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Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
Inglés 1° medio  teens club   guia del profesor
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Inglés 1° medio teens club guia del profesor

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  • 1. GUÍA DIDÁCTICA PARA EL PROFESOR INCLUYE TEXTO PARA EL ESTUDIANTE Lina Alvarado Jantus EDICIÓN ESPECIAL PARA EL MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN PROHIBIDA SU COMERCIALIZACIÓN AÑO 2010
  • 2. GUIA DIDÁCTICA PARA EL PROFESOR - INCLUYE TEXTO PARA EL ESTUDIANTE I nglés º Medio Lina Alvarado Jantus Teacher of English Instituto Profesional Chileno-Británico
  • 3. 2010 © Ediciones R&B ®Teen Club 1º MedioOriginal text © Lina Alvarado Jantus. Teacher of English Instituto Profesional Chileno-Británico.Original illustrations © Ediciones R&B ®Design © Ediciones R&B ®Publisher Gloria Caro Opazo.Assistant Publisher Ly-Sen Lam Díaz.Designed by Cristina Sepulveda Aravena.Cover designed by Cristina Sepulveda Aravena.Layout by Cristina Sepulveda Aravena.Proofreading Thomas Connelly.Illustrations Fernando Santander Tiozzo.Production Ediciones R&B.Recording Producer Rodrigo González Díaz.Photos Archivos Ediciones R&BNº de Inscripción: 183.657ISBN: 978-956-8694-07-4All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orotherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.La materialidad y fabricación de este texto está certificado por el IDIEM - Universidad de Chile.Impreso RR DonnelleySe terminó de imprimir 9.001 ejemplares en el mes de enero de 2010.
  • 4. CONTENTSPLAN OF THE BOOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 UNIT 1: TEEN LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Students Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Teachers Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 UNIT 2: BELIEVE IT OR NOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67TEENS CLUB METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Skills development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Communicative skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 UNIT 3: TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS . . . . . . . . . . 70 Language structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Cognates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 False cognates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 UNIT 4: SONGS - MUSIC AND WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Learner training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Classroom management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Large classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 UNIT 5: HOW ABOUT WORKING? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Pairwork and groupwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Self-assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Photocopiable evaluation instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Error alert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Applying Evaluation Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152SOME BASIC TEACHING REMINDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 PHOTOCOPIABLE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS . . . . 155THE INTERNET IN THE CLASSROOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Evaluating listening comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Tips to develop safe Internet lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Evaluating reading comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT Writing rubric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158MATERIAL FOR TEACHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Working with others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159CLASSROOM LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Oral presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Class participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Extended-response reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Inference from a text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 3
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  • 7. DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSETeens Club has been written for teenagers in their first year of The Students Book is divided into 5 units, each one based on asecondary school. It aims to appeal to teens through imaginative different topic:and exciting topics, introduces up-to-date language and Unit 1: Teen Lifeexpressions, increases confidence through learner independence Unit 2: Challengesactivities, provides regular opportunities for review and self- Unit 3: Technology and Inventionsassessment, and deals with different learning styles. For the Unit 4: Music and Literatureteacher, it offers materials and tools for successful lessons, with Unit 5: Teen Workfull support at every stage. Each unit has two reading and two listening lessons. In eachThe book takes into account that teenagers are going through a lesson, there is a Reflection Spot to allow students to think aboutchallenging period of their lives, with great physical, social, and their achievements and weaknesses, and there is also a Lets checkpsychological changes. section, the purpose of which is to allow students to evaluate their progress on a particular aspect of the lesson and, at theThe main objective of Teens Club is to appeal to teenagers by same time, to provide information to the teacher about anyproviding them with materials that reflect their own reality. points that the majority of the students have problems with.Although the language is clear and progresses along the course,the aim is to enable students to read, listen to, and express what At the end of each unit, there are three additional sections:is relevant and of interest to them at their particular age, so that • Your English in Action provides additional activities that providethey enjoy the language learning process. It provides a broad a good opportunity for students to consolidate topics andrange of materials to engage students in challenging, but language structures of the lessons.achievable tasks. The different topics that have been included • Unit Check has a test format covering the four skills and thegive the students the opportunity for cross-curricular and cross- language studied in the unit. It helps students revise contentscultural work so that they can learn about life and the world at and evaluate their performance in the whole unit.the same time as they learn English. • Final Reflection offers students a summary of what they have learnt in the unit, allows them to reflect on their strengths andThrough guided questions and simple discussions, students are weaknesses, and guides them to make decisions concerningencouraged to express and hold their opinions on issues that concern actions to take in order to improve.their lives and the world around them. Cultural aspects are alsohighlighted at relevant points. Aspects of English-speaking countries, The units also include Real Life Spots, which aim to allow studentssuch as information related to school life and subjects, historical and to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life,geographical facts, cultural heritage and teenage styles are meant to or bring a bit of humor to the class together with additionalraise students awareness of the target culture, and at the same time information that may be useful for them. Teachers shoulddevelop a richer perspective of their own culture. encourage students to take advantage of these spots and find further information or connections with the topics.As it is important for students to “learn how to learn”, Teens Club Teens Club includes a Game Spot in many of the lessons. Gamesprovides opportunities to experiment and revise learning styles. are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the sameIt also aims to develop language learning strategies which suit time challenging for the students, they provide an opportunity toeach of them. use language in real contexts and they also encourage andCOURSE COMPONENTS increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners ofTeens Club consists of a Students Book, a Teachers Book and a CD. English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and Student‘s Book enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicativeAt the beginning of the book there is a list of contents and an way. Games are used in the classroom not only for mere fun, butexplanation of the symbols used. At the end, there is list of verbs more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language.and a bibliography for students. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read,6 INTRODUCTION
  • 8. speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore • A complete bibliography for the teacher.better remembered. • Classification of the activities in the lessons according to their level of difficulty, indicated with the following icons: CD + Low ++ Medium +++ HighThe CD includes all the material for the listening tasks in the • One activity for fast learners in each lesson (FL).lessons, the oral practice exercises, and the listening component • Icons to indicate the language ability to be developed:of all the tests (Unit Check and Extra Tests). This is the icon used in the Students Book to indicate that recorded material is used. READING LISTENING SPEAKING WRITING 1 This is the icon used in the Teachers Book to indicate that recorded material is used; it includes the corresponding • Other icons used in the Student´s Book. track number. Teachers Book Key Word SpotThis component offers support to the teacher through severalelements:• An introduction with a description of the course, the Reflection Spot methodology used, suggestions for classroom management, general methodological suggestions for the activities and to deal with big classes, description of the course components, etc.• A suggested year planning that establishes the relationship LANGUAGE SPOT between the contents and the expected learning outcomes, tentative time distribution, resources and types of evaluation.• Step-by-step lesson notes and suggestions, including ideas to REAL LIFE SPOT start each lesson, as well as follow-up activities and suggestions for homework.• The cognitive abilities to develop in every activity of the lessons (L.A.). GAME SPOT• Background information related to the information content of the different texts, to help the teacher deal with students questions. LET’S CHECK• An Error Alert! section that helps the teacher with information about mistakes students can make together with additional @ exercises to practice these specific points. They are shown in the Teachers Book as part of the guidelines for the activities in @@ CLICK ON which they may occur.• Photocopiable observation and evaluation sheets for the teacher and the students.• The answers to all the activities in the Students Book and in the tests.• Full transcripts of the recorded material: listening texts, oral practice activities, listening tests.• One extra test per unit. 7
  • 9. TEENS CLUB METHODOLOGYTeens Club helps students develop language learning skills to form. Then they do controlled practice exercises where they applycarry out tasks related to the content. In every lesson, there are the target structure in communicative situations.tasks which consolidate the linguistic and thematic content. Theactivities are designed to provide students with the language and Vocabularyskills they will need complete the tasks successfully. This The key vocabulary in each lesson is presented in the Key Wordapproach helps students to see language as a necessary tool, and Spot. There are vocabulary activities through which studentsgives the grammatical and lexical content a clear purpose. develop effective strategies for learning and keeping vocabulary records. A systematic use of dictionaries is encouraged.Skills developmentThe methodology adopts a three-phase approach with before, Cognateswhile and after listening and reading activities. Cognates are words in different languages related to the sameThe Before Reading / Listening activities provide a setting, root. The lessons in Teens Club provide students with exercises tomotivation and linguistic preparation; they activate the previous help them notice and recognize them, helping them increaseknowledge about the topic of the lesson, motivate students to their self-confidence by discovering how much these words helpread or listen and encourage them to predict and anticipate them to understand a text. The teacher should encourageinformation. students to find the cognates whenever they face a new text.The Reading / Listening activities focus students attention andteach them to look for specific information, find clues and False Cognatesdiscriminate between essential and non-essential information. Students might get confused because there are several words inThe After Reading / Listening activities connect the text with the Spanish that are similar in English, but have a different meaning.students own reality, give practice on specific grammar points They are indicated in the Error Alert! Section of the Teacher’sand help develop writing and speaking skills. Book. Here are a few examples of false cognates:Communicative skills • Actually = really, not actualmente (at present, currently).Most students evaluate their language ability by how well • Embarrassed = avergonzado/a, not embarazada (pregnant).they can speak. Speaking activities are present in Teens Club • Approve = aprobar = agree with something, not aprobar unright from the start and they are integrated with the other examen (pass an exam).skills to encourage communication. Even in the first stages of • Lecture = conferencia = a talk about a topic, not lecturalearning, with only a limited knowledge of vocabulary and (reading).structures, students want and are able to communicate. The • Politics = la política, not los políticos (politicians)speaking tasks give students an additional opportunity to use • Library = biblioteca, not librería (bookstore)new language in the context of a real life task, carried out in • Familiar = estar familiarizado con, not familiar (relative)pairs or with a group of classmates, and following models • Parents = padres, father and mother, not parientes (relatives).provided.Writing activities are also an integral part of each lesson, with a Learner Trainingvariety of tasks the students must accomplish during the class or Learner training is about developing students awareness of howas homework, with varying degrees of support and guidance. they learn and how they develop their learning strategies to become more effective and independent learners. TeachersLanguage structure should encourage students to analyze their learning process,In Teens Club, grammar is approached in a clearly structured yet making them think about the problems they have faced and howmeaningful way. The students are presented with an inductive they could improve their performance. This is supported in Teenstask in a section called Language Spot in which they have to figure Club with a section called Reflection Spot.out how the structure works in English, discovering both use and8 INTRODUCTION
  • 10. Classroom management teachers to accommodate learner differences by varyingIn most cases the teacher is the only direct contact the students student roles.have with English. Therefore, it is important that the teacher tries Teachers must bear in mind that this type of work encouragesto communicate with the students in English as much as possible. students to share their skills and knowledge, and to learn fromTeachers can also use gestures or mime to help understanding. each other. It also increases students involvement and activeInstructions for all the activities in Teens Club are given clearly participation, and develops positive attitudes.and simply, and teachers should encourage students to read and It is important to share with the students the importance of theseinterpret them on their own, and support them whenever activities that give them an opportunity to reinforce social andnecessary through demonstration and examples. communicative skills required to work with other people. The teacher should take an active role in group and pairDiscipline formation, and students should take different roles each time.Teenage students are going through a difficult period ofdevelopment in their lives, so the teacher might face discipline Assessmentproblems, disruptive behavior, or unwillingness to do the tasks Assessment is one of the most valuable sources of informationthey are assigned. about what is happening in the classroom. The involvement ofOne of the reasons for bad discipline is usually the students the students in this process makes their attitudes towards theirinability to cope with the tasks. To avoid these problems, two learning change significantly and they start to feel morepreventive strategies are suggested: responsible for their progress.• Careful planning. Students realize there is a purpose which In Teens Club, assessment is ongoing. The teacher assesses keeps their attention on the task. continuously, in every activity, in every lesson, to see how far a• Clear instructions. Instructions must be given clearly and student is making progress in line with the objectives. He / she assertively, including time limits whenever possible, so that uses the information obtained to help students with specific students know what to do and when they should finish the task. problems. In each lesson there is one activity to evaluate one particular aspect of that lesson, in the section called LetsLarge classes Check.Large mixed-ability classes are a reality teachers have to face There is also overall assessment, periodically, at the end of eachevery day. Grouping is one technique that is used to reduce the unit, with test format, the Unit Check, which includes evaluationnegative effects of this situation. When the class is divided into activities of all the skills and language studied in the unit.smaller units, many learning activities can be undertaken. This Teachers should encourage students to correct and mark theirimplies a different role for the teacher; this does not mean that he Unit Check themselves, either on their own or in small groups./ she will become less active in the classroom, but that he / she Finally, at the very end of each unit there is a Final Reflectionwill not be the center of the activities. Teachers who monitor, section, which guides students to analyze their performance inencourage and participate in different classroom groups are even the whole unit. All these forms of assessment complementmore active than traditional teachers. each other.By re-organizing the classroom to allow more opportunities forcommunicative interactions and activities, students will be in a Self-assessmentbetter position to practice and acquire the foreign language. In Teens Club, self-assessment takes place in each lesson, so that students have the opportunity to reflect on their progress andPairwork and groupwork their main problems. This type of assessment helps students toOne of the ways of giving students the time they require to become more efficient learners, as well as make them feel morepractice a language in class is by forming groups or pairs. This responsible for their own learning.helps teachers to individualize their learners, provides This is done lesson by lesson through the Reflection Spot, whereopportunities for sharing experiences and it may also help students are asked to think about their abilities to perform the 9
  • 11. tasks, how well they did and the difficulties they encountered. In be used to inform the teacher and the students of the progress the Lets Check and Unit Check sections, the students evaluate made, the areas that need revision and the level of achievement themselves to become aware of their progress and in the Final of learning goals. The teacher may use the results of these Reflection section they analyze their performance and make evaluation instances as part of the final mark of the students; the decisions concerning steps they can take to improve. students must be informed of the system applied. The teacher must give the students the instrument so that they can analyze it, Photocopiable Evaluation Instruments draw conclusions and make decisions. The Teachers Book offers a selection of rubrics and evaluation sheets that the teacher can use in different situations, with Error Alert different purposes and with different students. The labels and Teens Club provides the teacher with help in connection with criteria can be adapted to the class situation, the topics covered, common mistakes students might make, together with the number of students, etc. They can be used by the teacher to additional exercises to practice these specific points. They are evaluate the students, or by the students to evaluate themselves shown in the Teachers Book as part of the guidelines for the and / or their peers. As with all evaluation instances, these must activities in which they may occur. SOME BASIC TEACHING REMINDERS • Start every lesson in a way that focuses everyones attention. • Dont insist on 100% accuracy all the time. Mistakes are a This creates expectation and prepares students for what is to normal part of the learning process, and a valuable source of come. For example, with books closed, write the topic of the information for the teacher. lesson on the board and ask some questions about it, show a • Give praise and encouragement, especially to the weaker poster / picture related to the lesson, ask who can remember students. Write positive comments on their work. Let them what they did the previous class, etc. know what they are doing well, as well as what they need to • Students should not open their books until everyone is paying improve. attention. • Remember that you are the main motivator in the classroom! • End an activity before students get bored with it. Equally, do not hurry the students or end the activity too soon if they are Some methodological suggestions for skill obviously enjoying it. development • Ask students their opinion. • Dont assume that if one student says they understand, Developing listening skills everyone else does. • Follow the organization of activities into before, while and after • Ask (elicit) rather than tell. Students get bored of listening to listening. the teacher explaining. Someone in the class will probably know the answer. • Before listening: • Dont ask students to explain difficult things, such as definitions - Introduce and get students involved in the topic of the text. of words, in English. Elicit what they know about it and help them relate it to their • Dont interrupt students during pair / group speaking activities to own experiences. Make use of the illustrations provided and / correct their English. It is better to note the main, common or use your own. mistakes, put them on the board and correct them with the class at - Use this introduction of the topic to present key vocabulary the end. and structures, and write them on the board.10 INTRODUCTION
