•1789-1794 (Main Events)•Four Main Phases •Moderate Phase 1789- 1791 •Radical Phase 1792-1794 •Directory 1795-1799 •Age of Napoleon 1799-1815
• Estates System• Severe famine from poor harvest of 1789• Huge debt from American Revolution and Seven Years War• King’s Solution was to raise taxes• First two estates (wealthy who paid little taxes) didn’t want change• Third Estate (peasants who paid most taxes) break away and calls themselves the National Assembly
•Rumors had spread that the king was tryingto stop the National Assembly and had senttroops.•A mob hears that weapons are stored in theBastille (an old prison) and heads there onJuly 14, 1789•They find no weapons and a battle ensues,quickly making this a symbol of therevolution.•During the revolution 300,000 people areimprisoned and 40,000 are executed,including the king and queen, under theCommittee of Public Safety.•Napoleon sets up the Consulate in 1799 afterthe Directory takes over in 1795. He latercrowns himself emperor in 1804.
•Born 1769 in Corsica, as a child alwaysloved the military•Quickly rises through the ranks of themilitary and becomes General•Begins his career in politics in 1799 withthe three man Consulate, loved by thepeople•In 1804 he crowns himself emperor•Sets up the Napoleonic Code •Equality of all citizens under the law •Religious tolerance •Advancement through merit•Sets up the Continental System to drainunconquerable Britain of its resources
•Russia withdraws from the Continental System and Napoleon decides toinvade with the Grand Army, the largest military force on the planet at the time•Russians lead him through the country, wearing down Napoleon’s men, food,and morale. This is a terrible loss for Napoleon and his army trudges back withonly 10,000 men of the original 400,000•Napoleon is exiled, returns and faces another defeat at Waterloo, and is exiledfor good until his death in 1821.•Napoleon also gives usthe gift of nationalism,which would be perhapshis greatest legacy amongmany
•Fought 1853-1856 between France, Britain, and Turkey against Russiaover dominance of holy lands•More casualties from disease and famine than from actual war•Turkey declares war on Russia on October 4, 1853 after rejecting theRussian ultimatum in May•Late March of 1854 Britain and France declare war on Russia•Allied forces land in Crimea six months later•January 1855 Sardinia declares war on the Russians•Russia accepts peace terms in February 1856 and the Treaty of Paris issigned March 30•Russia was very technologically behind during this war as it did not have the industrial revolution on its side
•One of the three wars of German unification under Chancellor Otto vonBismarck, who wanted to unite northern and southern states of Germanyinto a single unified Germany•This would turn out to be fairly easy as the states were united in theirhatred of France from the Napoleonic Wars. Both sides wanted a war asFrance was threatened by the Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian Warof 1866•With the placement of a Prussian prince on How France ends this and most warsthe Spanish throne, France now had Prussianleaders on both sides and declared war•This was a terrible mistake as at the end of the war Prussia will have reached Paris, acquirednew territories and have France pay for it all