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  • 1. CHAPTER 11: ILUSTRATED.
    Felipe Rodríguez
  • 2. AllImagestakenform:
    Audeirk, D. Audesirk, J & Byers, B. (2008) Biology with Physiology: Life on Earth. New Jersey. : Pearson.
  • 3. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION.
    Paramecium sp. Is a protists, a microorganism.
    Yeast, a unicellular fungus reproduces asexually.
    Hydra a sea animal, reproduces a sexually. It starts growing a bud until it grows big enough to be an independent organism.
  • 4. PROKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE.
    Prokaryotic Cell Cycle consist of DNA growth and former cell division.
    Cell Division in Prokaryotic cells is called BINARY FISSION.
  • 5. EUCARYOTIC CELL CYCLE.
    This cycle consist of the following main phases:
    Interphase(Yellow).
    Cell Division (Light Blue).
    Interphase has 4 phases: G1,G0, S and G2.
    Cell Division could be either:
    Mitosis or Meiosis
  • 6. CHROMOSOME.
    A human chromosome consist of a single DNA double helix and some proteins called Histones and scaffolds.
    Chromosomes are a compact DNA container.
  • 7. CHROMOSOME.
    These are the main features of chromosomes:
    Genes: sequences of DNA that have an specific function.
    Centromere: it joins two parts of the chromosome, it does NOT have to be at the center.
    Telomeres: the “end” of the chromosome, they maintain the equilibrium and seal the chromosome’s material.
  • 8. DUPLICATED CHROMOSOME.
    A duplicated chromosome consist of two identical chromosomes.
  • 9. KARYOTYPE.
    A karyotype is the full set of chromosomes located at each cell of an organisms. All this chromosomes are located at the nucleus.
    They consist of homologues pairs. For example, chromosome 1 consists of two identical chromosomes. They share the same genes at the same order and the same length.
    Exception: sexual chromosomes.
    This photo is from a male, since it has XY, if it were from a women’s it would be XX.
  • 10. MITOTIC CELL DIVISION.
    Prophase:
    • Chromosomes condense.
    • 11. Microtubules form.
    • 12. Nuclear Envelop disintegrates.
    • 13. Spindle Microtubules grab the chromosomes.
    Metaphase:
    • Spindle Microtubules align the chromosomes along the cells’ “Equator”.
  • MITOTIC CELL DIVISION.
    Anaphase:
    • Sister chromatids are separated and moved to opposite sides of the cell. Microtubules push each pole apart.
    Telophase:
    • Microtubules start extending, nuclear envelop reforms and spindle microtubules disappear.
  • CYTOKINESIS: ANIMAL CELLS.
    Microfilaments attached to the plasmas membrane start contracting the cell’s Equator, until it divides in two.
  • 14. CYTOKINESIS: PLANT CELL.
    During Cytokinesis in plan cells, once the cell is divided , the Golgi Apparatus starts sending vesicles with carbohydrates (cellulose) to start creating a cell wall in-between both daughter nuclei.
  • 15. CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS.
    Checkpoints throughout the cell cycle:
    • After G1 : Is your DNA suitable and intact for it to synthesize?
    • 16. After G2: Has DNA replication successfully occurred?
    • 17. After Metaphase: Are all the chromosomes aligned at the Equator?
  • FIRST CHECKPOINT.
    Cycling-dependent kinases are proteins that are assigned to control the progress of the cell cycle.
  • 18. ALLELES.
    Homologues have same of different Alleles. Alleles are variations of the same gene, that determine different characteristics.
  • 19. MEIOTIC CELL DIVISION.
    Both members of a pair of homologues chromosomes are replicated before Meiosis. One chromosome is parental and the other is maternal.
  • 20. MEIOSIS I.
    After MEIOSIS I, each daughter cell receives one of each pair of homologues chromosomes.
  • 21. MEIOSIS II.
    After MEIOSIS II, sister chromatids separate into independent chromosomes and each daughter cell receives one of these chromosomes.
  • 22. MEIOSIS I.
  • 23. CROSSING OVER.
    Crossing Over occurs at Prophase I and it adds genetic diversity to the chromosomes.
  • 24. METAPHASE I.
    Homologues chromosomes are paired up taking as a reference the Equator. Each PAIR of chromatids gas a single functional kenitochore.
    In MITOSIS, each sister chromatids have one kenitochore.