  • 12. - Invite students to predict the content and to formulate experiences. Make use of the illustrations provided and / or use hypotheses of what will appear in the text. your own. - Do these activities quickly and take advantage of the interest - Use this introduction of the topic to present key vocabulary and created to continue with the listening activities. structures, and write them on the board. - Invite students to predict the content and to formulate• Listening: hypotheses of what will appear in the text. - Play the recording once or twice for students to check their - Always ask students to give a quick look at the text and identify predictions and hypotheses. Accept other information they may the cognate words and the words they already know. This will have gathered, but do not go into details at this stage, just help them formulate more informed hypotheses and also help concentrate on the general idea. them feel less insecure when facing a new text. - Remind students of cognate words, which they can identify more - Draw students attention to the structure of the text: layout, easily when they listen, and which help comprehension and punctuation, titles, subtitles, etc., to identify the type of text they consequent task realization. will be reading, all of which will also provide clues that will help - Read and clarify instructions with the class, and do the different them understand the text. listening activities one by one, concentrating on the task - Do these activities quickly and take advantage of the interest assigned and checking answers after each successive listening. created to continue with the reading activities. Every time students listen to the text, they should have a clear purpose and task, provided in the instructions, which will help • Reading: them focus their attention and identify the information required. - First, ask students to read the text quickly to check their - Help students recognize different supporting elements in the predictions and hypotheses. Accept other information they spoken texts: intonation, voice pitch, pauses, emphasis, may have gathered, but do not go into details at this stage, background noise, etc. just concentrate on the general idea. - Remind students of cognates words, which they can• After listening: identify easily, and which help comprehension and - Help students summarize the text orally and / or in writing using consequent task realization. Present false cognates if there are the models provided. any in the text. - Encourage reinforcement of vocabulary and grammar that - Read and clarify instructions with the class, and do the different appeared in the text, always using the context and providing reading activities one by one, concentrating on the task assigned further examples or similar contexts. and checking answers after each successive reading. Every time - Discuss the topic of the lesson, help students reflect on the students read the text, they should have a clear purpose and contents and highlight the values presented, making them task, provided in the instructions, which will help them focus notice the connections with their own reality. their attention and identify the information required. - Make students evaluate their own performance in the lesson. - Help students recognize different supporting elements in the a. Did their predictions help them understand the text? written texts: text organization, reference markers, letter b. How did they do in the different listening activities? types, graphic support, punctuation marks, illustrations, etc. c. What new words, expressions or structures did they learn in - Remind students of some general characteristics of text this lesson? Can they use them in other situations? organization: main ideas are usually at the beginning of eachDeveloping reading skills paragraph, connectors give important clues -and indicates• Follow the organization of activities into before, while and after addition, but, however indicate contradiction, because reading. indicates a reason, or indicates alternatives, etc.• Before reading: • After reading: - Introduce and get students involved in the topic of the text. Elicit - Help students summarize the text orally and / or in writing what they know about it and help them relate it to their own using the models provided. 11
  • 13. - Encourage reinforcement of vocabulary and grammar that the dictionary / the computer? Can I work with ...? Can you tell / appeared in the text, always using the context and providing give me ...? further examples or similar contexts. c. Expressing feelings: Im sorry / happy / impressed / tired / ill - Discuss the topic of the lesson, help students reflect on the / worried. Id be happy to ... . I like ... . I dont like ... . I liked ... . I contents and highlight the values presented, making them notice didnt like ... . the connections with their own reality. - Make use of the activities for fast learners (FL) or of Your English • Encourage students to use English to do the different speaking in Action in the Students Book and of the Extra Tests in the activities that show comprehension. Teachers Book to provide further practice in a freer context, either • Choose relevant parts of the listening texts, especially dialogues, for the whole class or for with faster, keener students. Invite them for students to listen to, repeat, try to memorize and present in to make comments on the contents and share them with the rest front of the class. of the class. • Create a positive atmosphere in the classroom to facilitate students - Encourage students to make use of the Reflections section to participation in oral exchanges. evaluate their own performance in the lesson. Developing written expression Developing oral expression • Always provide a model for students to follow. Go from simple, very • At the beginning of the course, prepare a poster / posters with the guided activities to more complex ones: just words that students class, showing the expressions they must use as part of the classroom use to fill in blanks, or exercises in which they put words in order to interaction. You may use different colors to classify them into: form sentences, short answers to simple questions, using a pattern a. Greetings: Good morning, good afternoon, hello, hi, good-bye, given and substituting some elements, etc. bye. How are you today? Im (not) very well, thank you. And you? • Make students aware of punctuation marks and connectors to be Teach them to address you as Mr. / Miss / Mrs. plus your surname. used. b. Asking for help or clarification: How do you say / spell / • Check written work while walking around the classroom, by pronounce ...?, Can you help me, please? Can you repeat, collecting notebooks, or by providing the correct versions on the please? Can you play the recording again, please? Can I / we use board or on a transparency. THE INTERNET IN THE CLASSROOM Nowadays, in the era of information revolution and the widespread people from different parts of the world and therefore practice their use of the Internet in almost all spheres of life, this tool can serve as English in a meaningful and motivating way. a teaching medium, a rich source of materials of any kind and also This icon indicates a digital resource used / suggested for an activity. as a basis for lessons instead of texts from the course book only. @ Internet -assisted lessons may supplement teaching by adding an @@ CLICK ON additional dimension to the classroom. Students can use it to gather information on different topics or search for additional exercises to practice a particular language item. Tips to develop safe Internet lessons • Never start lessons by having students use search engines on The Internet gives great possibilities for students to work with their own. materials they choose themselves and offers an attractive and • Ask students to find specific information, not just surf the web. interactive learning environment. • Always tell students to write down the URLs of the sites they use for reports in bibliography format. This is achieved by the use of communication tools such as e-mail, • Try to preview sites before students visit them. chat or forum groups, which students can use to communicate with12 INTRODUCTION
  • 14. LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING 11What we have in common makes us human. Our differences make used in the day to day classroom work to establish the students’us individuals. In a classroom where there is very little or no position, their differences and their learning needs. Once thisdifferentiated teaching only the similarities among students seem reflection and awareness task is done, it is possible to design ato be the focus of attention. In a differentiated class the common variety of teaching strategies to cater for the students’ needs.areas are acknowledged and exploited, and the differences amongstudents also become important elements in the teaching – Learning progression and diversitylearning process. Children’s learning – as shown every day in the teaching process Carol Ann Tomlinson 12 - shows progressive development as they move up from one level to the next. Older students generally know more about a subject and show more complex cognitive abilities than youngerThe Chilean Ministry of Education has presented the community students; when comparing abilities and knowledge of a 4th Mediawith a new curricular tool, the Learning Progress Maps. It is student with those of a 1st Básica student, it can easily be noticedpossible that the teachers may have a lot of information about that the former is much more competent than the latter in all thethem, from different and probably more complete sources than learning areas. Between these two students, who represent thethose provided here 13. This brief and concise document does not extreme levels of achievement during the school cycle, it isintend to be exhaustive nor replace any of those sources. It only possible to distinguish several intermediate stages.wishes to present the Maps in a particularly specific context, thatof a very specific training in evaluation for learning, as in that area On the other hand, children in a particular level make use ofthey can be very useful in the different steps of that training. different abilities to understand the same topic, and have different ways to explain what they understand. There isThis is a brief introduction to the Maps that considers the progression not only from one level to the next; it is normal thatinclusion principle that guides them, the way in which they are in the same class the students are at different levels and showpresented, an example and some details to understand their different degrees of understanding and achievement of thepedagogical and evaluative usefulness. Rather than theoretical or required abilities.conceptual details, special importance is given to the elementsthat facilitate their use by teachers. However, not all students progress in the expected direction. Inadequate attention to differences can produce delay in theIntroduction students’ learning. This delay, in turn, has a cumulative effect, itThe Learning Progress Maps have been developed to show tends to increase in the upper levels, and when this happens, itsteachers, students and parents the way in which learning effects are more difficult to revert. Therefore, it is important toprogresses along school life, and especially the expected direction know the state of students’ learning very well.for each of the areas of the curriculum. They are neither a newcurriculum nor a curricular alternative, but are based on the The Learning Progress Maps are a supporting instrument toexisting Curricular Framework. Their objective is to describe the diagnose achievement and differences among students to helptypes of learning promoted by the Fundamental Objectives and them move on in their school work according to the expectedthe Obligatory Minimum Contents, and to indicate the outcomes promoted by the national curriculum; they offercharacteristics of their development from 5th Year of Primary common criteria and language to observe learning.Education to 4th year of Secondary Education. The Maps can be11 Document prepared by the Unidad de Currículum y Evaluación, Ministry of Education, Chile, 2007.12 Tomlinson, Carol Ann, Estrategias para Trabajar con la Diversidad en el Aula, Editorial Paidós, Madrid, 2005.13 The full Maps are published in the web site of the Unidad de Currículum y Evaluación, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl. 13
  • 15. Evaluation for Learning in Practice Evaluation for Learning must necessarily involve the students in It is important to distinguish Evaluation for Learning as a the evaluation process so as to provide information on their particular model that is different from the traditional performance and guide their efforts to improve. An important interpretations of evaluation. Here is a summary of its main part of this information is the feedback the teacher gives the characteristics. In this conception, evaluation: students, but another part must be the result of the direct participation of the students in this process through self- • Is considered an intrinsic part of teaching and learning. evaluation. In the context of promoting life-time learning, it is • Requires that teachers share with their students the learning more and more important to develop in the students the capacity achievements expected from them. to know how much they have learnt and the ability to guide and • Helps students know and identify the standards they must manage their own learning. reach. • Involves students in their own evaluation. So, what actually happens in the classroom when evaluation is • Provides feedback that tells students what they have to do, step used to improve learning? To begin with the more obvious by step, to improve their performance. aspects, the teachers are involved in the collection of information • Assumes that every student can improve his / her performance. about their students’ learning and motivate them to revise their • Involves both teachers and students in the analysis and work critically and constructively. reflection on the data provided by the evaluation. The methods to obtain information about the learning are well This model contrasts with the type of evaluation that, in practice, known and they are mainly: means adding evaluation procedures or tests at the end of the • To observe the students and listen to them when they reason programmed units of work. These procedures or tests are separable and describe their work. and independent from the teaching of the unit. The “feedback” is to • To ask students open questions, inviting them to explore their get a mark. Although, according to this model, evaluation is a ideas and reasoning. teachers’ issue (the State, for example, does not get involved), it • To propose ideas that require students to use certain abilities or tends to have a summative rather than formative objective. to apply ideas. • To ask students to communicate their ideas not only in writing However, the term “formative” can have several interpretations: but also through drawings, artefacts, actions, dramatisations very often it only means that evaluation is frequent in a period of and concept maps. time and has been planned together with the teaching. In this • To discuss key words and analyse how they must be used. sense formative evaluation does not necessarily consider all the features identified as characteristic of Evaluation for Learning. Of course, teachers can collect this information through the Evaluation can be formative because it helps the teacher identify methods identified above, and then use it to improve learning. The areas where more explanation or training are needed. But from use of this information requires that teachers and students make the point of view of the students, their final mark and the decisions and act: they must decide on the next steps in the comments written on the margins of their work, although they learning process and help students get started. It is of the utmost may signal their weak and strong points, they do not give them importance to remember that it is the students who must do the clues as to how to progress towards the achievement of more and walking; consequently, the students who are more involved in the better learning. process will better understand how to extend and improve their learning. A plan that involves the students in the judgement of The concept of learning underlying this model is another their own work – instead of being passive to face the judgements distinctive feature. Today’s approach to learning suggests that, of teachers – has higher probabilities of raising the learning and eventually, it is the students themselves who are responsible for achievement standards. their own learning (nobody can learn for them). Consequently,14 INTRODUCTION
  • 16. This is a different conception of “feedback”. The “food” the teacher • The criteria must be shared with the students so that they know andoffers is a portrait of the objective to reach, of the standard or understand them, and for them to direct their work accordingly.goal towards which the student must aim and which, in this way, • Self-evaluation and peer-evaluation must be done using pre-constitutes a point of comparison for his / her work. The role of established criteria. If this does not happen their validity will bethe teacher – and what constitutes the core of teaching – is to questionable, because different individuals naturally evaluateprovide the students with the skills and strategies required to according to their own personal criteria.take the steps they need to improve their own learning. • It must be remembered that evaluation necessarily involves value judgements. This happens when a teacher assigns aKey Principles of Evaluation for Learning numerical qualification to a student’s test, and also whenEvaluation is a process that allows the recollection of evidence on concepts are used, for example “poor” or “excellent” to indicate athe learning achieved by the students at a given moment. The student’s level of achievement at a certain moment.object of the evaluation is the work produced by the student, • The teacher must take responsibility for the evaluationnever the student. instruments he / she develops and uses with the students; this means that he / she must make sure that they really let him /• The key dimensions of learning from the point of view of the her collect information about the learning outcomes defined in learning area and the learning level of the students constitute the pre-established evaluation criteria. the criteria used for the evaluation of learning.What Learning Progress Maps are and what they are not. What LPM are What LPM are not They are materials for each area of the curriculum that describe the They do not state that learning is lineal (a sum of specific learnings) usual road followed by students in their learning. They assume that nor do they propose an exact description of the learning progress that progress is the result of maturity and exposure to learning all students experience. opportunities in specific stages of school life. They express knowledge and abilities, that is to say, the competences They are not an expression of all the knowledge and abilities the that students typically reach at certain moments of their school life. students can achieve in a specific level. They indicate what we value as learning goals and the sequence in They are not a new curriculum and they do not assume that all the which they are achieved; they provide a framework to monitor students in the same class should be in the same level of learning. progress and communicate results. They are presented as concrete descriptions of learning and offer They are not checklists for test correction. examples of possible achievements in each level. They provide a guiding framework for teaching: they let users They are not an instrument to classify students and they do not elaborate evaluation tasks that will indicate the level of each student, support a specific teaching model to achieve learning. and organise teaching strategies accordingly. 15
