The verb


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THI-0284 MB09T0S
Prof. olga Reinoso

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The verb

  1. 1.  The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence.
  2. 2.  In English, the infinitive of a verb is formed by adding the word “to.” Examples include: to learn, to act, and to be. In Spanish,the infinitive of a verb is indicated by one of the followingendings: –AR, -ER, and -IR. Here are some common verbs.
  3. 3.  A single-word verb inSpanish containsinformation about time(past, present, future),person and number.The process of grammaticallymodifying a verbto express this informationis called conjugation.
  4. 4. GRAMMATICAL TENSE: Depending on the language, verbs may express grammatical tense, aspect, or modality. Grammatical tense is the use of auxiliary verbs or inflections. perfective aspect, in which the action is viewed in its entirety though completion (as in "I saw the car") imperfective aspect, in which the action is viewed as ongoing; in some languages a verb could express imperfective aspect more narrowly as: habitual aspect, in which the action occurs repeatedly (as in "I used to go there every day"), or continuous aspect, in which the action occurs without pause; continuous aspect can be further subdivided into stative aspect, in which the situation is a fixed, unevolving state (as in "I know French"), and progressive aspect, in which the situation continuously evolves (as in "I am running") perfect, which combines elements of both aspect and tense, and in which both a prior event and the state resulting from it are expressed (as in "I have studied well")
  5. 5. VALENCY: The number of arguments that a verb takes is called its valency or valence. Verbs can be classified according to their valency: Avalent (valency = 0): the verb has neither a subject nor an object. Zero valency does not occur in English; in some languages such as Mandarin Chinese, weather verbs like snow(s) take no subject or object. Intransitive (valency = 1, monovalent): the verb only has a subject. For example: "he runs", "it falls". Transitive (valency = 2, divalent): the verb has a subject and a direct object. For example: "she eats fish", "we hunt nothing". Ditransitive (valency = 3, trivalent): the verb has a subject, a direct object, and an indirect object. For example: "He gives her a flower."
  6. 6. VERBAL FORMS:Auxiliary or Helping VerbsThe issues raised by Helping or AuxiliaryVerbs and Modal Auxiliaries are coveredin a separate section. Click here for helpwith Auxiliary Verbs and ModalAuxiliaries.Phrasal verbs consist of a verb andanother word or phrase, usually apreposition. The resulting combinationcreates what amounts to a new verb,whose meaning can sometimes bepuzzling to non-native speakers.
  7. 7.  Causative Verbs Causative verbs designate the action necessary to cause another action to happen. In "The devil made me do it." the verb "made" causes the "do" to happen. Factitive Verbs Verbs like make, choose, judge, elect, select, name. are called factitive verbs. These transitive verbs can take two objects, or seem to: They judged Philberts dog Best of Show. (where "dog" is the direct object and "Best of Show" is the second complement).
  8. 8.  Progressive Verbs The progressive tenses, which indicate something being or happening, are formed with the present participle form (ending in -ing) along with various auxiliaries. "She is driving. She was driving. She will be driving. She has been driving. She had been driving. She will have been driving”. Irregular Verbs Most verbs in English form their various tenses consistently: add -ed to the base of a verb to create the simple past and past participle: he walked; he has walked. There are, however, a number of so-called irregular verbs, (including, unfortunately, some very common verbs such as to be and to have) whose various forms must be memorized
  9. 9.  Sequence of Tenses The relationship between verbs in a main clause and verbs in dependent clauses is important. These verb tenses dont have to be identical as long as they reflect, logically, shifts in time and meaning: "My brother had graduated before I started college." "My brother will have graduated before I start
  10. 10. VERBAL: Verbals are words that seem to carry the idea of action or being but do not function as a true verb. The are sometimes called "nonfinite" (unfinished or incomplete) verbs. Because time is involved with all verb forms, whether finite or nonfinite, however, following a logical Tense Sequence is important Participle: a verb form acting as an adjective. The running dog chased the fluttering moth. A present participle (like running or fluttering) describes a present condition; a past participle describes something that has happened: "The completely rotted tooth finally fell out of his mouth." The distinction can be important to the meaning of a sentence. Infinitive: the root of a verb plus the word to. To sleep, perchance to dream. A present infinitive describes a present condition: "I like to sleep." The perfect infinitive describes a time earlier than that of the verb: "I would like to have won that game." See the section on Sequence below for other forms as well.
  11. 11. VERB TO BE: The verb “to be” means “Ser” or “Estar”. Its meaning depends on the context of the sentence, and the way we want to express it all times. Then, as will be usual, Here we see a table with Positive and negative sentence we are studying. Then, as will be usual, gives a table where conjugation see, in both English and Spanish of this verb we are studying.
  12. 12. INFINITIVE AND GERUNDS AND SEQUENCE:Although they are not, strictly speaking,verbs, infinitives and gerunds carrywithin them the idea of action.Combined with auxiliary verb forms,like verbs, they also express variousshades of time.
  13. 13. ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL MEANINGS: Although a gerund and an infinitive will often have practically the same meaning ("Running in the park after dark can be dangerous" and "To run in the park after dark can be dangerous"), there can be a difference in meaning. Gerunds are used to describe an "actual, vivid, or fulfilled action" whereas infinitives are better used to describe "potential, hypothetical, or future events. EMOTION Actual Event Potential Event I hated practicing my violin while the other kids were playing outside. I prefer to work during the day. COMPLETION/INCOMPLETION Actual Event Potential Event We began working on this project two years ago. We finished working on this project a month ago. (Finish always takes a gerund.) We will continue to work on this project for the next four months. I wonder when we will start to wrap up this project. REMEMBERING (such as remember, forget, regret) Juanita forgot to do her homework. (meaning that Juanita failed to do her homework because she didnt remember to do it) Juanita forgot doing her homework. (meaning that Juanita did her homework but that she forgot she had done so)