Hty 400 presentation

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Hty 400 presentation

  1. 1. Negro League Baseball Civil Rights Onlooker/Participant Or Separate Entity
  2. 2. “If We Can Stop Bullets Why Not Balls”
  3. 3. Pre-1920  Late 1800’s (post civil war) Blacks and whites played together on baseball teams  Early 1880’s it became seen as a social stigma if a black man was on your team  Social stigma develops into an unwritten rule Post 1880’s in which no blacks may play on white teams.  This only means that they cannot play with, does not bar playing against. (I.E. Barnstorming)
  4. 4. 1920  Andrew “Rube” Foster  “Pitfalls in Baseball”  Negro National League www.baseballhalloffame.org
  5. 5. 1921  Many teams left league  Chicago American Giants only constant  Tulsa Race Riots  “No government can wave a magical wand and take a race from bondage to citizenship in half a century.”
  6. 6. 1922  NAACP  Dyer Anti-lynching Bill  Passed in H.O.R.  “Congress, speaking for the American people, has finally set the stamp of disapproval on mob murder.”  Downed in Senate
  7. 7. 1923-1924  Eastern Colored League formed (1923)  Many teams dismantled  NNL losing money and players  Negro League World Series formed  NLWS and All Star Game become the basis of East-West game (TBDL)
  8. 8. 1923-1924 (cont.)  Tulsa makes news again!  Martial Law  Civil Rights History?!  Nope just kidding…
  9. 9. 1925-1932 Baseball  “Rube” was the “Glue” in 1925 rumblings of his managerial style prompted him to resign, realizing this would leave more work, owners simply shut up.  1927 saw “Rube” Foster admitted to a hospital for “losing his mind”
  10. 10. 1925-1932 Baseball (cont.)  1930 “Rube” Foster dies of mental illness, with him ECL dies  1932 Having been without Foster for 5 years, NNL folds.  1932 Cum Posey Erected the East-West League, this league folded quicker then it’s inception
  11. 11. 1925-1932 Civil Rights  A. Phillip Randolph, Sleeping Car Porters  “Scottsboro” boys  “In March 1931, nine young black males, aged 13 to 21, riding in an open freight car through rural Alabama were jailed and put on trial after being accused of raping two white women”  “Powell v. Alabama” (1932) Legal Counsel
  12. 12. 1925-1932 Sports  The all black New York Rens defeated the Original Celtics, in the first world basketball championship. (1932)
  13. 13. 1933  “Gus” Greenlee Re-institutes the NNL  Much like the East-West league the previous year the end seemed near  East-West game!!!  Similar to modern day all star games, separated geographically by East and West.  Chicago Defender, Pittsburgh Courier, Baltimore Afro-American, and the Kansas City Call
  14. 14. 1933 East-West Game  Inaugural game  Satchel Paige  20,000 Fans  Major League Owners present
  15. 15. 1934  NFL adopts a “gentlemen’s agreement” much like MLB’s barring blacks from professional competition.  Joe Louis, becomes light-heavyweight champion in boxing  “They are, on the whole, better hitters than the Detroit Tigers”
  16. 16. 1934 E-W Game  Some found it to not be prosperous, but a cash cow  20,882 viewed the game  Estimated 4,000 fans were white  Depression Era was hurting White Baseball, Black baseball (E-W Game) Prospering
  17. 17. 1935 E-W Game  27,000 fans attended  Assumption…  White fan base increased proportionally
  18. 18. 1936  Other sports had interracial success…  Jesse Owens (4 medals, contested WR)  NAACP put forth a lawsuit to end pay discrimination between Black and White teachers.  “I see no reason why Negroes should not be admitted to major league baseball. If it weren’t for them, where would America be in Hitler’s Olympics? There is no place for racial discrimination in the American national game” – New York Daily Mirror (w)
  19. 19. 1936 (cont)  “…In the interest of fair play and sportsmanship, we must wipe out this Jim-crowism and allow Negro ball players of ability on big league teams… There is no place for racial discrimination in the American plan of fair play and sportsmanship.”
  20. 20. 1936 E-W Game  30,000 attended  Satchel Paige the biggest drawing power again  With arguments arising from the Olympics the baseball integration issue became very hot
  21. 21. 1937  Joe Louis becomes the Heavyweight Boxing champion in front of 45,000 people  NAACP, begins rallying support for baseball integration through newspapers  First direct connection to CRM
  22. 22. 1937 E-W Game  No less then 20,000  Decline from previous year, but number still does not dip below 20,000
  23. 23. 1938 (Damn Yankees)  Jake Powell Utility outfielder for Yankees is recorded in interview as making racist remarks  He states that his off-season activities include “cracking niggers over the head” as a police officer  Powell suspended 10 day
  24. 24. 1938 E-W Game  30,000 view the game  White newspapers start to compliment the black players in articles even dubbing them superior in some ways
  25. 25. 1939  All but one major league stadium had integrated their seating.  Two black papers began interviewing MLB execs about their ideas on integration  Many replied they were not unwilling to accept the talent that the NL’s could offer.
  26. 26. 1939 E-W Game  Joe Louis threw out the first pitch  40,000 (a record at that time) viewed the game  Even more heard the game over the radio for the first time (in the New Orleans area)  A second E-W game was played in Yankee Stadium (12-17,000 attended, comparable to the first Chicago crowd)
  27. 27. 1940 E-W Game  No Satchel Paige  Only 25,000 in attendance
  28. 28. 1941  NAACP protested segregated military units  Executive Order by President Roosevelt is issued, banning “discrimination in war facilities and military training camps.”  Pearl Harbor ambushed
  29. 29. 1941 E-W Game  Satchel Paige returned  50,000+ attended, many were turned away (exact number unknown)
  30. 30. 1942  “Can you read, Judge Landis?” Campaign  “…Negroes are not barred from organized baseball by the commission and have never been since the 21 years I have served. There is no rule in organized baseball prohibiting their participation to my knowledge…”  Jackie Robinson and Nate Moreland arrive unexpectedly at Chicago White Sox training camp asking for tryouts… nothing came of it.
  31. 31. 1942 E-W Game  48,000+ Attended, with thousands more again being turned away.  Same teams played an Army-Navy relief fundraiser, raising nearly nine thousand and five hundred dollars
  32. 32. 1943 E-W Game  Satchel Paige still playing  51,000 in attendance  Avg. of 49,000 fans per game over three years prompted one Black Sportswriter to say “…This is not only the biggest Negro sports event, but the largest proposition in the nation from the point of view of patron interest to the extent of paying an admission price…”
  33. 33. 1944  Judge Landis Dies  Satchel Paige refuses to play in E-W game over monetary dispute  E-W Game sees 50,000 in attendance
  34. 34. 1945  NAACP helps to initiate the passage of the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)  End Jim Crow in Baseball Committee is formed as a result  New league formed by Greenlee, and Branch Rickey called the “United States League” this league folded in less then a year  Branch Rickey signs Jackie Robinson to the Montreal Royals, the farm team of the Brooklyn Dodgers
  35. 35. The East-West game would continue on until 1953, eight years after the signing of Jackie Robinson. Eventually the Major leagues would be fully integrated, and it was every baseball player for himself, to find his way on to a Major league roster.
  36. 36. My Conclusion…
  37. 37. The End

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