  • 17. How many LPM have been prepared? of their secondary school education students should be able to Each area of the curriculum has sub-divisions that represent read authentic texts of intermediate complexity, which implies topics or abilities that must be developed during school life. A beginning their learning using simple authentic texts. Map has been designed for each of them. The Reading Map does not reject the use of the mother tongue as English a resource to monitor learning when the situation requires that Our country’s active participation in different areas of the the students show evidence of comprehension and interpretation international sphere, together with the changes produced by rather than oral production. It is a well-known fact that students globalisation, make the learning of English essential to of a foreign language can understand much more than they can successfully face the demands of society in the XXI century. express orally or in writing. For this reason, the answers to the tasks presented as examples in the Map are in Spanish. This does Learning English is a challenging and attractive activity at any age, not mean that the students are not allowed to express but particularly for young people who see it as a tool to access comprehension in English or that there is an intention to work information and technology and as a means of communication with these abilities separately. other realities and cultures. Learning English or any other foreign language, contributes to the understanding of the mother tongue, In the following pages you will find the Reading Progress Map. It and at the same time it widens the opportunities to access begins with a synthetic presentation of all the level. Then, each level information in other areas of study. is presented in detail, beginning with its description, some examples of performance that illustrate how that level of learning can be Presentation of the Maps recognised and one or two examples of work done by students of The Maps are organised in seven levels that cover students’ subsidised schools, with the teacher’s comments that justify what learning life from 1st year of Primary Education to 4th year of criteria is used to decide that the student is “within” the level. In an Secondary Education. Each level describes the expected learning appendix, you can find the complete version of the tasks from which outcome for two school years. For example, level 1 corresponds the students’ work was collected. In the case of English, there is a approximately to 1st and 2nd Básico, level 2 to the next two description of an initial level, before level 3, that describes a starting years, and so on. The last level (7) describes a student whose situation of knowledge of this language, which can be a useful point outcome when finishing school is “outstanding”. of reference to describe the learning of children who do not reach level 3 by the end of 6th Básico. No examples of students’ work at this All this information can be found in the web site of the Unidad de level are included. Currículum y Evaluación, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl. Reading Progress Map Relevant aspects of the Reading Map The aim of the English curriculum is to get students to use and In concordance with the curricular emphasis aimed at the apply the language in different tasks that imply they can development of the abilities and the use of language with the understand oral and written texts, and solve simple purpose of acquiring information and gainning access to other communicative situations orally or in writing. From this point of cultures and technological advances, grammar is not the focus of view, four English Learning Maps have been designed, around the attention of the Reading Map. Its role as facilitator of following linguistic abilities: understanding and communication is acknowledged, but the role of grammar will become more evident in the Writing Map. • Reading • Listening The Reading Map emphasises the importance of working with • Writing authentic texts as early as possible; their degree of complexity • Oral Expression increases as students move from one level to the next. By the end16 INTRODUCTION
  • 18. The Maps of English have been designed using the international language expressed in simple sentences to languagestandards of the Common European Framework (CEF) for expressed in compound sentences of intermediate complexity.teaching, learning and evaluating languages, and those of theAssociation of Language Testers of Europe (ALTE). CEF level A2 and b. Reading abilities. This dimension includes the students’ALTE 1 (Waystage User) are associated to level 4, which describes capacity to extract specific information, to infer informationthe expected learning achieved by the majority of the students by and to show global comprehension of what they have read.the end of 8th year Básico; level B1 and ALTE 2 (Threshold user) are The Map describes how these reading abilities become moreassociated to level 6, which describes the expected learning complex from one level to the next, also in relationship withachieved by the majority of students by the end of 4th Medio. the increasing complexity of the texts read.To describe progress in reading comprehension, the Reading Map In the light of these dimensions, the Map describes a student’sis organised around two dimensions: reading comprehension progress, from the ability to identify some highlighted information, to make simple inferences and state thea. Text-types. In this dimension the progression is given by the main topic of a very short, simple text (in level 3), to end up being complexity of the topics the students read about and the able to reach a higher level of inference and a deeper understanding complexity of the language used in the texts. There is of linguistically and conceptually more complex texts. (level 6). progression from concrete to abstract topics, and from English Progress Map Level 7 Identifies explicit and implicit messages and incorporates knowledge of the topic and of the English language to build up the Outstanding main meaning. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and medium complexity structural patterns and are related to personal interest topics. Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from distractors. Infers ideas and identifies messages, points of view, Level 6 attitudes to build up the main meaning of the text. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and medium complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics. Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from other similar information. Infers suggested messages or ideas and Level 5 identifies main ideas, stating supporting data. Understands texts that include simple structural patterns and medium complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics. Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from secondary information. Makes simple inferences relating ideas or Level 4 information, and identifies with some detail the main idea(s) explicitly stated, relating information found in different sections of the text. Understands brief texts that include simple structural patterns and are related to well-known concrete topics. Identifies explicit information that is highlighted. Infers information and identifies one main idea using information explicitly Level 3 stated in the text. Understands very short texts that include plenty of visual support, use simple short sentences and are related to concrete topics of the student´s immediate environment. Initial level Identifies words and short sentences stated in very short texts that include plenty of visual support, use simple short sentences and are related to concrete topics of the student´s immediate environment. In our teaching proposal for 1st and 2nd year, evaluation is conceived from the following level: Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from other similar information. Infers suggested messages or ideas and Level 5 identifies main ideas, stating supporting data. Understands texts that include simple structural patterns and medium complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics. 17
  • 19. How can one recognise the level of learning? Examples of performance. When a student has reached this level, he / she can do the • Invent a title that represents the main idea of the text. following activities: • Identify words and phrases that give cohesion to the text. For • Select and classify information according to a given category. example: “therefore”, “on the other hand”. • State details used for describing causes and consequences. • Identify in the texts the communicative function of compound • Relate data and ideas to infer attitudes and moods. structural patterns, such as the passive voice, conditional • Extract the main idea(s) of the text and list the arguments that sentences, relative clauses. support it / them. • Identify in the text frequent phrasal verbs. For example: “look after”. CLASSROOM LANGUAGE 17 Greetings: The date Good morning / Good afternoon / Hello / Hi. A: What day is it today? Good bye / See you tomorrow / See you later. B: It’s Monday / It’s Tuesday / It’s Wednesday / It’s Thursday / Have a nice weekend / Enjoy your holiday. It’s Friday / It’s Saturday / It’s Sunday A: What’s the date today? Moods and feelings: B: It’s (Monday) March 9th. A: How are you today? B: I’m fine / I’m great / OK / Very well, thank you. The weather I’m not very well / I have a problem / I’m feeling low / I’m sad. A: What’s the weather like today? B: It’s sunny / It’s cloudy / It’s hot / It’s cold / It’s nice and warm / Asking for clarification (STUDENTS) It’s nice and cool. It’s raining / It’s snowing. Can you repeat that, please? Can you say that again, please? The time Sorry? I didn’t understand very well. A: What’s the time? / What time is it? Can you help me with this exercise, please? B: It’s one o’clock. / It’s two o’clock. / It’s three o’clock. / It’s ten o’clock. / It’s twelve o’clock. Encouragement (TEACHERS) A: What’s the time? / What time is it? Well done! B: It’s quarter past nine. It’s half past ten. It’s five past eleven./ It’s Good! ten past twelve / It’s twenty past one/ It’s twenty five past two. Excellent! A: What’s the time? / What time is it? Good work! B: It’s a quarter to eight. It’s twenty five to nine / It’s twenty to Congratulations! ten/ It’s ten to three/ It’s five to four.18 INTRODUCTION
  • 20. Some Commands and Instructions (TEACHERS) Match the pictures.Add more words. Name three activities.Answer the questions. Open the window.Be quiet. Open your books.Check your answers Pay attention, please.Check your predictions. Put the pictures in order.Close the door. Read the instructions.Come to the board. Read the sentences.Compare your answers. Select the correct answer.Compare your answers in your group. Silence, please.Complete the paragraph. Sit down.Complete the sentences. Stand up.Complete the summary. Talk to your partner.Complete the table. That’s all for today, thank you.Copy the instructions. Work in groups of 4.Cross out the words you do not hear. Work in groups of three or four.Discuss the ideas in your group. Work with your partner.Do exercise 1. Write the sentences.Do not write in ink.Do not write in your book. Turn taking and permissions: (STUDENTS) It’s your turn.Fill in the blanks. Sorry, it’s my turn.Find examples in the text. Excuse me, can I say something?Find out who wrote this poem. Excuse me; can I leave the room for a minute?Find the cognates in the text. Can I talk to you after the class?Go to the board. May I go to the bathroom?Identify the best description.Listen to the recording. Encouragement: (TEACHERS)Listen. Do it more carefully / Say it again / Try to correct that, please. Not too bad / You’ll do better next time / Keep trying!Look. Well done / Congratulations / Excellent / Good work.Look at the pictures.Look up these words in the dictionary.Make a list.Make a list of topics.Make some notes. 19
  • 21. SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING TOPIC CMO TIME TEEN LIFE Reading Differentiate sounds. Speaking Development Forum chats. Identify cognates. Find general and specific Exchange personal information Lesson 1 four hours. Diversity of Find general and specific information. Exchange information about Lesson 2 four hours. teenage cultures. information. Identify collocations. personal interests and Lesson 3 four hours. UNIT 1 Infer meanings from the Language preferences. Lesson 4 four hours. context. Use the Simple Present and Express quantities. Consolidation and Locate and match information. adverbs of frequency. Writing evaluation activities Listening Use adjectives of quantity. Write a personal introduction to three hours + home Discriminate between correct Use connectors. a forum chat. assignments. and incorrect information. Use the Present Continuous for Complete a personal profile. Identify correct sequence future plans. BELIEVE IT OR Reading Listening Use conjunctive connectors. Development NOT Scan the text to validate Relate speakers and speech. Use the First Conditional. Lesson 1 four hours. A city on the moon. predictions. Discriminate sounds and words. Speaking Lesson 2 four hours. UNIT 2 Hopes for the Get meanings from cognates. Identify specific information. Ask and answer questions Lesson 3 four hours. future. Find general and specific Language about fixed arrangements. Lesson 4 four hours. information. Use the Simple Future tense to Talk about virtual life. Consolidation and Discriminate between correct express predictions. Writing evaluation activities and incorrect information. Use the Present Write a short report. three hours + home Continuous tense. Complete a paragraphs. assignments. TECHNOLOGY Reading Discriminate sounds Exchange opinions about Development AND INVENTIONS Find general and specific and words. inventions and technology. Lesson 1 four hours. New inventions. information. Identify sequence. Writing Lesson 2 four hours. Technology. Identify the sequence of Language Write a short summary of a Lesson 3 four hours. UNIT 3 events. Use the Simple Past tense. biography. Lesson 4 four hours. Identify type of text. Use linking words. Complete a paragraph about a Consolidation and Listening Use relative pronouns. new invention. evaluation activities Discriminate between correct Speaking three hours + home and incorrect information. Ask and answer questions assignments. Relate speakers and speech. about biographies. SONGS - MUSIC Reading Language Speaking Development AND WORDS Distinguish information. Use would and could. Ask people about imaginary Lesson 1 four hours. Famous young Discriminate between correct Use modal verbs must, situations. Lesson 2 four hours. UNIT 4 artists. and incorrect information. have to, need to. Request information using Lesson 3 four hours. Styles of music. Identify type of text. Use the Passive Voice. polite questions. Lesson 4 four hours. Listening Use the First and Second Writing Consolidation and Infer mood of speakers. Conditional. Write a book review. evaluation activities Relate speakers and speech. Write questions and answers in three hours + home Discriminate sounds. a chat room. assignments. HOW ABOUT Reading Relate speakers and speech. Speaking Development WORKING? Locate missing information in a Extract specific information Ask people about preferences. Lesson 1 four hours. Volunteer text. from a recording. Participate in a telephone Lesson 2 four hours. UNIT 5 organization. Discriminate between correct Language conversation. Lesson 3 four hours. The role of and incorrect information. Use Modal Verbs to express Writing Lesson 4 four hours. volunteer. Distinguish facts and inferences. necessity and preferences. Write a letter of application. Consolidation and Listening Use polite phrases in a Write a leaflet promoting an evaluation activities Discriminate between correct telephone conversation. organization. three hours + home and incorrect information. assignments.20
  • 22. RESOURCES ATTITUDES EVALUATION LEARNING ABILITIESRead posts to a Develop respect and Reflection Spot Unit Check Evaluation To use pictures toStudent Forum chat. acceptance of age, and Metacognition Listening Instruments formulate predictions.Read a magazine social and cultural Let’s Check Reading Listening To localize specificarticle. diversity. Listening Language Reading information.Listen to an Assess the importance Reading Oral expression Writing To apply/ use a newinterview. of English as an Language Final Reflection Working with others language structure.Listen to two international tool of Your English in Extra testspoems. communication. Action Listening Reading Language Oral expressionRead a web page. Reflect about the Reflection Spot Unit Check Language To relate topic to ownRead a scientific importance of Metacognition Listening Oral expression experience.article. technology Let’s Check Reading Evaluation To infer the meaning ofListen to an development. Listening Language Instruments key words.interview. Develop acceptance and Reading Oral expression Listening To identify and extractListen to an respect for everyone’s Language Final Reflection Reading supporting information.advertisement. opinions. Your English in Extra tests Writing Action Listening Working with others ReadingRead a web page. Assess and appreciate Reflection Spot Unit Check Language To express opinions.Read a biography. the role of technology Metacognition Listening Oral expression To predict topic from theListen to a in everyday life. Let’s Check Reading Evaluation context.conversation. Develop respect and Listening Language Instruments To relate speakers andListen to a radio acceptance of other Reading Oral expression Listening speech.program. people’s opinions. Language Final Reflection Reading Your English in Extra tests Writing Action Listening Working with others ReadingRead a piece of Assess and appreciate Reflection Spot Unit Check Language To discriminate sounds.chat. the value of music and Metacognition Listening Oral expression To predict content fromRead book reviews. literature. Let’s Check Reading Evaluation cognates.Listen to a Develop respect for the Listening Language Instruments To relate previoustelevision program. role of music and Reading Oral expression Listening knowledge with the topicListen to a song. literature as a means of Language Final Reflection Reading of the lesson. communication. Your English in Action Extra tests Writing Listening Working with others ReadingRead a leaflet. Assess and appreciate Reflection Spot Unit Check Language To relate topic to ownRead a letter of the role of volunteer Metacognition Listening Oral expression reality.application. organizations around Let’s Check Reading Evaluation To developListen to an the world. Listening Language Instruments study skills.advertisement. Value the importance of Reading Oral expression Listening To exchange information.Listen to telephone voluntary work for Language Final Reflection Readingconversations. people in need. Your English in Action Extra tests Writing Listening Working with others Reading 21
  • 23. UNIT TEEN LIFE T EEN In this unit you will: · use adjectives of quantity · Lesson 4: four hours · read posts to a Student Forum chat · use connectors · Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours + · read a magazine article · use the Present Continuous for future plans home assignments · listen to an interview · Speaking Didactic resources · listen to two poems · exchange personal information · Complementary material such as articles You will learn how to: · exchange information about personal interests and magazines, Student Forum chats. Reading preferences · Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher and · identify cognates · express quantities by the students to illustrate the diversity of teenage · find general and specific information Writing cultures. · infer meaning of words from the context · write a personal introduction to a forum chat · Supporting material such as lists of adjectives, · locate and match information · complete a personal profile dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed Listening You will also: handouts, library material, etc. · discriminate between correct and incorrect · develop respect and acceptance of age, and social Methodological suggestions information and cultural diversity · Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand · identify correct sequence · assess the importance of English as an considering that thorough prior preparation allows · differentiate sounds international tool of communication them to think of and apply some useful ideas. It is · find general and specific information Development their chance to make the class entertaining and to · identify collocations · Lesson 1: four hours involve students in the learning process. Language · Lesson 2: four hours · Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources · use the Simple Present and adverbs of frequency · Lesson 3: four hours throughout the book. Types of Evaluation Indicators Continuous/informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Reflection spot Students analyze and evaluate their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Self - evaluation Unit Check Reading: Students find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Unit evaluation Listening: Students find specific information, discriminate between correct and incorrect information and identify sequence of information. Language: Students use the Simple Present and the Present Progressive tense. Speaking: Students exchange information about routines. Writing: Students write and reply to e-mails. Final Reflection Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Extra Test Reading: Students find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use the Simple Present and Present Progressive tense. Writing: Students write a short paragraph describing their best friend. Speaking: Students imitate an interview and exchange information about routines, interests and favorite activities.22 UNIT 1
