Published on

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. LeadershipMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  2. 2. Leading is Concerned With Establishing values, culture, and climate. Defining a mission. Identifying core competencies. Scanning environments. Sensing the need for change. Creating a vision for the future. Enlisting cooperation and support for that vision. Keeping people and processes focused. Unleashing the full potential of everyone.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  3. 3. Leadership and Influence Leadership: The process of influencing individuals and groups to set and achieve goals. Influence: The power to sway other people to one’s will or views. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  4. 4. Those Who Practice Leadership Guide Direct Counsel Coach Persuade Inspire othersMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  5. 5. Leadership Three Sets of Variables 1. The leader 2. Those being led 3. Circumstances and situations they find themselves facingMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  6. 6. The Yukl Group’s Nineteen Categories of Leadership Behavior1. Performance emphasis 10. Training-coaching2. Consideration 11. Information dissemination3. Inspiration 12. Problem solving4. Praise-recognition 13. Planning5. Structuring reward 14. Coordinating contingencies 15. Work facilitation6. Decision participation 16. Representation7. Autonomy-delegation 17. Interaction facilitation8. Role clarification 18. Conflict management9. Goal setting 19. Criticism-discipline MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  7. 7. Managers Organize Staff Plan Lead ControlMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  8. 8. Relationship Between Management and Leadership People Who Have Both Leadership Ability and Management Ability Leadership Management Ability Ability People Who Have People Who Have Leadership Ability but Are Management Ability but Not Managers Are Not LeadersMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  9. 9. Differences Between Management and Leadership ManagementPlanning andbudgeting LeadershipOrganizing and staffing EstablishingControlling and directionproblem solving Aligning people MotivatingMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  10. 10. Five Foundation Stones of LeadershipLegitimate Power – derives from their positions inCoercive Power – result of the exercise of legitimateReward Power – the right to promise or grant rewards,Expert Power – a person’s abilities, skills, knowledge,Referent Power – related to the kind of personality or MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  11. 11. Motivation Continuum Opportunity for Advancement Responsibility Recognition Positive Financial RewardsMotivation Praise Status ThreatsNegative ReprimandsMotivation Financial Penalties Suspension Termination MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  12. 12. Leadership Styles and the Distribution of Decision-Making AuthorityManager’s Exerciseof Authority Subordinates’ Share of Decision-Making Authority Autocratic Style Participative Style Free-Rein Style Manager makes Manager makes Subordinate makes decision, decision with input decision subject to announces it, and from subordinates. limits set by boss. seeks feedback. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  13. 13. Decision-Making Styles Free-rein style Which style a manager Participative style chooses should relate to the situation encountered. Autocratic styleMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  14. 14. To Use the Autocratic Style Effectively Managers must: Managers must: Know what needs to be done. Know what needs to be done. Possess expert power. Possess expert power. Face issues that they are best equipped to solve. Face issues that they are best equipped to solve. Create solutions in which implementation does not Create solutions in which implementation does not depend on others. depend on others. Desire to communicate through orders and instructions. Desire to communicate through orders and instructions. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  15. 15. Democratic Approach Works best for resolving issues that affect more than just the manager. Others in a manager’s unit know more than the manager does about an issue. Mutual trust and respect must exist. Subordinates must be willing to participate and be trained to do so.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  16. 16. Free-Rein Style Relies heavily on delegation of authority. Works best when the parties have expert power. Works particularly well with managers and experienced professionals.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  17. 17. Task Focus Emphasizes Technology Technology Methods Methods Plans Plans Programs Programs Deadlines Deadlines Getting the Getting the Goals Goals work out work outMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  18. 18. Focus on Employees Treats TreatsEmphasizesEmphasizes employees as employees as workers’ workers’ valuable valuable needs needs assets assets Builds teamwork Builds teamworkCan increaseCan increase Can decrease Can decrease job job absenteeism absenteeism satisfactionsatisfactionMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  19. 19. Ohio State University Leader Behavior StudiesStudied two factors:1. Consideration defined as concern for subordinates’ ideas and feelings. • Leaders who rated high in consideration: – Communicated openly. – Developed teams. – Focused on subordinates’ needs.2. Initiating structure defined as concern for goal achievement and task orientation. • Leaders who rated high in initiating structure were concerned with: – Deadlines. – Planning work. – Meeting schedules. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  20. 20. Theories of Situational Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Model House and Mitchell’s Path-Goal Theory Hersey and Blanchard’s Life-Cycle TheoryMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  21. 21. The Path-Goal Theory Suggests thatLeadership style is effective or ineffective on the basisof how successfully leaders support their subordinates’perceptions of:• Goals that need to be achieved.• Rewards for successful performance.• Behaviors that lead to successful performance. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  22. 22. House and Mitchell (1974) Based on the Following Two Assumptions:1. A leader’s behavior is acceptable and satisfying to subordinates to the extent that they view it as either an immediate source of satisfaction or as an instrument to some future satisfaction.2. A leader’s behavior will increase subordinates’ efforts if it links satisfaction of their needs to effective performance and supports their efforts to achieve goals. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  23. 23. House and Mitchell, 1974 Four Kinds of Leadership Behavior 1. Instrumental 2. Supportive behavior behavior (task-oriented) (employee-oriented)3. Participative behavior 4. Achievement-oriented (employee-oriented) behavior (employee-oriented) MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  24. 24. Two Situational Factors in the Path-Goal Theory 1. The personal characteristics of subordinates 1. The personal characteristics of subordinates 2. The work environment 2. The work environmentMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  25. 25. Personal Characteristics of SubordinatesTheir abilities Self-confidence Personal needs Perceptions of and motivation their leadersMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  26. 26. Hersey and Blanchard’s Life-Cycle TheoryBuilds on and combines ideas from the managerialgrid and path-goal theory.Does not allow for changes in situations.Assumes that leaders are capable and mature.MultiMedia by 2002 South-