Procedural Processes
Lessons Learnt From Automated
Content Generation in “Easy Money”?

Luke Dicken and Heather Decker-Dav...
About Robot Overlord
Games
About "Easy Money?"
Easy Money?
Demo
Why Generate Procedurally?
• Players expect lots of content in games
• Players memorize static levels

• Disinterested in ...
Procedural Generation in EM
• An ample set of levels was needed, and
PCG could help us achieve this

• Mazes are generated...
Developing Procedurally
• Setting up conditions for a potential range
of envisioned player experiences, rather
than crafti...
Designing Procedurally
• Designing interactions for a space that
does not yet exist
• Spatial challenges and the realm of
...
Designing Procedurally
• Test extremes of variables to find your

target start and final level values
• Then build a formu...
Asset Creation
• Involve artists early so they can experiment
with the specific PCG system
• Artists must think modularly ...
Asset Creation

• The art style in Easy Money? embraced the
level structure while following the desired
aesthetic
• Testin...
Prototyping
• Once general level characteristics were
defined, 2D tiles were created
• This allowed us to refine both the
...
The Art Pipeline
• 2D tiles formed the blueprint for 3D pieces
• Precise construction ensured each piece
would snap togeth...
Simple Maze Creation

• Creating mazes isn't overly hard
• Just placing appropriate pieces into the

world where there is ...
Algorithmic Maze Creation
Maze Verification
• We use some simple checks to validate the
mazes produced are interesting

• Number of dead-ends placed...
Post-hoc Verification vs
Guided Generation

• Verification is a very simple process
• Guiding generation is way more compl...
Analytics

• Working out what the player is doing in

your game is majorly important
• You need to pay attention and dig i...
Export and Replay of
Content

• Analysis needs context
• We need to have the ability to export
configurations of levels
• ...
Procedural Difficulty
• We have parameters that we're using:
• for generation, for verification, for ingame
properties

• ...
Player Modelling
• We can look at how the player is playing
the game and what they are choosing to
spend time on
• Then ta...
Procedural Signposting
• How can we guide the player?
• Signposting is how designers subtly
influence player perceptions

...
Challenges
• Tools development may rack up a

significant cost: both time and money
• Strong programming knowledge require...
Challenges

• Balancing the power of your tools

• Easy Money? started out with 100 levels

• PCG is not ideal for all typ...
Summary

• Must evaluate the pros and cons of PCG

on a project-specific basic
• The methods here can be leveraged for
man...
Takeaways

• Break levels down into modular pieces
• Establish the PCG system early
• Tight integration between artists, d...
Alpha - http://easymoney.robotoverlord.co.uk/
Robot Overlord Games

!

Heather Decker-Davis
heather@robotoverlord.co.uk
@h...
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"
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Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"

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In this talk, given at the 2012 No Show Conference, and alongside long-term partner in crime Heather Decker-Davis, we talk about our game "Easy Money?" and our approach to content generation - along with the challenges they provided and the way it affected our workflow.

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Procedural Processes - Lessons Learnt from Automated Content Generation in "Easy Money?"