  • 24. TEEN LI FE TEE NPAGE 8 2 + GETTING READY Brainstorm aspects and activities that are typical of teenagers in Chile and all over the world. Invite students to write a list of them 1 Introduce the topic of the unit reading the in their notebooks and then write some name aloud. Then, invite some students to examples on the board. read what the young people on page 9 say (L.A.: to relate topic with personal reality). about being a teenager and ask them if they Possible answers agree or not. hang out with friends; listen to music; play video2 Invite the students to work in groups talking games; chat with friends; watch movies; play sports; wear the same kind of clothes; surf the Internet. about “being a teenager”. Encourage them to make some notes and come to an agreement. Then, ask one member of each 3 ++ group to share their comments with the rest Ask students to choose the picture they of the class. think best represents a typical Chilean teenager. Ask them to support their ideas3 First, ask students to copy the chart into their and then to come to an agreement. notebooks. Then, motivate them to interview (L.A.: to relate pictures with personal six of their classmates about their interests experiences). and preferences in order to complete the chart. Elicit students’ ideas about graphs and 4 +++ then explain that they will have to present the Explain to students that they are going to results for each item in a graph. You may read two posts from a Students Forum chat. also give one example on the board. Invite them to make predictions about the two students’ way of life.PAGE 10 (L.A.: to use general knowledge to formulate predictions). LESSON 1 5 ++ READING Tell students to look at the text and find all TAKE TWO TEENS the cognates. Then, ask what information they can deduce from them. You can askBEFORE READING them to write the cognates on the board, but do not check what the students can deduce 1 + from them at this stage. (L.A.: to identify cognates through Draw students’ attention to the pictures and scanning). then ask them to answer the questions in pairs. Check their answers orally. Answers (L.A.: to use pictures to formulate forum, different, traditional, TV, music, computer, chat, predictions). cyber cafe, culture, kilometers, fan, Internet, rest, Answers sports.a. Between 13 and 18 years old.b. They are from different parts of the world.c. They are: acting in a play, answering questions, chatting and doing sports.d. They are wearing costumes, sport and casual clothes. 23
  • 25. ERROR ALERT Answers Cognates are words in different languages related to Amish: member of an Anabaptist Christian denomination. the same root, ex.: education (English) / educación newbie: slang term for a newcomer to online gaming or (Spanish) an Internet activity. Anyway, students might get confused because there are link: a connection between two or more people or things. also several words in Spanish that are similar in soaps: (also soap opera) a story which is broadcast English, but have a different meaning. These words are everyday or several times a week on television or radio. called False Cognates. Exercise: Read the words in the list. Identify the false PAGE 12 cognates in it. actual / embarrassed / familiar / introduce / lecture / READING notice / parents / realize Answers: 7 + The false cognates are: Ask the students to read the text quickly to Actual = real, not actual (present). check their predictions in Exercise 4. Examples: The actual cost was higher than expected. Explain to them that it is not necessary for Does anyone know her present address? them to understand every single word. They Embarrassed = avergozado/a, not embarazada only have to get the general meaning of the (pregnant). text in order to check if their predictions Examples: Shes embarrassed about her height. My were right. sister is pregnant with her first child. (L.A: to validate predictions). Familiar = conocido, familiarizado, not familiar Answers (relative). The students do not have similar ways of life. Examples: His face looks familiar to me. We saw most of our relatives at the party. Lecture = charla, not lectura (reading). 8 ++ Examples: He gave a lecture on endangered species in Now, invite your students to read the text Chile. You can understand everything from the first again carefully, and then answer the reading. questions (a. – e.) in their notebooks. Check Notice = aviso, anuncio, not noticia (news). their answers orally or ask some students to Examples: Have you seen the notice on the board? The write the answers on the board. news of the earthquake arrived two days later. (L.A.: to localize specific information). Parents = padres, not parientes (relatives). Answers Her parents got married very young. Most of my relatives live in Santiago. a. No, they are not typical teenagers because they live Realize = darse cuenta, comprender, not in very different ways. realizar (carry out). b. Josh 95 is American and Pink Sunshine is Australian. Example: I realized who he was. c. Yes, he does, because he can go to a cyber cafe and be in contact with the rest of the world. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of d. She has e-lessons. She studies through the Internet. the Introduction. e. Yes, it is. Because it is the way they can be in contact with people from all around the world. 6 ++ Invite students to read the words in the Key Word Spot and then find their definitions in an English-English dictionary. (L.A.: to develop study skills).24 UNIT 1
  • 26. TEEN LI FE TEE N information that is true for them. Then, ask9 ++ them to answer questions a. and b. Make the students copy the chart into their Invite some of the students to share their notebooks and then complete it with answers with their classmates. information from the text. Invite some of (L.A.: to relate topic to personal experiences). them to write and complete the chart on the Answers board to check their answers. Will vary (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers LANGUAGE SPOT Name Josh 95 Pink Sunshine Habitual activities and frequency adverbs Always Wear traditional Watch soaps This section is designed to help students revise clothes or movies or discover a particular grammar structure or an Often Go shopping Read interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. in the city The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not Hardly ever Use a computer Meet friends enunciate them the answers. Never Watch TV or Go to school 1. Ask the students to read and analyze the listen to music sentences from the text. Likes / Chat with Chat with 2. Now, the students answer questions a. – c. Help them to identify what kind of actions the Loves other people other people sentences express, the tense that was used and the words that help to identify the10 +++ frequency in which the action was performed. Answ ers: a. - iii.; b. – iii.; c. always, every, Ask the students to read the text once more never before completing the sentences in their notebooks. Check their answers orally. 3. Invite the students to copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answ ers: Possible answers We use the Simple Present tense to talk a. Josh95 and Pink Sunshine’s lives are similar because about activities that are habitual. they both live in a very different way others teenagers We use words such as alw ays, never, do but they both like to know about people from all every…, to express the frequency of the activity. over the world. They both live on a farm and they use the Internet to communicate with other teens. 4. Encourage students to revise the text again b. Josh95 and Pink Sunshine’s lives are different and find other examples of this structure. Invite because Josh is Amish and never watches TV or them to write the examples in their notebooks listens to music, but he goes to school. Pink and underline the frequency adverb. You may Sunshine never goes to school but she always organize a class competition and offer a prize to the student who identifies all the examples. watches TV or listens to music. Answ ers: I never watch TV or listen to music.PAGE 13 I alw ays watch soaps or movies. I hardly ever meet friends or go to parties.AFTER READING For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.11 ++ Tell the students to add a column to the chart in Exercise 9, and to complete it with 25
  • 27. 12 + Reflection Spot Refer the students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to write sentences about their and Assign enough time of your class to allow their partner’s habitual activities. Invite some students to reflect on their achievements and of the students to write the sentences on weaknesses. They read the statements and the board to check the answers. reflect about: (L.A.: to apply/ use a new language • their ability to exchange personal structure). information • their ability to write about themselves Answers For more information on the Reflection Spot, Will vary see page 6 of the Introduction. PAGE 14 16 +++ Motivate the students to read the two posts 13 ++ 1 and answer them in their notebooks. Invite In pairs, the students listen and then repeat them to compare their answers in their the conversation. groups. (L.A.: to imitate intonation/pronunciation (L.A.: to give personal information in patterns). writing). TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 1 Answers Will vary Diana: Hi, my names Diana. Whats your name? Steve: Hi, Im Steve. Nice to meet you. Diana: How old are you, Steve. And, where do you come from? PAGE 15 Steve: Im 14, and I come from Canada. Diana: What do you like doing in your free time? 17 +++ FL Steve: I always do sports or visit my friends. And you? Invite fast learners to read the posts again Diana: I often do sports too, and I always chat on the and then answer the questions. Motivate Internet with people from all over the world. them to support their answers and encourage them to share their conclusions with the rest of their classmates. You can 14 +++ organize a debate and then ask the Motivate students to replace the parts students to come to an agreement. underlined with information that is true for (L.A.: to relate topic to personal reality / to them and then role-play the conversation in consolidate content of the lesson). front of their classmates. Answers (L.A.: to ask for and give personal Will vary information). 15 ++ LET’S CHECK Encourage the students to complete the post to introduce themselves to a Forum Chat. Motivate them to be creative and write 18 The purpose of this section is to allow as if they were chatting. You can assign this students to check their progress and to activity as homework and check it orally the provide information to the teacher about any next class points that the majority of the students have (L.A.: to express personal information). problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them26 UNIT 1
  • 28. TEEN LI FE TEE N enough time to answer individually. Then, Answers check on the board to allow students to COMPUTERS / FASHION / FRIENDS / MUSIC / PARTIES correct their work and assign a mark / SPORTS / VIDEOGAMES according to the scale. + + + + + + + + N + + + + S + For more information on LETS CHECK, see + + + + + + + + O S + + E + + page 6 of the Introduction. S E M A G O E D I V P I + + + + + + + + + + + H + T O + + + Answers + + + + + + + + S R + + R + + Will vary. Accept any coherent ideas. For example: I + + + S + + + + A + + + + T + always swim in the swimming pool in summer. I hardly + + + + R + + P F + + + + + S ever eat hamburgers or junk food. I never sleep on my + + + + + E + + + + + + + + + stomach. I sometimes talk to my friends on my cell + + + + + + T + + + + + + + + phone. I usually play computer games in the evening. + + + + + + + U + + + + + + + F R I E N D S M P + + + + + + + + + + + + + U + M + + + + + + + + + + + + S + + O + + + + REAL LIFE SPOT + + + + + + + I + + + C + + + + + + + + + + C + + + + + + +This section is intended to allow students to makeconnections between the topic of the lesson andreal life, and at the same time provide additional 2 ++information that may be useful for them. Now, in pairs, the students make a list of otherMake sure you give enough time for them to read words related to teenagers. Check orally.and then elicit their comments. (L.A: to relate previous knowledge to the topic).For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT,see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers Will vary PAGE 16 3 +++ LESSON 2 Draw students’ attention to the photo and ask them to answer the questions in their LISTENING groups. Invite one member of each group to TEENAGE TALK share their answers with the rest of their classmates.BEFORE LISTENING (L.A.: to infer information from pictures). Answers 1 + Will vary according to students’ ideas. Brainstorm students’ ideas about things or activities that are related to teen culture. 4 +++ Motivate them to find seven words related Have students read the words in the Key to this topic in the Word Search puzzle. You Word Spot and then identify their meaning can divide the class into groups or pairs and in the list. Allow them to use bilingual or organize a competition, setting a time limit. monolingual dictionaries if necessary. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). understand new vocabulary). Answers a. fed up; b. look forward to; c. wool 27
  • 29. PAGE 17 Answers look for a girlfriend (1); play the drums (3); talk about LISTENING music (2); wear a nice jacket (4) 5 + 2 8 +++ 2 Tell students that they are going to listen to Play the recording again. This time, the an interview to the boy in the photo. Explain students must listen and discriminate to them that this first time they don’t need to between correct and incorrect information. If pay attention to details. They must only get necessary, play the recording again for the general content to check their them to correct the false statements. predictions in Exercise 3. Alternatively, you can ask the keener (L.A.: to validate predictions). students to do this and then to share their Answers answers with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and a. Yes, he does. incorrect information). b. He’s from Chicago, in the USA. c. He likes skateboarding, playing the guitar and Answers listening to music. a. False (he lives in a suburb of Chicago). b. False (he d. He cares about the environment. goes skateboarding). c. False (he goes to the movies once or twice a month). d. False (he is reading a book 6 ++ 2 about birds). e. True (and he also likes Spanish and computer sciences). f. False (he is not looking for a The students listen to the interview once girlfriend). g. True. more and identify the correct alternative for each sentence. (L.A: to identify correct words). TRANSCRIPT - TEENAGE TALK 2 Answers a. friends; b. The Amazing Life of Birds; c. older; Presenter: Danny Evans is 16, and lives in a suburb of d. homework; e. one week. Chicago. Danny, what do you usually do on weekends? Reflection Spot Danny: I always go skateboarding and I play the drums. I also often listen to music with my friends. And Make sure you assign enough time of your we go to clubs every Saturday night. class to allow students to reflect on their Presenter: How often do you go to the movies? achievements and weaknesses. They read Danny: Once or twice a month. the statements and assess: Presenter: What are you reading right now? • their ability to use visuals to make Danny: A great book called The Amazing Life of Birds, by predictions Gary Paulsen. • their ability to distinguish sounds Presenter: What are your favorite subjects at school? For more information on the Reflection Spot, Danny: History, Spanish and computer science. see page 6 of the Introduction. Presenter: What do you and your friends talk about? Danny: Girls, sports and music. 7 ++ 2 Presenter: Do you have a girlfriend? Play the recording again. Ask students to Danny: No; all the girls like older boys, because they have listen and match the lists A and B. Then, cars, and jobs and money. Anyway, I’m not encourage them to find the correct picture looking for a girlfriend. for each collocation. Presenter: What are you wearing today? (L.A.: to identify collocations / to relate text and pictures). Danny: I’m wearing a fleece jacket, jeans and sneakers.28 UNIT 1
  • 30. TEEN LI FE TEE NPresenter: How are you feeling? 9 +Danny: I’m fed up with homework. Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT toPresenter: What are you doing on your next vacation? copy and complete the dialogues using theDanny: I’m spending a week with my cousins in the Simple Present or the Present Progressive country. I can’t wait! of the verbs in brackets. Then, ask them toPresenter: What kind of things do you really care about? relate each dialogue with a picture.Danny: I think the environment is really important. We (L.A.: to apply a language structure). must stop the destruction of our planet! Answers a. does, do, He / She plays. (3)PAGE 18 b. is, doing, is organizing. (2) c. do, eat, drink (1)AFTER LISTENING ERROR ALERT LANGUAGE SPOT Present Progressive: I’m wearing a uniform / He is reading a book (NOT: I wearing a uniform / He reading a book) The Present Progressive for future plans This section is designed to help students revise Exercise: Use the prompts to write sentences in the or discover a particular grammar structure or an Present Progressive tense. interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. a. Anna / cook / the meal. The activities are meant to promote independent b. Bill / play / chess / his friends. learning, so help, guide and check, but do not c. Diana / sleep / her best friend’s house. enunciate them the answers. d. Nick and Jill / swim / the pool. 1. The students read the questions and answers e. Bob / read / a novel. from the interview carefully. f. Jim and Sheila / have / dinner. 2. Help them identify which exchange talks about g. My parents / watch / a movie. an event that is happening now and which h. Ann / help / her mother. exchange talks about future plans. i. The plane / take off. Answ ers: j. Tina and Margaret / travel / around the world. a.- a.; b. – b.; c. – ii. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of 3. Now students copy and complete the general the Introduction. rule in their notebook. Answ ers: We use the Present Progressive to talk about temporary events and about what is happening now. We can also use the Present Progressive to talk about future plans and arrangements. 4. Invite your students to speculate about two more plans that Danny may have and then write sentences in their notebooks. Check their answers orally. Answ ers: Will vary. Accept any coherent ideas, such as: Danny is visiting his family on Saturday; Danny is riding a horse tomorrow morning; Danny is doing sports on the weekend, etc. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. 29
  • 31. PAGE 19 GAME SPOT 10 ++ 3 PLAY THE DON’T ANSWER BACK GAME In groups, the students complete the extract This game guarantees confusion and lots of of the interview in their notebooks. Then, laughter in the classroom (perfect for teenagers!). play the recording and ask them to compare a. Ask students to write down questions like their answers. those in the interview and in Exercise 10. (L.A.: to ask and give information). b. Form groups of six students and sit them in Answers a circle. c.d.e. Write a question on the board. See transcript. Example: Whatʼs your name? Explain that the aim for each student is to TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 3 give the answer to the question asked to the student before. To help explain this, get Presenter: How often do you go to the movies? a student to ask you a question (ex: Have Leo: Once or twice a month. you got a sister?), don’t answer this Presenter: What are you reading right now? question but tell your name (answering the Leo: A great book called The Golden Compass. question written on the board). Presenter: What are your favorite subjects at school? f.g. Start the game. Each player has 3 lives. If he/she doesn’t answer the correct question, Leo: Drama, Spanish and computer science. or he/she hesitates for too long, he /she Presenter: What do you and your friends talk about? loses a life. The winner is / are the player/s Leo: Sports and music. with most lives at the end of the time limit. Presenter: What are you doing next weekend? For more information on the GAME SPOT, see Leo: We are playing football and going to a birthday page 7 of the Introduction. party. PAGE 20 11 +++ Ask students to ask and answer the LET’S CHECK questions in the interview with their partners. Then, encourage them to practice and act it in front of their classmates. 13 The purpose of this section is to allow Motivate them to participate actively in this students to check their progress and to kind of activities, which are in most cases provide information to the teacher about any the only opportunity they have to use points that the majority of the students have English. problems with. Make sure they understand (L.A.: to ask for and give information). what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, 12 + check on the board to allow students to With the information from the interview, the correct their work and assign a mark students complete the description of their according to the scale. partners in their notebooks. Choose some For more information on LETS CHECK, see of them to read the descriptions aloud to page 6 of the Introduction. provide a model for their classmates. You can also assign this activity for homework. (L.A.: to consolidate content of the lesson).30 UNIT 1
  • 32. TEEN LI FE TEE N Answers REAL LIFE SPOTThe questions should be the same, but the answers willvary, according to students ideas. Make sure they are The objective of this section is to provide a bit ofcoherent and use the correct language form. humor to the class. Anyway, all the jokes anda. What are you doing on Saturday morning? Im / We cartoons are related to the topic of the lesson. are …ing … . Give some minutes to allow students to read andb. What are you and your friends doing on your next then invite them to share their comments to make vacations? We are …ing … . sure they understood the joke. At this point, youc. What clothes are you wearing for the birthday party? may allow the use of Spanish to check Im wearing ____. comprehension. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT,14 ++ FL see page 6 of the Introduction. Motivate keener students to unscramble the words related to clothes and then match PAGE 22 them to the correct picture. Invite them to LESSON 3 share their answer with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to consolidate vocabulary / to relate READING words and pictures). THE MYSTERY OF TEEN FAS HION Answersa. jacket (3); b. jeans (5); c. sneakers (8); d. top (6);e. boots (1); f. t-shirt (7); g. shirt (2); h. skirt (4) BEFORE READING 1 +PAGE 21 You can introduce the topic of the lesson starting a conversation about teen fashion.15 +++ Elicit students’ ideas about this issue and In pairs, the students take turns to describe make notes on the board. Then, ask the the pictures, saying what the people are students to look at the pictures and describe doing. Select some students to describe the the clothes the teens are wearing. Finally, pictures aloud in order to check the ask their opinion about the style they like answers. most. (L.A.: to describe pictures / to use a (L.A.: to express opinions / to relate topic language structure). with own reality). Answers 2 ++1. The girl is reading a magazine.2. The boy is watching TV. Motivate students to find out if they are3. The boy is playing basketball. fashion victims. Tell them to answer the4. The girls are talking about boyfriends / fashion / questions honestly, calculate their scores music, etc. and then compare the results with their5. The girl is wearing smart clothes. partners or in their groups. Take advantage6. The boy is playing video games. of the activity to start a general conversation about the relation between fashion trends and teenagers. (L.A.: to relate topic to personal experiences). Answers Will vary. 31
