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Btrfs: Design, Implementation and the Current Status

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Historically Linux has always had quite decent pool of local file systems in the tree. However only one of them has been usually considered as a "General purpose local file system". Extended file …

Historically Linux has always had quite decent pool of local file systems in the tree. However only one of them has been usually considered as a "General purpose local file system". Extended file system was the one. Now it is about to change as btrfs "B-tree file system" joined the crew. In this talk I would like to give a brief overview on the design and implementation of btrfs and highlight some if its strong and weak qualities. We might even try to peek into the future to see what the future of btrfs might look like, what might be its main use case, if it will leave all other file system behind, or silently die after the hype fade away. Finally, I will introduce you to the current state of development. I'll try to summarize what has been done so far and what you can use today. And of course, highlight features which are either ready or are about to be ready for users to appreciate. Some examples of btrfs usage might follow

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  • 1. BtrfsDesign, Implementation and the Current StatusRed HatLuk´ˇ Czerner asFebruary 18, 2012
  • 2. Copyright © 2012 Luk´ˇ Czerner, Red Hat. asPermission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify thisdocument under the terms of the GNU Free DocumentationLicense, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the FreeSoftware Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-CoverTexts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is includedin the COPYING file.
  • 3. Agenda 1 Btrfs and its place in the Linux file system world 2 Design and implementation of Btrfs 3 Btrfs Features 4 Current status 5 Who writes Btrfs
  • 4. Part IBtrfs and its place in the Linux file systemworld
  • 5. Linux file systemsLinux kernel file systems There are approximately 55 kernel file systems in Linux kernel tree A lot of them has limited or specific use ExtN file system family considered the only ”general purpose file system” for a long time Most active local file systems = xfs, btrfs, ext4
  • 6. Linux file systemsLinux kernel file systems challenges Scalability - ability to grow and remain efficient ext4 just breached 16TB limit xfs scale up to 200TB and more Reliability - ability to recover from incidents Silent data corruption Metadata corruption tolerance File system repair on huge file systems Advanced Features - more than just storing data Snapshotting Encryption Ease of use - reduce administration overhead Growing storage stack - administration overhead
  • 7. Place for BtrfsWhat Btrfs has to offer ? Scalability Does not have fixed positions for metadata (mostly) 16 EiB file/file system size limit Reliability Very fast file system creation Possibly very fast file system check Data + metadata checksumming Incremental backup + snapshotting Online scrub to find and fix problems Advanced features Integrated volume management (RAID) Integrated snapshotting support Reflink Ease of use Integrated easy-to-use volume management
  • 8. Brief history of BtrfsThe idea IBM researcher Ohad Rodeh at Linux Storage and File system workshop 2007 COW friendly btree Leaves can not be linked to their neighbors Reference counting for easy tree cloning Proactive merge/split
  • 9. Brief history of BtrfsThe file system Chris Mason liked the idea of COW friendly Btrees Lot of previous experience from Reiserfs Using COW btree for every object in the file system COW advantages for free
  • 10. Part IIDesign and implementation of Btrfs
  • 11. DesignGeneric btree implementation for all objects The tree does not care about object types Each tree block carries header and key Header stores the location on disk + pointers to other blocks The key defines order in the tree block layout Regardless on the operation btrfs uses the same code path Reads Writes Data / Metadata allocation
  • 12. File system layoutSuperblock Stored on all devices Mirror copies of superblock kept up-to-date (not in SSD case) Main trees positions root tree chunk tree log tree
  • 13. File system layoutEverything is stored in Btrees Single btree manipulation code Few different types of trees 1 root tree - roots of other trees 2 chunk tree - logical to physical mapping 3 device allocation tree - device parts into chunks 4 extent allocation tree - file system wide 5 fs tree - inodes, files, directories 6 checksum tree - block checksums 7 data relocation tree 8 log root tree Each tree has its own specific ID Only leaves stores the actual data
  • 14. File system layoutLeaves and nodes Every tree block is either leaf or node Every leaf and node begins with the header Nodes [header, key ptr0....key ptrN]struct btrfs_node { struct btrfs_key_ptr { struct btrfs_header header; struct btrfs_disk_key; struct btrfs_key_ptr ptrs[]; __le64 blockptr;} __le64 generation; } Leaves [item0....itemN] [free space] [dataN...data0]struct btrfs_leaf { struct btrfs_item { struct btrfs_header header; struct btrfs_disk_key key; struct btrfs_item items[]; __le32 offset;} __le32 size; }
  • 15. Part IIIBtrfs Features
  • 16. TransactionsTransactions in Btrfs There is no journal as extN, or xfs has COW is used to guarantee consistency On fs tree or extent tree modification 1 Tree is cloned and the branch in question is copied and modified 2 New roots are added into root tree (identified by transaction ID) 3 New root of root tree added into superblock 4 Wait on all respective data and metadata to hit the disk 5 Commit the superblock to the disk 6 Original trees can be freed (decrease refcount) In case of crash, the original root tree is used (the one in the most up-to-date superblock)
  • 17. SnapshotsSnapshots in Btrfs Can be read only, or read write If read only - block quota set to 1 Snapshots are subvolumes Share parts of the original root Created the same way as described in transactions The original tree is not automatically freed Can be used in the same way as any subvolume Can be created instantly at any point in time
  • 18. ChecksumsChecksums in Btrfs Both metadata and data are checksummed Checksummed blocks of different sizes (data extents) Calculated only before written out to the disk Data + Metadata can be verified after read from disk Improves reliability Online failover Online scrub
  • 19. Online scrubFile system scrub Using checksums to validate all data + metadata Can fix errors if possible (mirror setup) Works online at a background start, cancel, resume, status btrfs scrub start [-Bdqr] {<path>|<device>}
  • 20. Volume managementVolume management Multi-disk support Easy to add / remove drives - pooling Multiple extent allocation trees Raid0, Raid1, Raid10 Subvolumes Multiple fs roots allows creating multiple subvolumes Each subvolume appears as directory in root volume Create snapshot of a subvolume (snapshot of snapshot of ...) You can easily mount a subvolume with -o subvol=<name> or subvolid=<ID> Users manage subvolumes in their subvolume Easy-to-use management
  • 21. File system checkFile system check It is ready now (sort of) Should be really ready by this summer (maybe) Has ambitions to be really fast Memory consumption should be quite low
  • 22. And moreAnd more Online defragmentation Online balancing Transparent compression Data deduplication Data encryption Volume balancing
  • 23. Part IVCurrent status
  • 24. What is already done ?What is already done ? Online defragmentation Online balancing Compression Free space cache Reflink Recently modified files Offline file system check (sort of)
  • 25. What is still missing ?What is still missing ? Offline file system check Raid 5/6 Deduplication Encryption Fragmentation problem ? More testing and stabilization
  • 26. Part VWho writes Btrfs?
  • 27. Who writes Btrfs?Who writes Btrfs for the last year? 637 commits 38658 lines changes (26160 inserted, 12498 deleted) Contribution from 63 developers from the last year Josef Bacik (Red Hat) Li Zefan (Fujitsu) Chris Mason (Oracle) Al Viro (Red Hat) and more...
  • 28. The end.Thanks for listening.