A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e       Chapter 10     PCs on a Network
Objectives• Learn about different types of physical network  architectures• Learn how networking works with Windows• Learn...
Introduction• Topics covered in this chapter:     –   Technologies used to build networks     –   How Windows supports a n...
Physical Network Architectures• Elements providing an overview of networks    – The different sizes of networks    – The d...
Sizes of Networks• A network links two or more computers• PAN (personal area network)    – Consists of personal devices at...
Networking Technologies• Factors driving network evolution:    – The type of data the network is intended to support    – ...
Additional Terms Used in Networking• Node (host): one device on a network; e.g., server• Network adapter: interfaces a PC ...
Figure 10-1 Ethernet network card showing its MAC addressA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                                         ...
Introducing Ethernet• Ethernet types (categorized by speed):    –   10-Mbps Ethernet    –   100-Mbps or Fast Ethernet    –...
Table 10-2 Variations of Ethernet and Ethernet cablingA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                                           10
Figure 10-4 Fiber-optic cables contain a glass core for      transmitting lightA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                   ...
Introducing Ethernet (continued)• Topology: arrangement of nodes in a network• Bus topology: connects all nodes with a lin...
Figure 10-6 Nodes on an Ethernet network can be connected to one    another in a star or bus formationA+ Guide to Hardware...
Figure 10-10 A star bus network uses more than one switchA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                                         ...
Introducing Ethernet (continued)•     Attenuation: the weakening of a transmitted signal•     Repeater: device used to amp...
Figure 10-14 A repeater on a network restores the clarity of the signal, which degrades over a distance because of attenua...
Wireless Networks• Use radio waves or infrared light to connect PCs• Popular in places where cables are difficult to insta...
Figure 10-16 Nodes on a wireless LAN connect to a cabled network by way of an access pointA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e        ...
Telephone Networks• Plain old telephone service (POTS)    – Switching creates closed circuits between phones• VoIP (Voice ...
Figure 10-20 A cellular WAN is made up of many cells    that provide coverage over a wide areaA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e    ...
Telephone Networks (continued)• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)    – New communication protocol using data packets• Tw...
Token Ring and FDDI• Token Ring is physically a star, logically a ring• Components of a token ring:    –   Controlled Acce...
Figure 10-21 Full-duplex and half-duplex transmissionsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                                            23
Windows on a Network• Major software components on a network         • An operating system installed on each PC    – Netwo...
Four Suites of Protocols• TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet  Protocol)    – Primary protocol used on the Inte...
Figure 10-25 An operating system can use more than one method toaddress a computer on the network, but at the network leve...
Four Suites of Protocols (continued)• Using a protocol on the network   – Install a NIC card in the computer   – Connect n...
Figure 10-26 Three Windows XP network protocols are installed and twoprotocols are bound to this network card A+ Guide to ...
Addressing on a Network• Four methods used to identify devices and programs   –   Using a MAC address   –   Using an IP ad...
Figure 10-27 Computers on the same LAN use MAC addresses tocommunicate, but computers on different LANs use IP addresses t...
Installing a NIC and Connecting to a                  Network• Components needed to connect a PC to a network    – NIC and...
Installing a NIC Using Windows                     2000/XP• Overview of installation steps    –   Determine whether driver...
Figure 10-32 Windows XP uses the Computer Name Changes dialog box toassign a host name to a computer on a networkA+ Guide ...
Installing a NIC Using Windows               2000/XP (continued)• Questions to ask before configuring TCP/IP   – Will the ...
Installing a NIC Using Windows               2000/XP (continued)• Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box   – Use...
Figure 10-34 To configure TCP/IP under Windows XP, use the    Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog boxA+ Guide to ...
Installing a NIC Using Windows 9x/Me• Overview of installation steps:    – Physically install the NIC and turn on the PC  ...
Figure 10-40 To configure TCP/IP in Windows 98, select the binding and clickProperties to view the TCP/IP Properties dialo...