  • 33. PAGE 24 3 +++ Tell students to read statements a. – d. and READING then choose the ones they think are true. Do not check answers at this point. 6 + (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to formulate predictions). The students read the text quickly and confirm or correct their choices in Exercise 3. Remind them that this first reading is only PAGE 23 to validate their predictions; it is not necessary to understand every single word. 4 + (L.A.: to validate predictions). Ask the students to take a look at the text Answers and identify all the cognates they can find. Check orally or asking some students to All the statements are true. write the list of cognates on the board. Remind them that this first reading must be 7 ++ very quick, only to find key words that may Now, the students must read the article help them to understand the text. carefully and answer the questions in their (L.A.: to identify cognates through notebooks. You can ask some students to scanning). read their answers aloud to check the Answers exercise. fascinating, neon, colored, common, bands, accessories, (L.A.: to identify specific information). dictates, companies, specialize, hours, television, Answers different, style, influence, pop culture, shows, music, a. Neon-colored hair; pierced tongues; bare stomachs. celebrities, impact, millions, dollars, identify. b. They travel all over the world and watch thousands of hours of movies and television. c. Pop culture. ERROR ALERT d. They spend millions of dollars. False cognates Notice = see, observe, pay attention (NOT: noticia) 8 +++ For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of The students read the text again to insert the Introduction. sentences a. – d. back in it. Guide them to find the textual clues that may help them, 5 ++ for example: if it is a question, if it is a reason, an additional idea, etc. Draw students’ attention to the words in the (L.A.: to localize missing information). Key Word Spot and tell them to find their definitions in column A. Then, ask them to Answers identify their synonyms in column B. (1) – d.; (2) – c.; (3) – a.; (4) – b. (L.A.: to infer meaning of key words). Answers 9 ++ bare: not covered by any clothes; naked Ask the students to read the article again if household: connected with the house; domestic necessary, and form collocations with the track down: to find something; detect words in columns A and B. Then, make trend: a general style; tendency them relate three of the collocations with a picture below. (L.A.: to infer meaning of words from the context ; to relate words and visuals).32 UNIT 1
  • 34. TEEN LI FE TEE N Answers LANGUAGE SPOT a. – v. (3); b. – iii. (1); c. – i. (2); d. – iv.; e. – ii.; f. – vi. Expressing quantity10 ++ Remember that this section is designed to help Tell the students to copy the chart into their students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary notebooks, and then complete it with related to the text. information from the text. You can copy the The activities are meant to promote independent chart on the board and then ask some learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell students to complete it to allow the class to them the answers. check their answers. You can also assign this exercise as homework. 1. Ask the students to read the sentences from the text, paying special attention to the words (L.A.: to extract specific information). in bold. Answers 2. Guide them to identify what the words in bold Parts of the body Entertainment Household items express in each sentence. Answ ers: b. tongue TV shows safety pins stomachs movies rubber bands 3. Now, the students copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. Draw students’ hair music attention to the Note in the Language Spot, ankle magazines and make sure they know the difference between Countable and Uncountable Nouns. Answ ers: We use words such as a lot of, a few ,PAGE 25 some, many, to express a quantity.11 +++ 4. Now students go back to the text and identify all the sentences that express quantity. Ask Invite your students to read the text once them to copy the sentences in their notebooks more and find words in it that correspond to and underline the words used to express descriptions a. – e. Read the descriptions quantity. aloud and analyze them carefully. Draw Answ ers: students’ attention to the kind (or category) Companies trend spotters watch a lot of hours of word that they should look for in each of movies and television. case. A lot of TV shows, music, movies, magazines (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). and celebrities have a huge impact on teen style. Answers Clothing companies spend a lot of money a. (adjective) cool; b. (noun) trend spotter; c. (noun) trying to identify the next hot trend. accessories; d. (noun) influence; e. (adverb) steadily. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.AFTER READING12 + Ask the class to form groups of four or five students to talk about clothes and accessories they wear. Explain that they can use the questions provided to guide the conversation. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). 33
  • 35. PAGE 26 ERROR ALERT Countable Nouns Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things 13 + that we can count. Countable nouns can be singular or Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to plural. complete what the two teenagers say. Invite Uncountable Nouns some of them to write the correct sentences Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts, etc. that we on the board to allow the rest to check their cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” answers. them. We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Countable Uncountable Answers dollar money Anne: much, a lot of, a lot of, much. song music Malcom:a lot of, a few, a few, some, some, much, a few. suitcase luggage table furniture Reflection Spot battery electricity bottle wine report information The purpose of this activity is to help tip advice students reflect on their learning process journey travel and to raise students’ awareness of how job work they develop their own learning strategies to view scenery become more effective learners. They Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and should work on their own but you may help uncountable, often with a change of meaning. and guide the work when necessary. Examples: The students read the statements and assess: • their ability to exchange personal Countable Noun Uncountable information. There are two hairs Hair I don’t have • their ability to express quantities. in my coffee! much hair. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction. There are two lights Light There’s too in our bedroom. much light! 14 ++ Shhhhh! I thought Noise It’s difficult to work Play the recording and ask the students to I heard a noise. when there is too listen and read at the same time. much noise. (L.A.: to imitate intonation patterns). Have you got Paper I want to draw a TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 4 a paper to read? picture. Have you got some paper? A: Can you describe what you are wearing? Our house has Room Is there room for B: Im wearing a long black skirt, a black T-shirt and black seven rooms. me to sit here? boots. Im also wearing black eyeliner, black nail varnish Additional exercise: and black lipstick. Decide whether you have to use much or many. A: What do you call your style? a. _______ cars f. _______ numbers B: I am a Goth. b. _______ music g. _______ money A: What about the accessories? c. _______ pictures h. _______ tea B: I wear only a few accessories, like hair pins, and I have d. _______ flowers i. _______ girls some piercings. e. _______ milk j. _______ pencils A: Do you spend a lot of money on clothes? For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of B: No; I dont have many clothes and I usually get them from the Introduction. a second hand shop.34 UNIT 1
  • 36. TEEN LI FE TEE N15 +++ 18 ++ FL Now, ask the students to work in pairs Motivate fast learners to invent three more replacing the parts underlined in the questions to add to the quiz in Exercise 2. dialogue with facts that are true for them. Then, invite them to ask the questions to Then, ask the students to practice the their partners. dialogue imitating the recording. You can (L.A.: to consolidate content of the lesson). play it again, if necessary. Encourage some pairs to act it in front of the class to provide REAL LIFE SPOT a model for their classmates. (L.A.: to express and give information / to This section is intended to allow students to make relate topic to own reality). connections between the topic of the lesson and the real life, and at the same time provide LET’S CHECK additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments.16 The purpose of this section is to allow For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, students to check their progress and to see page 6 of the Introduction. provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have PAGE 28 problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them LESSON 4 enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to LISTENING correct their work and assign themselves a TYPICAL TEENAGERS mark according to the scale. For more information on LETS CHECK, see BEFORE LISTENING page 6 of the Introduction. Answers 1 +a. some; b. a few; c. many; d. a lot of, some, a few; Start the lesson by drawing students’e. much, a few. attention to the pictures and tell them to find the relationship with the comments (a. – d.)PAGE 27 You can also ask the students if they can identify themselves in any of the situations.17 +++ (L.A.: to relate visuals and written text). Motivate students to copy and complete the Answers paragraph in their notebooks, using the 1 – a.; 2 – b.; 3 – d.; 4 – c. information they collected in Exercise 14. You can also assign this exercise as homework and invite some students to read 2 ++ their work aloud the next class. Ask the students to revise the comments in (L.A.: to consolidate content of the lesson). Exercise 1 and identify the topics that represent a source of conflict with their Answers parents. Then, invite them to form groups andWill vary. compare their answers with their partners. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers Will vary. 35
  • 37. PAGE 29 ERROR ALERT Draw students’ attention to the difference between the 3 ++ /&i:/ sound, as in leave, and the /I/ sound, as in live. Explain to your students that they are going Exercise: Listen to the following word pairs. Repeat to listen to two poems related to the name them, being careful to make the distinction between the of the lesson. Ask them to read it and two sounds. choose the alternative they think is correct. pit / Pete; bitch / beach; living / leaving; gin / Jean; bid (L.A.: to use titles to formulate predictions). / bead; pick / peak; mid / mead; lick / leak; grin / green Do not check answers at this point. Tongue twister: Does Jim still steal Jill’s jeans? 4 +++ Draw students’ attention to the words in the For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of Key Word Spot. Tell them to look them up the Introduction. in a dictionary and then copy them in their notebooks. Check orally. 7 ++ 5 (L.A.: to apply study skills). Tell the students to read the sentences. Answers Play the recording of the second poem and folks: members of your family, especially your parents. ask them to number the phrases in the fume: to be very angry about something. order they hear them. Then, they listen to mean: angry. the poem once more to check their swear: to use rude or offensive language. answers. unfair: unjust. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of utterly: totally, very. information). Answers c.; e.; b.; d.; a. LISTENING 8 +++ 5 5 + 5 Ask the students to read the comments in Play the recording. Ask the students to listen Exercise 1 again. Then, play the recording and check their predictions in Exercise 3. again and tell them to identify the topics that (L.A.: to validate predictions). are mentioned. You can encourage Answers advanced learners to also identify how the b. topics are mentioned in the poem. For example: That music is too loud / their music cracks the ceiling; You sleep too 6 ++ 5 much / sleepy; You spend too much on the Play the recording of the first poem again. phone / They talk for hours on end; Your Tell the students to choose the alternative room is a mess / They’ll leave their room a they think is correct. Check on the board. mess (L.A.: to identify the words said and relate (L.A.: to identify general information). them to their written form). Answers Answers All of them are mentioned in the poem. sleepy; on end; leave; think; swear; reeling; be; living.36 UNIT 1
  • 38. TEEN LI FE TEE NTRANSCRIPT - COMPLAINTS 5 PAGE 30Happy, sad, sleepy, mean, AFTER LISTENINGFeelings often change,A common act of a typical teen, 9 +++I find it rather strange. Tell students to work in pairs to completeTalking to a friend, or sending them a text, the dialogue with facts that are true forThey talk for hours on end, what’ll they think of next them. Let them know that severalThey’ll leave their room a mess possibilities are correct.And give cleaning it a miss, The students can also practice the dialogueBut yes, I must confess as homework and act it the next class.To also doing this (L.A.: to express facts / opinions / information).They think their folks are ancient,And utterly unfair, the result is to ignore them Possible AnswersBefore they start to swear. A: Do you recognize yourself in the poem?Their music cracks the ceiling, B: Yes, because my feelings often change, I talk toAnd makes their parents fume, friends for hours, and my room is a mess. What about you?Emotions always reeling A: Well, I don’t recognize myself because my room isAnd more time in their room. always tidy, I don’t think my parents are ancientBeing a teen may be pretty bad, and my music is never too loud.But from experience I can tell,It’s much worse for mum and dad,For them it’s living hell!Getting OlderWhen you cannot find your pencilAnd your purse has gone astray.When you’re feeling rather tiredFor it has been a hectic day.When the morning comes too quicklyAnd you just can’t cope with rush;When everyone is shoutingAnd you’d rather have some hush.Perhaps you’re getting older,For this happens we are told,But no, this isn’t how it isYou’re only thirteen years old! 37
  • 39. PAGE 31 LANGUAGE SPOT 10 + Addition, alternative and contrast This section is designed to help students revise Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to or discover a particular grammar structure or an combine the pairs of sentences. Invite some interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. students to write their sentences on the The activities are meant to promote independent board to check the exercise. learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell (L.A.: to use / apply a new language them the answers. structure). 1. The students revise the examples from the Answers poem, paying special attention to the words in a. Teenagers sleep a lot but they are always sleepy, bold. anyway. 2. The students identify: b. Teenagers don’t talk with their parents but they talk a. the word that introduces an additional idea a lot with their friends. b. the word that introduces an alternative idea c. Teenagers like music and sports. c. what concept the word but introduces d. Teenagers like to be with friends or to spend a lot of Answ ers: time in their rooms. a. and; b. or; c. a contrast 3. Now, the students copy and complete the 11 +++ 6 general rules in their notebooks. Provide the transcripts of the poems or write Answ ers: them on the board. Play the recording We use but when we want to express a contrast between two ideas. several times. In pairs, students choose the We use and when we want to express part of the poem they like most. Then, additional ideas. motivate them to memorize and say it in We use or when we want to express front of the class. alternative ideas. (L.A.: to imitate intonation pattern). 4. Provide transcripts of the poems to your students. You can photocopy them or you can write them on the board. Then, ask the GAME SPOT students to copy all the sentences that include Encourage students to read the clues and try to the words in the Language Spot, and to solve the crossword with words from the first identify what they express. poem they listened to. Allow use of dictionaries if Answ ers: necessary. Poem 1: Answ ers: Theyʼll leave their room a mess and give Across: 2. hell, 6. confess, 8. unfair, 9. mess cleaning it a miss, (addition) Dow n: 1. ceiling, 3. folks, 4. ancient, 5. teen, They think their folks are ancient, and utterly 7. friend unfair (addition) Poem 2: For more information on the GAME SPOT, see When you cannot find your pencil and your page 7 of the Introduction. purse has gone astray. (addition) When the morning comes too quickly and you just canʼt cope with rush; (addition) When everyone is shouting and youʼd rather have some hush. (addition) For this happens we are told, but no, this isnʼt how it is. (contrast) For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.38 UNIT 1
  • 40. TEEN LI FE TEE NPAGE 32 PAGE 33 LET’S CHECK 14 +++ Now, tell students to think about feelings,12 The purpose of this section is to allow ideas or actions related with teenagers. Then, ask them to copy and complete the students to check their progress and to poem in their notebooks and then share provide information to the teacher about any their work in their groups. You can ask the points that the majority of the students have class to choose the best poems and problems with. Make sure they understand display them in a visible place of the what they are expected to do and give them classroom. If you want, you can provide enough time to answer individually. Then, the original poem, for students to compare check on the board to allow students to with their versions. correct their work and assign themselves a (L.A.: to consolidate topic of the lesson). mark according to the scale. For more information on LETS CHECK, see Answers page 6 of the Introduction. I AM Answers James Born I am love in the face of hate,a. or; b. and; c. but; d. but; e. and. I am kindness in the face of ridicule, I am strength in the face of adversity,13 ++ I am patience in the face of the mule. Read the words in the box with the class and I will not run away from fear, check that students understand their I will not run and hide. meaning. Ask them to use the words to I am bravery, I am pride, complete the verses of the poem in their I will make a difference in this world, big or small. notebooks. That is my promise to me, my promise to all. afraid = feeling fear / temeroso/a; ashamed = feeling shame or embarrassment / 15 ++ avergonzado/a; blunt = very direct / muy Motivate students to read the first poem franco/a; bold = brave and confident / audaz; again and find phrases or sentences to brave = courageous / valiente; loud = making describe each picture. a lot of noise / bullicioso/a; quiet = tending (L.A.: to relate text and visuals). not to talk very much / callado/a; shy = Possible Answers nervous or embarrassed about meeting and Picture 1: Talking to a friend / They talk for hours on end. speaking to other people / tímido/a. Picture 2: Sending them a text, (L.A.: to use vocabulary related to the topic). Picture 3: Their music cracks the ceiling Answers Picture 4: Theyll leave their room a mess, And giveTURN UP THE VOLUME cleaning it a missLiz Boyatt Picture 5: Happy, sad, sleepy, mean / And more time inI need to be bold, their room.I need to be loud, Picture 6: Talking to a friend / They talk for hours on end.I need to be blunt,I need to be brave.I cant be shy,I cant keep quiet,I cant be ashamed,I cant be afraid,I cant be anyone but myself. 39
