• Looked at from
points of view.
• Operates at different levels
• Pedagogically, it is a means
for learning and teaching a
Arguments against translation
Reform Movement emphasizes that
speaking in a foreign language is more
important that translating.
Translation interferes with the natural
process of learning by using the mother
Translation promotes passive knowledge
about the foreign language instead
active use of it.
Makes students believe there is one-toone
between lexical items in the two
Arguments for translation.
helps learning as teaching and
It is considered a key feature for
Facilitates comparison, cognitive and
Very important in multilingualism and
It can helps to produce and create
awareness of differences in
linguistics forms and formulas in different
Develops communicative competences.
Promotes cross-cultural understanding.
Reduces fear to a new language.
Develops proficiency and knowledge
about foreign language and its system
(differences and similarities).
Translation as intercultural
nature of intercultural communication
differs in overt and covert translation.
In a covert translation, a ‘cultural filter’ is
applied to adapt the source text to the
communicative norms of the target
In a overt translation, intercultural transfer
is explicitly present and so likely to be
perceived by recipients.
has shifted from linguistic to a
Translators are given new responsibilities
sociocultural and political differences and
The nature of the translation
aloud: it is a externalized internal
monologue or introspection.
Verbal reports: known as retrospection
about difficulties, hesitations, delay, etc.
Process of translation: a complex series of
problem-solving and decision making
is lack of knowledge about
studies: uses corpora in translation
studies as a tool. A corpus is a collection
according to specific criteria and held in
an electronic format.
Globalization: alters the role of translation
in the modern world relying on new
information technologies such as Internet
and worldwide electronically mediated
forums leading to a worldwide translation
Juliane. Translation. 2013. OXFORD
University Press. UK.