Installing a Wireless Adapter in a                  Notebook• Wireless adapter uses a USB port or PC Card slot• Installati...
Figure 10-45 Plug the wireless USB adapter into the USB portA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                                      ...
Installing a Wireless Adapter in a           Notebook (continued)• Information displayed about a current connection:    – ...
Figure 10-49 Opening screen to configure a Linksys wireless adapterA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                               ...
Installing a Wireless Adapter in a           Notebook (continued)• Connecting to a public hot spot using Windows XP    –  ...
Figure 10-57 Enter the SSID of a hot spot to which you want to connectA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                            ...
How to Set Up Your Own Wireless                Network• Two principal steps:    – Buy a wireless access point    – Configu...
Security on a Wireless LAN• Methods for securing a wireless connection:    –   Disable SSID broadcasting    –   Filter MAC...
Figure 10-60 With tunneling, packets can travel over a wireless LAN andthe Internet in a virtual private network (VPN), bu...
Choosing a Wireless Access Point• Selection criteria    – The ability to use multiple security measures    – Supports for ...
Configure and Test Your Wireless                 Network• Installing the hardware    – Position device and plug it in    –...
Figure 10-65 This wireless access point supports several encryption methodsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e                       ...
Troubleshooting a Network                    Connection• Some symptoms indicating a faulty NIC:    – You cannot make a con...
Summary•     Network: system interconnecting two or more PCs•     Basic network types: PANs, LANs, MANs, and WANs•     Ban...
Summary (continued)• Telephone technologies: POTS, VoIP, Cellular WAN,  satellite phone, cordless phone, and radio phone• ...
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Ch10

  1. 1. A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e Chapter 10 PCs on a Network
  2. 2. Objectives• Learn about different types of physical network architectures• Learn how networking works with Windows• Learn how to install a network card and connect to a network• Learn how to set up and secure a wireless network• Learn about troubleshooting tools and tips for network connectionsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 2
  3. 3. Introduction• Topics covered in this chapter: – Technologies used to build networks – How Windows supports a network connection – How to connect a computer to a network – How switches and routers interface networks – How to setup and secure a wireless network – How to troubleshoot a network connectionA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 3
  4. 4. Physical Network Architectures• Elements providing an overview of networks – The different sizes of networks – The different technologies used by networks – Some networking terms• Network types commonly encountered – Ethernet – Wireless networks – Telephone networks – Mostly outdated token ring and FDDI networksA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 4
  5. 5. Sizes of Networks• A network links two or more computers• PAN (personal area network) – Consists of personal devices at close range• LAN (local area network) – Covers a small local area such as a home, or office• MAN (metropolitan area network) – Covers a large campus or city• WAN (wide area network) – Covers a large geographical area; e.g., the InternetA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 5
  6. 6. Networking Technologies• Factors driving network evolution: – The type of data the network is intended to support – The data capacity on the network – How a network is to fit among other networks• Bandwidth (data throughput or line speed): – Analog systems: measured in cycles/sec (hertz or Hz) – Digital systems: measured in bps, Kbps, or Mbps• As networks grow, the need for bandwidth grows A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 6
  7. 7. Additional Terms Used in Networking• Node (host): one device on a network; e.g., server• Network adapter: interfaces a PC with a network – Network interface card (NIC): fits in a PCI slot• Adapter (MAC, physical, or hardware) address: – 48-bit (6-byte) id number hard-coded on card – Example: 00-0C-6E-4E-AB-A5• Network protocols: rules of communication• Packets (datagrams or frames) – Basic unit of data transmitted on a networkA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 7
  8. 8. Figure 10-1 Ethernet network card showing its MAC addressA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 8
  9. 9. Introducing Ethernet• Ethernet types (categorized by speed): – 10-Mbps Ethernet – 100-Mbps or Fast Ethernet – 1000-Mbps or Gigabit Ethernet – 10-Gigabit Ethernet• Types of cabling used: – Two kinds of twisted-pair • Unshielded twisted pair (UTP): four pairs of twisted wire • Shielded twisted pair (STP): protected from EMI – Coaxial cable: single copper wire with braided shield – Fiber-optic: glass strands inside protective tubingA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 9