  • 41. Answers 16 +++ FL A: What do you generally do on Friday evenings? Encourage fast learners to find three B: I usually go to the movies. sentences in the poems they have seen in A: How are you feeling right now? this lesson that describe a typical teenager. B: I’m tired. I have so much homework. Ask them to write them on a nice piece of A: What are your favorite subjects at school? paper and add illustrations. Display their B: I like Spanish and Math. work in the classroom. A: What are you doing next weekend? (L.A.: to express opinions and connect topic B: I am doing sports and going to a disco with my to own reality). friends. A: What are you wearing today? PAGE 34 B: I’m wearing jeans, sneakers and a fleece jacket. A: What do you like to do with your friends? B: I like to go skating, going to parties and doing sports. YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION 3 The students must read the interview about This section provides additional exercises that this very extreme new fashion, and then represent a good opportunity for students to complete the paragraph. consolidate topics and language structures of the Answers lessons. You can assign these activities at the Sonia’s favorite clothes and accessories are pink mini end of each lesson, or as homework and give skirts, pink tops, platform boots, false them an extra mark. eyelashes, glitter and pink lipstick. She likes them because she thinks she looks really 1 Tell the students to search for information cool, but her mother doesn’t like the way she looks about someone that has a very unusual life, or dresses. and to write a personal introduction about To get money to buy her clothes and accessories she him / her to a Student Chat Forum, like the has a weekend job at a supermarket. ones in Lesson 1. Answers PAGE 35 Will vary. 4 Motivate students to find out if they can be 2 Explain to the students that they must refer considered “typical teenagers”. Tell them to to the interview in Lesson 2 to write a answer the quiz and calculate the scores. complete interview using the prompts given. Then, ask them to compare their results You can also ask them to do this task in with their classmates, and elicit their pairs and then to role-play the interview in comments. front of the class. Answers Will vary according to students’ scores. @ @@ CLICK ON If possible, motivate students to visit the web site and find more about the extreme fashion described in the interview. Next class, ask them to share their findings with their classmates. For more information on CLICK ON, see page 12 of the Introduction.40 UNIT 1
  • 42. TEEN LI FE TEE N PAGE 36 PAGE 38 6 1 – d.; 2 – a.; 3 – c.; 4 – b.; 5 – e. UNIT CHECK TRANSCRIPT: DIAMOND LAMOUR’S LIFE 7Explain to the students that the purpose of thissection is to help them revise contents and Interviewer: Hi, Diamond. Can I ask you a few questions?evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Diamond: Sure.Read the instructions and make sure all the Interviewer: How old are you?students understand what they are expected to Diamond: I’m fourteen.do in each activity. Encourage them to give Interviewer: Where do you live?honest answers in order to detect their strengths Diamond: In Lansing, Michigan.and weaknesses. Interviewer: What do you usually do on weekends?Check students’ results and revise any points Diamond: I meet my friends downtown, we go windowthat the majority of them had problems with.For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page shopping and have a soda or an ice cream.6 of the Introduction. And I often go to parties on Saturday night, not to discos, but to friends’ houses. Interviewer: How often do you go to the movies? PAGE 37 Diamond: About once a month. Answers Interviewer: What are you reading right now?READING - TWO CULTURES Diamond: Nothing right now because I’m studying for several tests. 1 a. The girl lives in Shanghai, in China. The boy lives Interviewer: What are your favorite school subjects? in Seattle, in the USA. Diamond: Spanish, history and art. b. She goes to her sports club to do judo or play Interviewer: What do you and your friends talk about? baseball and tennis. He plays video games. Diamond: Clothes, TV, and boys. c. She takes the subway. d. He gets up at 7:00 in the morning. Interviewer: Do you have a boyfriend? e. Snoop Dogg is his favorite singer. Diamond: Yes. He’s called Jake and he’s 16. Interviewer: What are you wearing today? 2 a. True; b. False; c. True; d. False; e. False. Diamond: A blue top, a denim skirt, and boots. Interviewer: How are you feeling? 3 a. Kenny; b. Bao-Yu; c. Kenny; d. Bao-Yu; e. Bao-Yu. Diamond: Excited, because I’m 15 tomorrow. Interviewer: What are you doing next Saturday night? 7 Diamond: I have my birthday party!LISTENING - DIAMOND LAMOURS LIFE Interviewer: What do you care about? 4 a. False; b. False; c. False; d. False; e. True. Diamond: Politics. I want to change the world! Interviewer: What do you worry about? 5 a. fourteen; b. meets; c. Jake; d. excited; e. world. Diamond: I get really nervous about exams. Interviewer: What are your plans for next week? Diamond: I‘m studying for all my exams. 41
  • 43. LANGUAGE PAGE 39 7 A: What do you do on weekends? B: I go out with friends. FINAL REFLECTION A: What do you do with your friends? B: We talk about sports and music. A: Are you reading a book at the moment? The purpose of this section is to allow students B: Yes. I am reading Harry Potter. to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. A: What are you doing on Friday night? Make sure all the students understand what B: I am watching a movie on TV. they are expected to do and give enough time to answer the questions. Encourage students to give honest answers and show interest in 8 Will vary. Accept any coherent answer. their results. For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, SPEAKING see page 6 of the Introduction. 9 In pairs, the students use the questions in Exercises 1 and 7 to exchange personal information. Make sure that they change roles. You can assign a mark according to these criteria: 5 points: student can introduce him / her self and ask and answer basic questions about personal information, with a minimum of hesitation and grammar mistakes. 4 – 3 points: student can exchange personal information, but hesitates and makes some grammar mistakes. 2 – 1 points: student can’t exchange personal information, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. WRITING 10 The students read and reply to Bao-Yu or Kenny’s posts, giving information that is true for them. You can assign a mark according to these criteria: 5 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, without spelling or grammar mistakes. 3 – 4 points: student can write a short paragraph in a coherent way, but makes some spelling and / or grammar mistakes. 1 – 2 points: student can’t write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, and makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.42 UNIT 1
  • 44. TEEN LI FE TEE NEXTRA TEST UNIT 1READING - THE STUDENTS’ MAIL Dear friends: in Brazil. I’m interestedHi! I’m Dora. I’m 14 and I study at Liceo Superior Hello! I’m Ariel. I’m 15 and I’m from Porto Alegre, es and computers. Ilike to chat with students all around the world to in Necochea, Argentina. I in all sports, especially soccer, and I love video gam of the world, so I learn more about theirculture and way of life. I like listening to music and would like to have cyber friends from different parts reading. At this hope someone writes to me.moment, I’m reading a very interesting novel, Worl d Without End.Please write to me! I can write in English and, of course, in Spanish! at a secondary school in Hi! I’m Rachel, It’s good to meet you. I’m from DenvHello friends! My name is Enzo and I’m a student er, Colorado, in the in the afternoon. I USA. I’m 16 years old and I like to play tennis andQuito, Ecuador. I’m 13. I go to school five days a week basketball. I also like to I want to have friends write poems and listen to music. I would like to getstart lessons at 1 p.m. and return home at 6 p.m. cyber friends from abroad.from other countries. to the movies and Please write to me, I am waiting for your mails!I have many hobbies, I like playing sports, goinghaving fun with my friends. I also love music – I play the drums in my school band and sometimes I sing! 1 Take a look at the texts. What are the students doing? 1 pt. a. Asking for advice. b. Introducing themselves. c. Talking about their families. d. Telling a story. 2 Read the texts again and answer these questions. 5 pts. a. Why do the students write the posts? b. Do they have similar interests and lives? c. Who is the oldest? d. Who is the youngest? e. Which continents are they from? 3 Read the texts once more and complete this chart. 4 pts. Name Country Interests 43
  • 45. LISTENING - TEENAGERS IN THE STREET 4 Listen to the recording. What is the person who asks the questions doing? 1 pt. a. Doing a survey. b. Interviewing people. c. Reading a piece of news. 5 Listen to the recording again. Are these statements true or false? 5 pts. a. The teens are students at an Elementary School. b. They usually study on weekends. c. The boy likes to go to the cinema. d. The girl is reading a novel. e. The boy is looking for a girlfriend. 6 Listen to the recording again and choose the best alternative. 4 pts. a. On Saturdays, I usually go shopping / do the shopping. b. I play basketball / baseball. Im on the school team. c. I prefer to rent DVDs / CDs and stay at home. d. Many / most girls like older boys. LANGUAGE 7 Choose the right form for each sentence. 5 pts. a. Gregory can’t talk to you now; he has / is having a shower. b. I wash / am washing my clothes every Thursday. c. They are playing / play tennis on Wednesdays. d. Don’t talk to me! I watch / am watching this movie. e. Astronauts do / are doing experiments every morning. f. She is taking / takes the dog for a walk every afternoon. g. I donʼt like / am not liking Leonardo DiCaprio. h. We are having / have lunch at 1.00 on Sundays. i. My mother bakes / is baking a cake for my father’s birthday. j. I listen / am listening to my favorite singer’s latest album. SPEAKING 8 In pairs, role-play an interview like that in the recording. Exchange information about 5 pts. routines, interests and favorite activities. WRITING 9 Use the information from exercise 8 to write a short paragraph describing your best 5 pts. friend’s interests and favorite activities. 35 pts. TOTAL 0 - 12 13 - 21 22 - 29 30 - 35 Keep trying! Good! Very good! Excellent!44 UNIT 1
  • 46. TEEN LI FE T EE N Interviewer: What are you reading right now? ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 1 Girl: I’m reading the latest Harry Potter novel. Interviewer: What do you and your friends talk about? Girl: We talk about clothes and music, TV programs,READING - STUDENTS MAILS …and boys, of course! Boy: We always talk about sports, sports and sports. 1 b. Interviewer: Would you like to have a girlfriend? Boy: I’d like to, but most girls like older boys. We’ll 2 a. Because they want to have friends from have to wait! all over the world. Interviewer: Thank you very much. Here, have a copy of the b. Yes, they do. first issue of our magazine… c. Rachel is the oldest. d. Enzo is the youngest. e. They’re from North / South America. LANGUAGE 3 7 a. is having; b. wash; c. play; d. am watching; e. do; f. takes; g. don’t like; Name Country Interests h. have; i. is baking; j. am listening Dora Argentina Listening to music; reading Ariel Brazil Sports; video games; computers SPEAKING Enzo Ecuador Sports; movies; music Rachel USA Sports, writing; music 8 In pairs, the students role-play a survey and exchange personal information. You can assign a mark according to these criteria:LISTENING - TEENAGERS IN THE STREET 8 5 points: student can introduce him / herself and ask and answer basic questions about 4 a. personal information, with a minimum of hesitation and grammar mistakes. 5 a. False. b. False. c. False. d. True. e. False. 3 – 4 points: student can exchange personal information, but hesitates and 6 a. go. b. baseball. c. DVDs. d. Most makes some grammar mistakes. 1 – 2 points: student can’t exchange TRANSCRIPT - TEENAGERS IN THE STREET 8 personal information, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. Interviewer: Excuse me. Can I ask you a few questions? I’m doing a survey for a new teen’s magazine… WRITING Teenagers: Sure! Interviewer: Are you students? 9 The students use the information from Boy: Yes, at Brentwood High School. Exercise 8 to write a paragraph about their Interviewer: What do you usually do on weekends? partners’ interests and favorite activities. You Girl: On Saturdays, I usually go shopping and then I can assign a mark according to these criteria: like to visit friends or go to parties. 5 points: student can write a coherent short Boy: I play baseball. I’m on the school team. On paragraph with personal information, without Saturday nights, I meet my friends and we spelling or grammar mistakes. usually go to parties. 3 – 4 points: student can write a short paragraph in a coherent way, but makes Interviewer: How often do you go to the cinema? some spelling and / or grammar mistakes. Girl: Very often; about two or three times a month. 1 – 2 points: student can’t write a coherent Interviewer: What about you? short paragraph with personal information, Boy: I never go to the cinema. I prefer to rent DVDs and makes a lot of spelling and grammar and stay at home. mistakes. 45
  • 47. UNIT BELIEVE IT OR NOT In this unit you will: fixed arrangements · Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours · read a web page · use conjunctive connectors + home assignments · read a scientific article · use the First Conditional Didactic resources · listen to an interview Speaking · Complementary material such as articles · listen to an advertisement · ask and answer questions about fixed arrangements magazines, Student Forum chats. You will learn how to: · talk about virtual life · Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher Reading Writing and by the students to illustrate the diversity of · scan the text to validate predictions · write a short report teenager cultures. · use cognates to get the general meaning · complete a paragraph about life in the future · Support material such as lists of adjectives, · find general and specific information You will also: dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed · discriminate between correct and incorrect · reflect about the importance of technology handouts, library material, etc. information development Methodological suggestions Listening · develop acceptance and respect for everyone’s · Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand · relate speakers and speech opinions considering that thorough prior preparation allows · discriminate sounds and words Development them to think of and apply some useful ideas. It is · identify specific information · Lesson 1: four hours their chance to make the class entertaining and to Language · Lesson 2: four hours involve students in the learning process. · use the Simple Future tense to express predictions · Lesson 3: four hours · Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources · use the Present Continuous tense to talk about · Lesson 4: four hours throughout the book. Types of Evaluation Indicators Continuous/informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Reflection spot Students analyze their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Self - evaluation Unit Check Reading: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Unit evaluation Listening: Students identify the correct sequence of events and discriminate sounds. Language: Students use the Future Tense and connectors although and besides. Speaking: Students exchange information about future fixed arrangements. Writing: Students write a short paragraph about a city on the moon. Final Reflection Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Extra Test Reading: Students identify type of text, find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use the Present Perfect tense to complete a paragraph. Writing: Students write a short paragraph about their plans and hopes for the future. Speaking: Students exchange information about their past experiences.46 UNIT 2
  • 48. BELIEVE IT OR NOTPAGE 40 2 ++ GETTING READY Motivate the students to write a list of things that they would like to have in a virtual world. Encourage some of them to share 1 Introduce the unit telling the students to look their lists with their classmates and elicit at the pictures and decide which ones show their comments. real life and which ones show virtual life. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers AnswersThere are only two pictures that show real life, the first Will vary.one (on the left) and the fourth (second line, on the right). 3 ++2 Ask your students to think if it is possible to Tell the students to have a look at the text live a virtual life, and how. they are going to read and decide what type Possible Answers of text it is. Do not check the answers at this stage.Yes, it is possible to have a virtual life through Internet. (L.A.: to identify type of text from visuals).3 Invite the students to think about what they 4 +++ think life will be like in 50 years time, and In their notebooks, the students make a list then choose the predictions they think will of cognates they expect to find in a text come true. Ask some of them to share their related to a virtual world. Do not check their comments with their classmates. answers at this point. Answers (L.A.: to predict content from previous knowledge). Will vary, according to students’ predictions. Answers Will vary according to students’ predictions.PAGE 42 LESSON 1 5 +++ Ask the students to study the words in the READING Key Word Spot. Tell them to match them A VIRTUAL WORLD FOR TEENS with their meaning (a. – c). (L.A.: to infer the meaning of key words).BEFORE READING Answers encourage: c.; gathering: a.; skyscraper: b. 1 + Tell the students to look at the pictures. Explain to them that they all show virtual life. Ask them to choose the virtual world activities they would like to do. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers Will vary according to students’ choices. 47
  • 49. PAGE 43 PAGE 44 READING 6 + @ Ask the students to read the text quickly @@ CLICK ON and check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. Recommend the students to find more (L.A.: to validate predictions). interesting information about the text visiting the Answers web site mentioned. At this point you may need to share some 2. b. additional information about Internet safety rules 3. globe, virtual, created, ideas, imagination, with the students. international, create, digital, 3D, socializing, video, For more information on CLICK ON, see page program, adventure, company, founded, technology, 12 of the Introduction. residents, unique, global, community, separate, version, adults, interact, occasionally, special, educational, projects, type, events, modest, entire, Background information region, park, computer, basic, level, islands, simple, Teenagers nowadays are extremely technical tutorial, appears, guide, controls, problems, and generally ahead of their parents in this area. experienced, visit, page. They know how to access all the information they need online. Possibly they own their own personal computer, or have access to an unmonitored 7 ++ computer at school or a friendʼs house. Now, tell the students to read the text Parental monitoring and restrictions can be carefully. Ask them to give each paragraph resented. Comment with your students about (I. – V.) a title (a. – e.). Check their answers Internet rules firmly and convince them that it is orally. out of concern for their safety. Tell them that the (L.A.: to identify general information). news often reports incidents of innocent Answers youngsters who have been led into danger through misuse of the Internet, with sometimes I. – c.; II. – e.; III. – d.; IV. – b.; V: - a. horrific results. Let your students be aware of the dangers. Suggest them that if they know about a 8 ++ friend who is in touch with a stranger, and Ask the students to read the text again arranging secret meetings, they should tell and find the required information a. – d. someone in authority without feeling like they are (L.A.: to extract specific information). telling tales. Answers Tell them to be careful what they say. Finally, itʼs worth mentioning that everyone, a. learn, play, create a digital self, make their ideas including children, must be extra cautious with come true. what they write in emails. What may have been b. fly through a 3D landscape, build skyscrapers and meant as a harmless joke or amusing remark virtual vehicles, have virtual land. can be misunderstood or misused by a third c. chat, socialize, exchange ideas, make friends. person who can forward it to a number of people d. skyscrapers, virtual vehicles. causing misunderstanding and embarrassment. And this is true of all internet communication, not 9 +++ just email. Now the students read the text again and For more information on Background decide if the statements a. – e. are true or information see page 7 of the Introduction. false. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information).48 UNIT 2
  • 50. BELIEVE IT OR NOT Answers PAGE 45 a. true; b. false; c. true; d. true; e. false. LANGUAGE SPOT10 +++ Connectors besides, although Invite the students to correct the false This section is designed to help students revise sentences in Exercise 9 in their notebooks. or discover a particular grammar structure or an (L.A.: to identify and extract supporting interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. information). The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not Answers enunciate them the answers. b. It’s not a computer game. It’s a place where teens 1. The students find the sentences a. and b. in the can meet and make friends, exchange ideas and text. Draw their attention to the words in bold. create. 2. The students read the other examples, again e. You don’t have to pay if you sign up for basic level. paying special attention to the words in bold. The basic level accounts are free. 3. Help them identify which of the words in bold expresses a concessive idea. Answ ers: a. althoughAFTER READING 4. Now, help them identify what the other word expresses.11 +++ Answ ers: In pairs, the students think about the b. besides expresses an additional idea. characteristics they would like to create for 5. The students copy and complete the general their own “avatar”. Encourage them to write rule in their notebooks. their ideas in their notebooks using the We can use words such as although and pattern in the book, and then compare with besides to join two sentences together. We other students. use besides when we want to express an (L.A.: to relate topic to their own reality). additional idea. We use although when we Answers want to introduce a concession. Will vary. 6. The students read the text again to find more examples. Encourage them to identify the addition or the concession. You can write this Reflection Spot example on the board: ( + ) addition ( / ) concession The purpose of this activity is to help Besides flying through a changing landscape, students reflect on their learning process chatting and socializing with other teens, ( + ) and to raise students’ awareness of how they can build anything from skyscrapers to they develop their own learning strategies to virtual vehicles. ( / ) Although it provides the technology , the become more effective learners. They residents are the ones who really help shape should work on their own but you may help the world. and guide the work when necessary. Answ ers The students read the statements and Teen Second Life is an international gathering assess: place for teens between the ages of 13 - 17 to • their ability to connect the topic of the make friends and exchange ideas. Besides lesson to their own reality. this ( + ), they can learn, play and create. • their ability to talk about a topic and Only teens between the ages of 13 and 17 are explain the reasons of their choices. allowed ( / ) (although there is a separate For more information on the Reflection Spot, version of Second Life for adults). see page 6 of the Introduction. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. 49
