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Ch02 Ch02 Presentation Transcript

  • Management Thought: Past and PresentMultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • The Value of History• People who ignore the past are destined to relive it.• Orang yang mengabaikan masa lalu ditakdirkan• Hence the study of Management Thought: Past and Present.MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Theory Attempts to explain the relationships Attempts to explain the relationships between and among its underlying principles. between and among its underlying principles. Gives people aareason for doing things. Gives people reason for doing things.MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Time Line of Management ThoughtMultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Management Theory Originated during England’s Industrial Revolution. First-time manufacturers could mass-produce goods in factories. Textile industry was among the first to capitalize on the new technology. Allowed manufacturers to make standardized goods. Depended on a constant flow of labor and materials. Needed to plan, organize, lead, control. Focused on finding the “one best way.” MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Two Classical Schools of Thought Focused on the manufacturing Focused on the manufacturing Classical Scientific School environment. environment. Emphasized the flow of Emphasized the flow ofClassical Administrative School information information and how organizations should operate. and how organizations should operate. MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Scientific School Charles Babbage Published On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. Concluded that definite management principles existed. Thought most important principle was “division of labor.” MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Scientific School Frederick W. Taylor Called the Father of Scientific Management, applied scientific methods to factory problems. Urged proper use of human labor, tools, and time. Pursued four key goals:  –To develop a science of management.  – To select workers scientifically.  – To educate and train workers scientifically.  – To create cooperation between management and labor. Developed the core ideas of scientific management time and motion studies. Introduced work breaks. Piece-rate system MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Scientific School Henry GanttMoved away from Invented the authoritarian Gantt Chart. management. Advocated a bonus system to reward workers.MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Scientific Thinkers Taught Managers to Analyze everything Teach effective methods Constantly monitor workers Organize and control the Plan responsibly work and the workersMultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Administrative School Henri Fayol Henri Fayol Believed that: Believed that: - specific skills could be learned and taught - specific skills could be learned and taught Fayol’s Universal Management Functions: Fayol’s Universal Management Functions: - Planning - Planning - Organizing - Organizing - Commanding - Commanding - Coordinating - Coordinating - Controlling - ControllingMultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Administrative School Mary Parker Follett Focused on how organizations cope with: - Conflict and the importance of goal sharing among managers. - Emphasized the human element. - Emphasized the need to discover and enlist individual and group motivation. MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Administrative School Chester Barnard - Argued that managers must gain acceptance for their authority. - Advocated the use of basic management principles. - Cautioned managers to issue no order that could not or would not be obeyed. MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Classical Administrative School Limitations 1. Rigid and 2. Lack of unresponsive commitment decision making. among workers.MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Abraham Maslow1. Developed a needs-based theory of motivation.2. Theory is now considered central to understanding human motivations and behavior. MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Behavioral Management School The Results Today Managers work hard to discover what employees want from work. Enlist cooperation and commitment. Unleash talents, energy, and creativity.MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Quantitative School of Management Theory1. Mathematical approaches to management problems.2. Was born in World War II era.3. Applied to every aspect of business. MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Management Science Study of:--Complex systems of: Complex systems of: --People People --Money Money --Equipment Equipment --Procedures Procedures--Is aafacet of quantitative management theory Is facet of quantitative management theory--Enables managers to design specific measures Enables managers to design specific measuresMultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Area of Management Science Operations Research Models Games SimulationsMultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Common Tools of Operations Management Inventory ModelsBreak-even Analyses Production Scheduling Production Routing MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • The Organization as a SystemMultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Contingency School Approaches depend on the variables of the situations. Draws on all past theories in attempting to analyze and solve problems. Is integrative. Summarized as an “it all depends” device. Tells managers to look to their experiences and the past and to consider many options before choosing. Encourages managers to stay flexible. MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Reengineering Approach The fundamental rethinking and radicalReengineering redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance.Reengineering What a company must do.determines How to do it. To sense the need for change.Greatest challenges To see change coming.facing managers To react effectively to it when it comes. MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western
  • Quality School of ManagementHas its roots most directly in the behavioral, quantitative,systems, and contingency schools.People key to both commitments and performance.What is done must be measured and evaluated quantitativelyand qualitatively.Quality school is the most current and is embraced worldwide. MultiMedia by Stephen M. Peters © 2002 South-Western