  10. 10. Table 10-2 Variations of Ethernet and Ethernet cablingA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 10
  11. 11. Figure 10-4 Fiber-optic cables contain a glass core for transmitting lightA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 11
  12. 12. Introducing Ethernet (continued)• Topology: arrangement of nodes in a network• Bus topology: connects all nodes with a line (no hub)• Star topology – Connects nodes to central hub (or switch) – The hub broadcasts a data packet to every device – Switch uses a table to route packet to receiving device• Scale networks by adding switches• Star bus topology: – Multiple switches form a bus network – Nodes connected to each switch form a star A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 12
  13. 13. Figure 10-6 Nodes on an Ethernet network can be connected to one another in a star or bus formationA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 13
  14. 14. Figure 10-10 A star bus network uses more than one switchA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 14
  15. 15. Introducing Ethernet (continued)• Attenuation: the weakening of a transmitted signal• Repeater: device used to amplify a signal in a LAN• Amplifier repeater: simply amplifies incoming signal• Signal-regenerating repeater – Reads and copies the signal (without noise) – Transmits an exact duplicate of the original• Ethernet uses a signal-regenerating repeater – A switch or hub can act as the repeater A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 15
  16. 16. Figure 10-14 A repeater on a network restores the clarity of the signal, which degrades over a distance because of attenuationA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 16
  17. 17. Wireless Networks• Use radio waves or infrared light to connect PCs• Popular in places where cables are difficult to install• 802.11wireless (Wi-Fi or Wireless Fidelity) – Types: 802.11g (most popular), 802.11b, 802.11a – Two new standards: 802.11k and 802.11r – Ad hoc mode: directly links two wireless devices – Access point (AP): connects wireless device to LAN• WiMAX (802.16 Wireless/802.16d and 802.16e) – Used in public hot spots and as a last mile solution• Bluetooth: short range standard; e.g., optical mouseA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 17
  18. 18. Figure 10-16 Nodes on a wireless LAN connect to a cabled network by way of an access pointA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 18
  19. 19. Telephone Networks• Plain old telephone service (POTS) – Switching creates closed circuits between phones• VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) – Uses packets of data to communicate• Cellular WAN – Made up cells created by base stations• Cellular WAN standards – GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) – CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) – TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 19
  20. 20. Figure 10-20 A cellular WAN is made up of many cells that provide coverage over a wide areaA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 20
  21. 21. Telephone Networks (continued)• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) – New communication protocol using data packets• Two types of transmission: – Full-duplex: allows both users to talk and transmit – Half-duplex: allows only one user on a channel• Satellite phone: communicates with satellites• Cordless phone: communicates with phone base• Radio phone: uses VHF radio wavesA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 21
  22. 22. Token Ring and FDDI• Token Ring is physically a star, logically a ring• Components of a token ring: – Controlled Access Unit (CAU) – Multistation Access Unit (MSAU or MAU) – Token Ring LAN card connecting node to MSAU – UTP or STP cables with two twisted pairs – RJ-45 or Universal Data Connector (UDC)• Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) – Uses a token that travels in a ring like a Token Ring – Data frames travel on the ring without the tokenA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 22
  23. 23. Figure 10-21 Full-duplex and half-duplex transmissionsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 23
  24. 24. Windows on a Network• Major software components on a network • An operating system installed on each PC – Network operating system (NOS) for larger networks• Peer-to-peer network (workgroup) – Each PC has the same authority on the network• Client/server model (domain) – Access to network resources controlled by an NOS – Server is called a domain controller• A few network operating systems – Windows 2003 Server, Novell NetWare, LinuxA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 24