  • 51. ERROR ALERT TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 9 Draw students’ attention to the note of the LANGUAGE SPOT. Remind them not to mistake the connector A: Do you know what you do in Second Life? Can you besides for the preposition beside. explain it to me? Additional exercise B: Sure! First of all, you have to create an avatar. Complete these sentences with beside or besides, as A: An avatar? What is that? it corresponds. B: It is a digital self, a sort of virtual personality. With this, a. He’s too busy to go to Japan; _______ he doesn’t you can chat and socialize with other teens from all over speak Japanese. the world. b. Come and sit _______ me. c. Have you seen my pen? I left it on the table A: Really? It sounds amazing! Tell me more! _______ the window. B: Besides socializing with other teens, you can also build d. I don’t like to go out to; _______ its very cold today. things like skyscrapers and even virtual vehicles! e. I can’t help you with your homework. _______ it’s A: Are you sure that the other players are all teenagers? too late. B: This game is for people between 13 and 17, although Encourage students to find more examples in the text adults have their own version. and then copy them in their notebooks, identifying each A: Mm. I’m not sure; I think I prefer the real world! case. Answers: Besides (making friends and exchanging ideas), they 14 ++ can play, learn and create. (addition) Encourage the students to practice the Having land in Second Life allows you to build, dialogue in Exercise 13 in pairs, imitating the display and store your virtual creations; besides, you recording. Then, invite them to role-play it in can also host events and businesses. (addition) front of the class. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation). For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. 15 +++ You can assign this exercise as homework 12 ++ for next class. Explain to the students that, in Ask the students to copy and complete the pairs, they have to think about a game they paragraph in their notebooks using besides like to play. Then, in their notebooks, they or although. write a dialogue like the one in Exercise 13, (L.A.: to use a new language structure). exchanging information about the game. (L.A: to consolidate vocabulary and Answers language). besides, although, besides, although. Answers Will vary. PAGE 46 13 +++ 9 LET’S CHECK In their notebooks, the students copy and complete the dialogue using information from the text. Then, play the recording to 16 The purpose of this section is to allow allow them to check their answers. students to check their progress and to (L.A.: to use vocabulary related to the topic). provide information to the teacher about any Answers points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand See transcript. what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then,50 UNIT 2
  • 52. BELIEVE IT OR NOT check on the board to allow students to PAGE 48 correct their work and assign a mark according to the scale. LESSON 2 In pairs, the students role-play the dialogue they wrote. Ask the students to evaluate LISTENING their classmates’ performance using the WHY NOT THE MOON? guidelines on page 46. For more information on LETS CHECK, see BEFORE LISTENING page 6 of the Introduction. 1 + PAGE 47 Start the lesson asking the students to identify the pictures. If you find that they 17 ++ have difficulties with the words, help with Motivate the students to think about what prompts or give them the words in random their own “avatar” would be like. Ask them order for them to match them with the to write about the virtual personality they pictures. Then tell them to find the words in would like to have. Instruct them to use their the Word Search Puzzle ideas in Exercises 1 and 2, information from 1. PLANET 2. ASTRONAUT. the text and also their imagination. Next 3. ROBOT 4. SUN class, invite some students to share their 5. MOON 6. MARS work with their classmates 7. SPACECRAFT 8. STAR (L.A.: to write a paragraph about virtual life). (L.A.: to activate vocabulary related to the Answers topic of the lesson). Will vary. Answers T + + + + + + + + + T + + + +18 + FL + U + + + + + + + + F + + + + Motivate fast learners to make a drawing in ++ A + + + + + + + A + + + + their notebooks to illustrate their virtual ++ + N + + + + + + R + + + + personalities. You can also make them draw ++ + + O + + + + + C R + + + on a piece of cardboard and display the ++ + + + R + + + + E + A + + drawings in the classroom. ++ + + + + T + + + C + + T + (L.A.: to relate text and pictures). MO O N + T + S + + A + + N S Answers ++ + + E + + + A + P + + U + ++ + N + + + M + + S + + S + Will vary. ++ A T + + A + + + + + + + + + L + O + R + + + + + + + + + P + + B S + + + + + + + + + + REAL LIFE SPOT ++ + O + + + + + + + + + + + ++ + R + + + + + + + + + + +This section is intended to allow students makeconnections between the topic of the lesson andreal life, and at the same time provide additional 2 ++information that may be useful for them. The students answer the questions in pairs.Make sure you give enough time for them to read Check their answers orally.and then elicit their comments. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge).For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT,see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers Will vary, according to students’ opinions. 51
  • 53. PAGE 49 5 ++ 3 ++ Ask the students to look up the meaning of the words in the Key Word Spot in a Ask the students to name one positive and dictionary. one negative thing about living in space. (L.A.: to develop study skills). Invite some of them to write their answers on the board. Answers (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). crew: all the people working on a ship, plane, etc. Answers launch: to send something such as a spacecraft into space. Will vary. mild: not severe or harsh / not extreme. sunlit: receiving light from the sun. 4 ++ supplies: the things such as food, medicines, fuel, etc. Explain to the students that they are going that are needed by a group of people. to listen to an interview with three experts about NASA plans to build a city on the Moon. Ask them to choose three LISTENING alternatives to guess who they are. Do not check their answers at this point. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to make 6 + 10 predictions). Ask the students to listen to the recording You may need some background and check their predictions in Exercise 4. information about this topic to share with the (L.A.: to validate predictions). students. Answers A lunar scientist, a professor, an astronaut. Background information NASA announced plans to establish a base on the Moon and make it into a permanent city by 7 ++ 10 2024. Crews of four astronauts are expected to Play the first part of the recording. Tell the work on the base, a week at a time, beginning students to listen and identify the profession around 2020. of the people. To cover the costs, NASA is planning to keep its (L.A.: to identify specific information). current budget of $17 billion and use the money Answers saved by scrapping the space shuttle program. a. Paul Spudis, lunar scientist; b. Stella Mc Curdy, The space agency plans to coordinate commercial professor; c. Michael Clifford, astronaut. and international assistance with the program. It consulted 13 space agencies from different countries while formulating the initial plan. 8 ++ 10 One of the main goals of the project is to Play the second part of the recording. Ask establish a stepping-off point for human the students to listen and choose the best exploration and colonization of Mars. answer for each question. For more information on Background (L.A.: to identify specific information). information see page 7 of the Introduction. Answers http://news.cnet.com/2300-11397_3-6140867-1.html a. – iii.; b. – ii.; c. – i.; d. – ii.52 UNIT 2
  • 54. BELIEVE IT OR NOTPAGE 50 Mr. Clifford: The U.S. space agency is going to construct spacecrafts that will take people and supplies to9 ++ 10 the Moon. Play the final part of the recording again. Interviewer: Mr. Clifford, how long will people be able to stay Tell the students to listen and identify the on the Moon? year each country is planning to put a man Mr. Clifford: About six months. on the Moon. Mr. Spudis: Besides, crews of four astronauts will work on You can read the years aloud first, to help the the base, a week at a time. students recognize them when they listen: 2014: two thousand and fourteen or twenty Interviewer: Ms. McCurdy, are there any more countries fourteen. interested in living on the Moon? 2020: two thousand and twenty or twenty Ms. McCurdy: Russia wants to put a base on the moon by twenty. 2020 and China plans to put a man on the 2124: twenty one twenty four. Moon by 2024, followed by Japan in 2030. 2030: two thousand and thirty or twenty thirty. Interviewer: Mr. Spudis, are you planning to take holidays on 2034: two thousand and thirty four or twenty the Moon? thirty four. Mr. Spudis: Well, that would be really nice! 2040: two thousand and forty or twenty forty. Adapted from: (L.A.: to extract specific information) http://www.onpointradio.org/shows/2006/12/20061211_a_main.asp AnswersChina – 2024; Japan – 2030; Russia - 2020 AFTER LISTENING10 +++ 10 Tell the students to identify who said GAME SPOT statements a. – c. Then, play the recording Remember that games are highly motivating since once more to allow them to check their they are amusing and at the same time answers. challenging for the students. They employ (L.A.: to identify speakers in a conversation). language in real contexts and they also Answers encourage and increase cooperation.a. Mrs. Mc. Curdy; b. Mr. Clifford; c. Mr. Spudis They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in theTRANSCRIPT - WHY NOT THE MOON? 10 learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students’ use of EnglishInterviewer: NASA announced this week that it is establishing in a flexible, communicative way. a base on the Moon and will make it into a Remember that games are used not only for mere permanent city by 2024. Today we will talk about fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice this with lunar scientist Paul Spudis, with and review of language lessons. Thus, the professor Stella McCurdy, and with NASA meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly astronaut Michael R. Clifford. Mr. Spudis, the experienced and, therefore, better remembered. obvious first question: Why the moon?Mr. Spudis: Why not? It’s only three days from the earth. Encourage your students to find out how manyInterviewer: Ms. McCurdy, where are you going to build the words related to space they can remember. Explain to them that they must look at the pictures base? and write the words using the letters in the sunMs. McCurdy: I think the South Pole is the best option because its just once. Invite some students to write the words weather is mild and almost permanently sunlit. on the board to check this exercise.Interviewer: Mr. Clifford, are astronauts prepared to live on For more information on the GAME SPOT, see the Moon? page 7 of the Introduction. 53
  • 55. Answers ERROR ALERT 1. SUNLIT; 2. SUPPLIES; 3. NASA; 4. CREW; The Present Continuous Tense is also used to express 5. LAUNCH; 6. MILD actions and events that are happening at the moment. (Example: I’m reading a book) Additional exercise PAGE 51 Read the following sentences. Identify which of them refer to events that are happening now, and which of LANGUAGE SPOT them refer to future fixed arrangements. Write N (now) or F (future). The future a. Lauren can’t talk to you now. She’s having lunch. This section is designed to help students revise b. I can’t help you. I’m studying for the test. or discover a particular grammar structure or any c. My mother is arriving on the next bus from Santiago. interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. d. Susan is baking a cake for tea. The activities are meant to promote independent e. My brother is playing football on Saturday. learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of 1. The students revise the examples from the text. the Introduction. 2. The students identify which of the sentences gives information about 11 ++ a. future events and predictions Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT. b. plans and intentions Ask them to choose the correct alternative c. fixed future arrangements for each sentence. Check the answers Answ ers: a. – c.; b. – a.; c. – c. orally. 3. The students copy and complete the general (L.A.: to use a new language structure). rule in their notebooks. Answers a. We use the Simple Future to give information about future events and a. I’m playing basketball at 5:30. predictions. b. Do you think it will snow tomorrow? b. We use the Present Continuous to give c. I think I’ll buy a new cap. information about plans and intentions d. I am not working tomorrow. We can go and fixed future arrangements. shopping if you like. 4. The students now identify what the future e. Yes, we’re visiting my grandmother. tense expresses in sentences a. – g. f. I’m helping Marcy with her homework after Answ ers: school today. a. future arrangement; prediction; b. future g. My sister is getting married next month. We will event; c. future plan; d. future event; have a party at home. e. prediction; f. future event. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, 12 +++ see page 6 of the Introduction. In their groups, the students write a short report about the city on the Moon. Instruct them to include information from the interview and any other facts that they find interesting to add. Encourage your students to collect supporting materials such as: illustrations, photos, more information, etc. and present their report to their classmates. Organize a class competition and give a prize to the best performance. (L.A.: to organize ideas to write a report).54 UNIT 2
  • 56. BELIEVE IT OR NOT Answers LET’S CHECKWill vary. Reflection Spot 14 The purpose of this section is to allow students to check their progress and to The purpose of this activity is to help provide information to the teacher about any students reflect on their learning process points that the majority of the students have and to raise students’ awareness of how problems with. Make sure they understand they develop their own learning strategies to what they are expected to do and give them become more effective learners. They enough time to answer individually. Then, should work on their own but you may help check on the board to allow students to and guide the work when necessary. correct their work and assign a mark The students read the statements and assess: according to the scale. • their ability to write a short report about The students copy and complete the the topic of an interview. sentences with the words in the box. • their ability to express and support their For more information on LETS CHECK, see opinions. page 6 of the Introduction. For more information on the Reflection Answers Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction. a. robot; b. agency; c. operate; d. equipment; e. trip; f. spacecrafts; g. colonization; h. objective;PAGE 52 i. location; j. astronaut13 +++ 11 PAGE 53 In pairs, the students put the dialogue between Susan and Simon in order and 15 ++ FL copy it in their notebooks. Then, play the Motivate fast learners to try the quiz and recording and ask them to listen and check. see how much they know about the solar Play the recording with pauses for students to system. Ask them to check the answers practice the dialogue. Invite some pairs to with their classmates. role-play the dialogue in front of their (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). classmates. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers Answers a. – iii.; b. - i.; c. - ii.; d. - i.; e. – i.; f. – ii.See transcript. You may need some additional information on thisTRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE 11 topic.Susan: What are you doing tomorrow, Simon? Background informationSimon: Tomorrow morning I am meeting my best friend. I’m The solar system is our Sun and everything that having lunch with her, and then in the afternoon we’re travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in going to the cinema. How about you? shape. The Sun is in the center of the solar system.Susan: I don’t know exactly. Perhaps I’ll visit my grandmother Our solar system is always in motion. Eight known in the morning and then I’ll study for the math test. planets and their moons, along with comets,Simon: When are we having the math test? asteroids, and other space objects orbit the Sun. The Sun is the biggest object in our solar system. ItSusan: Next Monday, after the first break. contains more than 99% of the solar systemʼs mass.Simon: Well, in that case, I’ll call my friend immediately. I’m Astronomers think the solar system is more than 4 studying with you tomorrow. I think I’ll get better results! billion years old. 55
  • 57. Astronomers are now finding new objects far, far These clouds hold heat in. That is why Venus gets from the Sun which they call dwarf planets. Pluto, so hot. These clouds also reflect sunlight. That is which was once called a planet, is now called a why Venus appears so bright to us here on Earth. dwarf planet. There are constant thunderstorms in these clouds. The Sun is our closest star. It is a member of the Venus has several large inactive volcanoes. Much of Milky Way galaxy. The Sun is a yellow dwarf star, the surface is covered by old lava flows from these which means it is a medium size star. It is believed volcanoes. Venus is unusual because it rotates in a to be over 4 billion years old. The Sun spins slowly direction opposite that of all of the other planets. on its axis as it revolves around the galaxy. Venus spins very slowly as it orbits the Sun. The center, or core, of the Sun is very hot. A Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun. It has process called “nuclear fusion” takes place there. an atmosphere made up of many different gases, Nuclear fusion produces a lot of energy. Some of but mainly it is nitrogen and oxygen. The this energy travels out into space as heat and light. atmosphere gives us air to breathe. The Earth orbits Some of it arrives at Earth. Streams of gas particles around the Sun. It takes one year to go around the known as the solar wind also flow out from the Sun. Sun one complete time. The Earth also rotates, or A planet is a large space object which revolves spins, on its axis. It takes one day to spin around around a star. It also reflects that starʼs light. Eight one complete time. The Earthʼs axis is not straight planets have been discovered in our solar system. up and down, but tilted a little bit. This tilt is Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the planets responsible for us having seasons. Otherwise, the closest to the Sun. They are called the inner temperature would be pretty much the same all year planets. The inner planets are made up mostly of long. rock. The outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, The temperature on Mars can be very, very cold. and Neptune. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune On its warmest day, Mars can still be a very cold are large balls of gases with rings around them. All place. At the top and bottom of the planet are poles eight planets travel around the Sun in a different just like on Earth. During the Martian winter, ice orbit. In its orbit, there are not many other objects caps can be seen at the poles. Mars has many like the planet. craters which were formed by meteorites or asteroids Dwarf planets like Pluto, are objects that are similar hitting it. Mars also has some of the tallest volcanoes to planets except that they orbit the Sun in areas and some of the deepest valleys in our solar system. where there are many similar objects. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system. have unusual shapes. Scientists think these potato- Mercury is about the same size as our Moon. It is shaped moons were once asteroids captured by very close to the Sun. Mercury travels around the Marsʼ gravitational pull. Sun faster than any other planet. It was named after Jupiter is a large gas planet whose clouds change Mercury, the swift messenger of the gods in ancient colors daily. This planet is made mostly of hydrogen Roman mythology. Mercury can only be seen from and helium gases. Jupiter gives off two times more Earth just before sunrise or just after sunset, but not heat than it gets from the Sun. It shines very brightly in the middle of the night. That is because Mercury in the night sky for nine months of the year when it always appears near the Sun when viewed from is closest to Earth. Pictures taken by space probes Earth. Mercury has a very thin atmosphere. Humans have shown thin rings around Jupiter. Jupiter has would not be able to live there. The surface of forty-nine named moons (and may have as many as Mercury has holes in it where objects such as 63!). One of Jupiterʼs moons, Io, has active meteorites and asteroids crashed into it. volcanoes on it. Areas on Io that are near the Venus and Earth are almost the same size. Venus volcanoes are very, very hot. is the closest planet to Earth, but it does not have Saturn is a very large gas planet which spins very oceans or human life like Earth. Venus gets so hot rapidly on its axis. It spins so fast that it flattens out during the day that it could melt a lead cannonball. the top and the bottom of the planet. Saturnʼs The temperature rises to 484 degrees Celsius on atmosphere has winds which can blow at over 1,800 the side facing the Sun. Venus has very thick, kilometers per hour. The white spots on Saturn are rapidly spinning clouds which cover its surface. believed to be powerful storms. Saturn is56 UNIT 2