  1. 1. Procedural Processes Lessons Learnt From Automated Content Generation in “Easy Money”? Luke Dicken and Heather Decker-Davis @LukeD @HeatherMDecker
  2. 2. About Robot Overlord Games
  3. 3. About "Easy Money?"
  4. 4. Easy Money? Demo
  5. 5. Why Generate Procedurally? • Players expect lots of content in games • Players memorize static levels • Disinterested in replaying the same content • PCG can keep it fresh. Imagine Temple Run with a fixed level layout • Easier to store an algorithm than a set of assets
  6. 6. Procedural Generation in EM • An ample set of levels was needed, and PCG could help us achieve this • Mazes are generated semi-randomly • Items are deployed semi-randomly • Today, we want to talk about how everything comes together and how PCG impacted our workflow and results
  7. 7. Developing Procedurally • Setting up conditions for a potential range of envisioned player experiences, rather than crafting highly specific settings • Static vs. Procedural levels • Developers used to working strictly with static content models may need to shift their mindset
  8. 8. Designing Procedurally • Designing interactions for a space that does not yet exist • Spatial challenges and the realm of possible results • Be aware of potential unplayable situations • Prototype your mechanics first • System-oriented or formulaic progression • as always, refine with testing • Choose variables that follow your design goals and uphold a sense of fairness
  9. 9. Designing Procedurally • Test extremes of variables to find your target start and final level values • Then build a formula to fill in between point A and point B • Linear equations are a good starting point • Simple linear progression can be tweaked • For a distinct endgame feel, for example
  10. 10. Asset Creation • Involve artists early so they can experiment with the specific PCG system • Artists must think modularly and consider possible ways an asset may be positioned • Several possible approaches • theme packages • color shifting • procedural texture
  11. 11. Asset Creation • The art style in Easy Money? embraced the level structure while following the desired aesthetic • Testing and prototyping art was helped in nailing down specifics methodology for asset construction
  12. 12. Prototyping • Once general level characteristics were defined, 2D tiles were created • This allowed us to refine both the generation system and the piece set • Easily iterate with little asset commitment • Prototyping stages • 2D representation • 3D explorable levels • Adding the funds • Incorporating hazards
  13. 13. The Art Pipeline • 2D tiles formed the blueprint for 3D pieces • Precise construction ensured each piece would snap together properly on the grid • Pieces unwrapped, textured individually, then tested in-game • To minimize draw calls, pack as much into a single texture sheet as possible • Maximized reusability of pixel space for shared components
  14. 14. Simple Maze Creation • Creating mazes isn't overly hard • Just placing appropriate pieces into the world where there is a “road to nowhere” • Very efficient approach
  15. 15. Algorithmic Maze Creation
  16. 16. Maze Verification • We use some simple checks to validate the mazes produced are interesting • Number of dead-ends placed in the maze • Straight-line Distance from start to end • Number of pieces that have been placed • If any of these checks fail, the maze is rejected and a new one generated
  17. 17. Post-hoc Verification vs Guided Generation • Verification is a very simple process • Guiding generation is way more complex • Do we solve the simple problem multiple times, or the complex problem once • Your mileage may vary
  18. 18. Analytics • Working out what the player is doing in your game is majorly important • You need to pay attention and dig into the data to discover what’s actually going on
  19. 19. Export and Replay of Content • Analysis needs context • We need to have the ability to export configurations of levels • Also need to be able to bypass PCG system to load up a specific maze
  20. 20. Procedural Difficulty • We have parameters that we're using: • for generation, for verification, for ingame properties • So it isn't hard to see that if we start manipulating these parameters we can start varying the difficulty • As the game progresses, we can control the tone of the spaces being created
  21. 21. Player Modelling • We can look at how the player is playing the game and what they are choosing to spend time on • Then tailor the game to these tastes: • Players who prefer exploration can be given larger spaces • Players who dash to the goal can be given tight mazes with more hazards
  22. 22. Procedural Signposting • How can we guide the player? • Signposting is how designers subtly influence player perceptions • Lights under "important" doors • Cover position suggesting enemy locations • Can we generate these signs on the fly? • In EM, we're playing with how we can use our collectibles and hazards to help the player flow towards the goal (or misdirect)
  23. 23. Challenges • Tools development may rack up a significant cost: both time and money • Strong programming knowledge required • significant debugging and refining • responding to fringe cases • Potential "sameness" generated spaces • may be combated through: • peppering in unique content • combo approaches: both procedural and static
  24. 24. Challenges • Balancing the power of your tools • Easy Money? started out with 100 levels • PCG is not ideal for all types of games
  25. 25. Summary • Must evaluate the pros and cons of PCG on a project-specific basic • The methods here can be leveraged for many different styles of games and tailored to many different level structures
  26. 26. Takeaways • Break levels down into modular pieces • Establish the PCG system early • Tight integration between artists, designers and developers • PCG will affect decisions made by all groups • You can use PCG to turn your games to 11!
  27. 27. Alpha - http://easymoney.robotoverlord.co.uk/ Robot Overlord Games ! Heather Decker-Davis heather@robotoverlord.co.uk @heathermdecker ! Luke Dicken luke@robotoverlord.co.uk @LukeD

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