  25. 25. Four Suites of Protocols• TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) – Primary protocol used on the Internet• IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Designed for use with Novell NetWare• NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) – Supports NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System)• AppleTalk – Proprietary networking protocol suite for Macs A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 25
  26. 26. Figure 10-25 An operating system can use more than one method toaddress a computer on the network, but at the network level, a MAC addressis always used to address a device on the networkA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 26
  27. 27. Four Suites of Protocols (continued)• Using a protocol on the network – Install a NIC card in the computer – Connect network cable to network device; e.g., a switch – NIC card binds to higher level protocol; e.g., TCP/IP• How to identify which protocols are used in Windows – Look at the properties of a network connection• More than one OS protocol can be used on a network• New protocols may be installed• Network printers can be accessed in various waysA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 27
  28. 28. Figure 10-26 Three Windows XP network protocols are installed and twoprotocols are bound to this network card A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 28
  29. 29. Addressing on a Network• Four methods used to identify devices and programs – Using a MAC address – Using an IP address – Using character-based names (host, domain, NetBIOS) – Using a Port address• IP addresses – Used in TCP/IP to identify any device on the network – 4 bytes (octets) separated by dots; e.g., 190.180.40.120 – System allows for up to 4.3 billion IP addresses – First part identifies network, last part identifies hostA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 29
  30. 30. Figure 10-27 Computers on the same LAN use MAC addresses tocommunicate, but computers on different LANs use IP addresses tocommunicate over the InternetA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 30
  31. 31. Installing a NIC and Connecting to a Network• Components needed to connect a PC to a network – NIC and network port or wireless NIC card in the PC – Patch cable – Device for the PC to connect to, such as a router• NIC card selection criteria – NIC should match type of bus on motherboard – NIC should match speed and type of network – Wireless NIC should match network technologyA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 31
  32. 32. Installing a NIC Using Windows 2000/XP• Overview of installation steps – Determine whether driver or NIC is installed first – If NIC precedes driver, install NIC and turn on PC – Follow instructions in Found New Hardware Wizard – Verify driver installation using the Device Manager – Update the driver if necessary – Connect patch cable to NIC port and network switch• Configuring Windows 2000/XP to use a network – Name computer in System Properties dialog boxA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 32
  33. 33. Figure 10-32 Windows XP uses the Computer Name Changes dialog box toassign a host name to a computer on a networkA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 33
  34. 34. Installing a NIC Using Windows 2000/XP (continued)• Questions to ask before configuring TCP/IP – Will the PC use dynamic or static IP addressing? – What are the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway? • A question to ask if static IP addressing is used – Do you use DNS? • If so, what are the IP addresses of your DNS servers? – Is a proxy server used to connect to other networks? • If so, what is the IP address of the proxy server?• Gateway: device that connects two networks A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 34
  35. 35. Installing a NIC Using Windows 2000/XP (continued)• Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box – Used to configure TCP/IP under Windows XP – Dialog opened from Properties of Local Area Connection• NWLink or NetBEUI protocol – Used for network communication (excluding the Internet) – Can be used in combination with TCP/IP – Installed from Properties of Local Area Connection A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 35
  36. 36. Figure 10-34 To configure TCP/IP under Windows XP, use the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog boxA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 36
  37. 37. Installing a NIC Using Windows 9x/Me• Overview of installation steps: – Physically install the NIC and turn on the PC – Follow instructions of the Wizard – Verify the installation using Device Manager• Assigning a computer name – Access Identification tab in Network dialog box – Enter names of computer and workgroup – Verify assignment in Network Neighborhood window• Installing and configuring TCP/IP using Windows 98 – Use functions in the Network windowA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 37
  38. 38. Figure 10-40 To configure TCP/IP in Windows 98, select the binding and clickProperties to view the TCP/IP Properties dialog boxA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 38
