had a blood transfusion before Saturday's stage. ● If Vinokourov's B-sample also tests positive he faces a two-year ban.
  13. 13. nd A 2 documented example of blood doping in sports The Vuelta a España has been rocked this morning by news that Tyler Hamilton (Phonak), has returned two positive blood tests that showed evidence of a homologous blood transfusion. One test was performed at the Athens Olympics and another at the Vuelta on September 13. Both tests showed evidence of a "mixed red blood cell population, an indication of a homologous blood transfusion," Phonak's press officer Georges Lüchinger was quoted by AP as saying. The results of the counter-analyses are not yet known, but are expected today (Tuesday).
  14. 14. Side effects of blood doping ● Bacterial infections ● Heart disease ● Stroke ● Cerebral or pulmonary embolism ● Autoimmune diseases
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