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Ch13

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  • 1. Human MotivationMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 2. Quality of Work Life (QWL) Focuses on Enhancing workers’ dignity. Improving workers’ physical and emotional well- being. Enhancing the satisfaction individuals achieve.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 3. Basics of Motivation•• Motivation is the result of the interaction of a person’s Motivation is the result of the interaction of a person’s internalized needs and external influences that determine internalized needs and external influences that determine behavior. behavior.•• Enlightened managers have discovered that motivation Enlightened managers have discovered that motivation is not something that is done to a person. is not something that is done to a person.•• It results from a combination of factors, including: It results from a combination of factors, including: – Individuals’ needs. – Individuals’ needs. – Ability to make choices. – Ability to make choices. – An environment that provides the opportunity to satisfy those – An environment that provides the opportunity to satisfy those needs. needs. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 4. Basic Motivation ModelMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 5. To Satisfy a Need, a Person Must Evaluate Several Factors  Past experiences  Environmental influences  Perceptions  Skills are a person’s performance capabilities.  Incentives are factors created by managers to encourage workers to perform a task.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 6. Past Experiences Environmental Influences Incentives Integrated Skills Perceptions Needed Supplied by Manager Motivation ModelMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 7. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Four Premises Only an unsatisfied need can influence behavior; a satisfied need is not a motivator. A person’s needs are arranged in a priority order of importance. A person will at least minimally satisfy each level of need before feeling the need at the next level. If need satisfaction is not maintained at any level, the unsatisfied need will become a priority once again. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 8. Abraham Maslow’s Self- Realization • • Reaching Your Potential Independence •Hierarchy of Human Needs • Creativity Self-Expression Needs Esteem • Responsibility Needs • Self-Respect • Recognition • Sense of Accomplishment Social • Companionship • Acceptance Needs • Love and Affection • Group Membership Safety • Security for Self and Possessions • Avoidance of Risks Needs • Avoidance of Harm • Avoidance of Pain • Food Physical • Clothing Needs • Shelter • Comfort • Self-Preservation MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 9. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Hygiene Factors — Are extrinsic to the job. — Do not relate directly to a person’s actual work activity. — Are part of the context of the job, not its content. — If factors are of low quality, employees feel job dissatisfaction. — Do not necessarily act as motivators. — Are not necessarily stimuli for growth or greater effort. — Are the primary cause of unhappiness on the job. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 10. Hygiene Factors Include• Salary• Job security• Working conditions• Status• Company policies• Quality of technical supervision• Quality of interpersonal relations among peers, supervisors, and subordinatesMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 11. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Motivation Factors —Are the primary cause of job satisfaction. —Are intrinsic to a job. —Relate directly to the real nature of the work people perform. —Relate to job content. —Different people require different kinds and degrees of motivation factors.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 12. David McClelland Need for Achievement• Theory that holds that certain types of needs are learned during a lifetime of interaction with the environment.• McClelland’s three needs relate to: – Achievement, or the desire to excel or achieve in relation to a set of standards. – Power, or the desire to control others or have influence over them. – Affiliation, or the desire for friendship, cooperation, and close interpersonal relationships. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 13. Achievement Motivation Two Important Ideas  A strong achievement need relates to how well individuals are motivated to perform their work.  The achievement need can be strengthened by training.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 14. High Achiever McClelland and an Associate, David Burnham• Performs a task because of a compelling need for personal achievement.• Prefers to take personal responsibility for solving problems rather than leaving the outcome to others.• Prefers to set moderate goals that, with stretching, are achievable.• Prefers immediate and concrete feedback about performance, which assists in measuring progress toward the goal. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 15. Alderfer’s ERG Theory• Proposed a needs theory that compressed Maslow’s five need levels into three:  Existence. Existence needs relate to a person’s physical well-being.  Relatedness. Relatedness needs include needs for satisfactory relationships with others.  Growth. Growth needs call for the realization of potential and the achievement of competence. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 16. Expectancy Theory Includes Three Variables Effort-performance link Performance-reward link AttractivenessMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 17. To Motivate Behavior (Vroom, 1964; Porter and Lawler, 1968)• Understand that employees measure the value associated with the assignment.• Find out what outcomes are perceived as desirable by employees and provide them.• Make the job intrinsically rewarding.• Effectively and clearly communicate desired behaviors and their outcomes.• Link rewards to performance.• Be aware that people and their goals, needs, desires, and levels of performance differ.• Strengthen each individual’s perceptions of his or her ability to execute desired behaviors and achieve outcomes by providing guidance and direction. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 18. Reinforcement Theory Holds Behavior is influenced by the rewards or penalties experienced in similar situations in the past. Much of motivated behavior is learned behavior.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 19. Developing Motivated Behavior• Tell individuals what they can do to get positive reinforcement.• Tell individuals what they are doing wrong.• Base rewards on performance.• Administer the reinforcement as close in time to the related behavior as possible.• Recognize that failure to reward can also modify behavior. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 20. According to Goal-Setting Theory, Managers Should  Work with employees in setting goals.  Make goals specific rather than general.  Provide feedback on performance.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 21. Immaturity to Maturity Chris Argyris (1957) Tend to be active rather than passive. Are independent rather than dependent. Are self-aware rather than unaware. Are self-controlled rather than controlled by others. The formal chain of command limits self-determination, making individuals passive and manager dependent. The span of control decreases a person’s self-determination. Unity of direction places objectives under the control of one manager. Specialization of labor limits initiative and self- determination. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 22. Development of Expectations John L. Single (1980) Subordinates do what they believe they are expected to do. Ineffective managers fail to develop high expectations for performance. Managers perceived as excellent create high performance expectations that their employees can fulfill. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 23. Providing an Effective Reward System David Van Fleet (1991) Rewards must satisfy the basic needs of all Rewards must satisfy the basic needs of all employees. employees. Rewards must be comparable to those offered by Rewards must be comparable to those offered by competitive organizations in the same area. competitive organizations in the same area. Rewards must be equally available to people in Rewards must be equally available to people in the same positions and be distributed fairly and the same positions and be distributed fairly and equitably. equitably. The reward system must be multifaceted. The reward system must be multifaceted. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 24. Job Enrichment Should Include • Variety of tasks • Task importance • Task responsibility • FeedbackMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  • 25. Intrapreneurship Guidelines Kuratko and Hodgetts (1989) • Encourage action. • Use informal meetings. • Tolerate–do not punish–failure be persistent. • Be persistent. • Reward innovation. • Plan the physical layout. • Reward and/or promote innovative personnel. • Encourage people to go around red tape. • Eliminate rigid procedures. • Organize people into small teams.MultiMedia by 2002 South-