  39. 39. Installing a Wireless Adapter in a Notebook• Wireless adapter uses a USB port or PC Card slot• Installation package includes a CD and accessories• Overview of steps for installing a Linksys adapter – Install the software from the setup CD – Plug the wireless adapter into a USB port – Launch Found New Hardware and follow instructions• Managing the issue of an unsigned driver – Find approved driver or continue installation• Deciding which installation utility to use – Choose manufacturer’s utility over Windows XP’sA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 39
  40. 40. Figure 10-45 Plug the wireless USB adapter into the USB portA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 40
  41. 41. Installing a Wireless Adapter in a Notebook (continued)• Information displayed about a current connection: – MAC address of access point device used by adapter – The current channel the connection is using – Transfer rate, throughput, link quality, signal strength• Configuration changes you can make: – Mode or network type – The SSID (service set identifier) – Encryption settings – Tx rate – TCP/IP configurationA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 41
  42. 42. Figure 10-49 Opening screen to configure a Linksys wireless adapterA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 42
  43. 43. Installing a Wireless Adapter in a Notebook (continued)• Connecting to a public hot spot using Windows XP – Open Wireless Network Connection dialog box – Select unsecured network from list and click Connect – Open a browser to test the connection – View link in Wireless Network Connection Status box• Two ways to troubleshoot a connection – Add network SSID in Wireless network properties – Provide MAC address to network administratorA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 43
  44. 44. Figure 10-57 Enter the SSID of a hot spot to which you want to connectA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 44
  45. 45. How to Set Up Your Own Wireless Network• Two principal steps: – Buy a wireless access point – Configure AP and wireless PC for communication• Providing security is critical for a successful networkA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 45
  46. 46. Security on a Wireless LAN• Methods for securing a wireless connection: – Disable SSID broadcasting – Filter MAC addresses – Data encryption; e.g., WPA (WiFi Protected Access) – Change firmware default settings – Update firmware – Use a firewall – Virtual private network (VPN)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 46
  47. 47. Figure 10-60 With tunneling, packets can travel over a wireless LAN andthe Internet in a virtual private network (VPN), but WEP or WPA appliesonly to the wireless connectionA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 47
  48. 48. Choosing a Wireless Access Point• Selection criteria – The ability to use multiple security measures – Supports for the 802.11 b/g wireless standards – Good hardware reviews from other users• An access point can be a standalone device• An access point can also serve multiple purposesA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 48
  49. 49. Configure and Test Your Wireless Network• Installing the hardware – Position device and plug it in – Connect the device using a network or USB cable• Access point configuration is saved on firmware• Configuring the access point – Change default password to the administrative utility – Select basic wireless settings, such as the channel – Set up data encryption – Choose whether to filter MAC addresses – Save the settings and test the connectionA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 49
  50. 50. Figure 10-65 This wireless access point supports several encryption methodsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 50
  51. 51. Troubleshooting a Network Connection• Some symptoms indicating a faulty NIC: – You cannot make a connection to the network. – My Network Places does not show any other PCs – An error message displays during driver installation• Displaying TCP/IP connection information – Use Ipconfig under Windows 2000/XP – Use Winipcfg under Windows 9x/Me• Ping (Packet Internet Groper) diagnostic tool – Sends a signal to a remote computer – If remote PC is online and senses signal, it respondsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 51
  52. 52. Summary• Network: system interconnecting two or more PCs• Basic network types: PANs, LANs, MANs, and WANs• Bandwidth: amount of data transmitted per unit time• Ethernet topologies: bus, star, star bus• Wireless standards: 802.11g/b/a/k/r, WiMAX, Bluetooth A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 52
  53. 53. Summary (continued)• Telephone technologies: POTS, VoIP, Cellular WAN, satellite phone, cordless phone, and radio phone• OS level protocols: TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, Net BEUI, AppleTalk• IP address: 32-bit address identifying network node• Local Area Connection dialog box: used to install and modify communication protocolsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 53
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