  • 58. BELIEVE IT OR NOTsurrounded by over 1,000 rings made of ice and PAGE 54dust. Some of the rings are very thin and some are LESSON 3very thick. Scientists believe that the particles camefrom the destruction of moons circling the planet.Saturn has at least 52 moons. Some of these READINGmoons orbit the planet within the rings, creating VIRTUAL ME?gaps in the rings. Uranus tilts over so far on its axis that it rotates on BEFORE READINGits side. Because of this, its poles are sometimespointed almost directly at the Sun. Uranusʼatmosphere is made up of hydrogen, helium, and 1 +methane. The temperature in the upper atmosphere Introduce the topic of the lesson with ais very cold. The cold methane gas is what gives general conversation among the students.Uranus its blue-green color. The rapid rotation of Ask them if they think it is possible toUranus causes winds up to 600 kilometers per hour predict the future, and elicit their comments.to blow in its atmosphere. Uranus has 27 named Then, motivate them to read the famousmoons. Some of these moons are less than 100 predictions (a. – g.) in pairs, and matchkilometers wide and black as coal. them with the person who made them Neptune and Uranus are very much alike. They are (i. – vi.). Check the answers orally.both large gas planets that look like big blue-green (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge).balls in the sky. Neptune has winds in its Answersatmosphere which blow at over 2,000 kilometers per a. – v.; b. – i-; c. – iv.; d. – vi.; e. – ii.; f. – iii.; g. – vii.hour. This planet has large, dark circles on itssurface which astronomers believe to be storms.Neptune has two thick and two thin rings which 2 ++surround it. Neptune also has thirteen known Tell the students to find the words in themoons. Four of these moons orbit the planet within Key Word Spot in the text and then choosethe rings. One of Neptuneʼs moons, Triton, orbits the the correct meaning for them.planet in a direction opposite to Neptuneʼs other (L.A.: to infer the meaning of key wordsmoons. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun. from the context). For more information on Background Answersinformation, see page 7 of the Introduction. a. – i.; b. – ii.; c. – ii.; d. – ii.http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level1/neptune.html PAGE 55 REAL LIFE SPOT 3 +++ Invite the students to read the text quicklyThe objective of this section is to provide a bit of and identify all the cognates. Tell them tohumor to the class. All the jokes and cartoons predict what the text is about. Do not checkare related to the topic of the lesson. Give some their answers at this point.minutes to allow students to read and then invite (L.A.: to formulate predictions fromthem to share their comments to make sure cognates).they understood the joke. At this point, you mayallow the use of Spanish to check 4 +comprehension. Ask the students to have a look at the textFor more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, and identify where it was taken from.see page 6 of the Introduction. (L.A.: to identify the origin of a text). 57
  • 59. READING 8 +++ The students read the text once more to 5 + find the answer to questions a. – e. The students read the text quickly and (L.A.: to extract specific information). check their predictions in exercises 3 and 4. Answers (L.A.: to validate predictions). a. Because they have artificial intelligence. Answers b. No, they have more than 20 different personalities 3. a. and appearances. c. They were created for educational purposes. Cognates: cyber, robots, optional, accent, d. They can talk about class times and rooms, and also computer, engineer, family, artificial, intelligence, about class topics. planned, voice, use, creation, company, different, e. He is a computer engineer who is the creator of personalities, producing, educational, animated, these virtual robots. interacts, details, conversation, related, courses, university, technology, quarter, regularly, class, students, prefer, moving, install, project, clients, PAGE 57 multimedia, systems, science, million, expansion, article, estimates, billion, virtual, services, grammar, AFTER READING logical, inference, verbs, adjectives. 4. c. 9 ++ Ask the students to write a list of activities 6 ++ or areas in which they think robots can be Ask the students to read the text again very useful. Invite them to share their carefully. Tell them to put the sentences comments with their classmates. (a. – e.) back into blanks (1) – (5). (L.A.: to relate topic with own reality). (L.A.: to locate missing information). Answers Answers Will vary. a. – (5); b. – (1); c. – (4); d. – (3); e. – (2) 7 ++ Ask the students to read the text again and decide if the statements a. – f. are true or false. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information). Answers a. False (Shahin Magsoudi is the computer engineer who created Robot Hosting). b. True. c. False (The robots remember personal details and course related information). d. True. e. True. f. True.58 UNIT 2
  • 60. BELIEVE IT OR NOT PAGE 58 LANGUAGE SPOTThe First Conditional 11 ++ 12This section is designed to help students revise Ask the students to copy and complete theor discover a particular grammar structure or any dialogue with words and phrases from theinteresting item of vocabulary related to the text. box. Then, play the recording to allow themThe activities are meant to promote independent to check their answers.learning, so help, guide and check, but do not (L.A.: to use vocabulary related to theenunciate them the answers. topic). 1. The students revise the sentences from the Answers text and other examples. See transcript. 2. They answer the questions. Answ ers: TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE 12 a. two; b. the ones that refer to a condition begin with if; the others refer to a A: Do you think that, in the future, people will have robots at consequence; c. if; d. no. home? 3. The students read the general rule and choose B: Sure! I believe that robots will be as common as personal the correct alternative. computers. They will even operate them! We use the First Conditional to talk about A: Amazing! What other things will personal robots do? future events that are probable to happen. B: Well, to begin with, they will be part of home The if clause expresses a condition, and the entertainment centers.They will sing and dance. future clause expresses the consequence or result. A: Will they tell jokes too? Note: The future clause can also contain other B: Yes, but, just like humans, they won’t always be funny! modal verbs such as can and must. A: Sounds great! What problems do you think there will be? 4. The students use the information in the text to B: I think some people will lose their jobs and bad people will complete the conditional sentences. create criminal robots! Answ ers: a. they log on to the Robot Hosting site; b. 12 ++ you want to buy one. Ask the students to look at the pictures. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, Then, in their notebooks, tell them to write see page 6 of the Introduction. complete sentences to answer the questions. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality).10 + Possible Answers Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT. a. We will be very happy. Tell them to copy and complete the b. I’ll be late for school / I’ll run all the way. sentences in their notebooks using the First d. We will get wet / I’ll stay at home. Conditional. e. I’ll enjoy it very much. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answersa. If you don’t hurry, we will be late!b. Mark will be very happy if he passes his exam.c. If Henry fails his exam, he will not be very happy.d. If you stay up all night, you will be very tired.e. If Rick drives too fast, he will have an accident. 59
  • 61. 13 +++ FL REAL LIFE SPOT Invite the students to ask some of their classmates the questions in Exercise 12 Remember that this section is intended to allow and add three more questions. Explain to students make connections between the topic of them that they must copy and complete the the lesson and the real life, and at the same chart in their notebooks and take notes of time provide additional information that may be their answers. Encourage some students useful for them. to report the results of this mini-survey to Make sure you give enough time for them to their classmates. read and then elicit their comments. (L.A.: to ask and answer questions / to do a For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, survey). see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers PAGE 60 Will vary, according to students’ answers. LESSON 4 PAGE 59 LISTENING IT WON’T BE CHEAP! LET’S CHECK 1 + 14 The purpose of this section is to allow Introduce the topic of the lesson telling the students to check their progress and to students to imagine what their life will be provide information to the teacher about any like in 50 years’ time. Ask them to copy and points that the majority of the students have complete the chart in their notebooks and problems with. Make sure they understand then ask their partners. what they are expected to do and give them (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). enough time to answer individually. Then, Answers check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign a mark Will vary. according to the scale. The students copy and complete the 2 ++ sentences in their notebooks, using the Invite the students to look at the picture in First Conditional. pairs and identify the things that belong to a For more information on LETS CHECK, city of the future. You can organize a class see page 6 of the Introduction. competition, offering a prize to the fastest pair. When the time is up, check the Answers answers orally. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). a. go, will buy. b. goes, will lose. Answers c. don’t wear, will catch. a. A robot is sweeping the streets. d. take, will feel. b. There are surveillance cameras. e. doesn’t rain, will go. c. People are wearing strange clothes. d. Buses are flying. e. A boy is talking by cell phone. f. A tourism agency is offering holidays on the Moon.60 UNIT 2
  • 62. BELIEVE IT OR NOTPAGE 61 ERROR ALERT Hang on = wait (NOT= colgar en)3 ++ Alert your students on more cases of prepositional Tell the students to read the list of verbs with the verb hang, such as: predictions for the year 2050 and choose Hang about, hang around, hang back, hang in, hang the predictions that they think are most on, hang out, hang up, hang together, hang out. likely to come true. Ask some students to Additional exercise share their answers with their classmates. Choose the correct definition for each phrasal verb. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous 1. ‘Hang with’ means... knowledge). a. To do the same activity for a very long time b. Spend time with Answers c. Make electrical connectionsWill vary, according to students’ opinions. 2. “Hang about’ means… a. Make something increase4 +++ b. Spend time somewhere not doing much Explain to the students that they are going c. Waste time to listen to a recording about one of the 3. ‘Hang around’ means... predictions in Exercise 3. Invite them to a. Assume control of a company or organization predict which one they think it is related to. b. Stay in a place Do not check their answers yet. c. Go away (L.A.: to predict content from the context). 4. Hang back’ means... a. Harmonize or be compatible5 +++ b. Result from a process Ask the students to study the words in the c. Not move forwards to avoid doing something Key Word Spot and match them with their 5. “Hang together’ means... meaning. Tell some students to write the a. Work together when things are difficult answers on the board. b. Accept something you don’t really want to get (L.A.: to infer meaning of key words). something you do want c. Become controlled Answers Answers:Accommodation: a place to work, live or stay. 1. b; 2. b; 3. b; 4. c.; 5. a.Book (verb): to make a reservation.Flight: a journey made by air. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 ofHang on: wait. the Introduction.Luxurious: very comfortable, containing expensivethings. 6 +++ Ask the students to predict the kind of text they think they are going to listen to. Tell them to choose an alternative from the list, but do not check their answers at this point. (L.A.: to formulate predictions from the context). 61
  • 63. PAGE 62 Tourists can choose to take off from the Mojave Desert near Los Angeles, or from our spaceport in New Mexico. LISTENING What about people who can’t afford this vacation now? Don’t worry. The cost of space flight will come down, so perhaps their 7 + 13 grandchildren can think about spending their vacation on the Play the recording. Ask the students to Moon or even have their honeymoon in a hotel orbiting Venus! listen and check their predictions in Meanwhile, they can deposit U$S 20,000 and book a spaceship Exercises 4 and 6. flight online at www.virgingalactic.com . (L.A.: to validate predictions). If it sounds too exotic for you, you can take our tours to Florida Answers and visit the Kennedy Space Center, instead. We are departing 4. People will take vacations in space.; 6. d. tomorrow at 9:45 a.m. 8 ++ 13 Ask the students to listen again and choose AFTER LISTENING the correct alternative for each sentence a. – d. LANGUAGE SPOT (L.A.: to discriminate words). Answers The Future – Revision This section is designed to help students revise a. are; b. three; c. will; d. honeymoon. or discover a particular grammar structure or any interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. 9 +++ 13 The activities are meant to promote independent Tell the students to copy the sentences into learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. their notebooks. Then, play the recording again and ask them to listen and complete 1. The students read the sentences from the text each sentence with one word. and other examples. (L.A.: to extract specific information). 2. The students identify what the sentences refer Answers to, and choose an alternative. a. space; b. passenger; c. passengers; d. worry; Answ ers: b. e. exotic 3. Invite the students to copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. TRANSCRIPT – IT WON’T BE CHEAP! 13 We use the Present Continuous Tense to refer to fixed arrangements for the future. You might think youve heard everything about tourism. Now imagine taking your vacation in space! 4. The students analyze the sentence from the text and identify the difference from the Believe it or not, we are counting down to the first space tourist examples provided in Point 1. flight. The Virgin Galactic Spaceship is taking off soon! Answ ers: If you plan to make a reservation, hang on, it won’t be cheap! It describes an event that is happening right Each passenger will pay U$S 200,000, which means over a now, in this period of time. thousand dollars a minute! For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, Passengers will fly at three times the speed of sound. All see page 6 of the Introduction. passengers will enjoy spectacular views and luxurious seats with large windows. On board, they’ll find hospitality while enjoying the ultimate in passenger amenities. The trip will include preflight training and three days’ luxury accommodation at the Virgin Galactic space camp.62 UNIT 2
  • 64. BELIEVE IT OR NOTPAGE 63 What time is Jerry seeing the dentist on Thursday? He is seeing her at four o’clock. LET’S CHECK What is Beth doing on Wednesday at 5:30? She is going to the gym .10 +++ What are Jerry and Beth studying on Friday? The purpose of this section is to allow students They are studying math. to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that 12 +++ the majority of the students have problems In their group, the students answer with. questions a. and b. and exchange opinions In pairs, the students ask and answer the about being a space tourist and their questions, using the Present Progressive reasons. Invite some groups to share their tense. Instruct them to refer to Jerry and Beth’s conclusions with the rest of the class. diaries as in the example, and make sure they Remember not to interrupt the students to change roles to ask and answer. Then, tell correct mistakes while they are in a them to write the questions and answers in speaking activity. It is better to take notes their notebooks. Do not check the answers yet. on the most important errors and correct For more information on LETS CHECK, them at the end of the class. see page 6 of the Introduction.11 ++ 14 PAGE 64 Tell the students that you will play the 13 +++ recording for them to check their questions and answers in Exercise 10. Once they Tell the students to examine the boarding have done this, play the recording again, passes. Then, motivate them to exchange with pauses, for them to repeat and information in pairs about Mr. and Mrs. practice the short dialogues. Invite some Freeman’s fixed arrangements, as in the pairs to role-play the different dialogues in example. front of their classmates. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). (L.A: to relate written and spoken versions Possible Answers: of a text; to discriminate between correct a. When is Mrs. Freeman going to San Francisco? She and incorrect information; to imitate a is going to San Francisco on June, 11th. model of spoken language). b. Where is Mrs. Freeman going? She’s going to San Answers Francisco.See transcript. c. Where is she taking the plane? She’s taking the plane in New York. d. Who is going to San Francisco in seat 15D? Mr.TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE 14 Freeman is going to San Francisco in seat 15D. e. At what time is Mr. Freeman taking the plane? He’sWhat is Jerry doing on Wednesday? taking the plane at 7pm.He is going to the theater with Bob.What is Jerry doing on Monday?He is playing tennis with Linda.What is Beth doing on Thursday?She is having her first driving lesson.What are Jerry and Beth doing on Tuesday?They are meeting Cristina. 63
  • 65. @ Reflection Spot @@ CLICK ON Make sure you assign enough time of your Motivate the students to find out more information class to allow students reflect on their related to this topic visiting the web site on page achievements and weaknesses. They read 65. Encourage them to take notes on any the statements and assess: interesting information they find and next class • their ability to extract information from share their comments with their classmates. visuals. For more information on CLICK ON, see page • their ability to exchange information about 12 of the Introduction. fixed arrangements. For more information on the Reflection Spot, PAGE 66 see page 6 of the Introduction. YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION 14 ++ FL Encourage fast learners to read the list of phrasal verbs related to the topic of the text. This section provides additional exercises that Motivate them to match them with the pictures. represent a good opportunity for students to (L.A.: to relate meaning and pictures). consolidate topics and language structures of the lessons. You can assign these activities at the Answers end of each lesson, or as homework and give a. – 2; b. – 3; c. – 1; d. – 4. them an extra mark. Answers PAGE 65 1. Answers will vary, but motivate students to imitate the messages on page 47. 15 +++ 2. Will vary. You can assign this activity as homework 3. + + + E E + + + + + + + + T C with an extra mark. Ask the students to + + + C + N + + + + + + O + O think about their fixed arrangements for + + + N + + G + + + + B + L M next week, and then write a short + + + E + + + I + + O + A + P paragraph about them. Next class, invite + + + G + + + + N R + I + + U some students to share their work with the + + + I + + + + + E C + + + T rest of the class. + + + L + + + + + I E + + + E (L.A.: to write a paragraph about future + + + L + + + + F C A R + + R fixed arrangements). + + + E + + + I + + + + + + + + R + T + + T + + + + + + + + + E + N T R V Z L A U T R I V REAL LIFE SPOT + B + I A M U L T I M E D I A + Y + + + + + + + + + + + + + This section is intended to allow students make + C + + + + + + + + + + + + + connections between the topic of the lesson and + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + the real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. PAGE 67 Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. 4 For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, a. Where are they departing from? (They see page 6 of the Introduction. are departing) from their hotel. b. At what time are they starting the tour? (They are starting the tour) at 9:00 am or 3 pm.64 UNIT 2
  • 66. BELIEVE IT OR NOT c. At what time are they returning to the PAGE 69 hotel? (They are returning) at 12:30 pm or 6:30 pm. 2 a. False; b. False; c. False; d. True; d. What places are they visiting? (They are e. True. visiting) the Civic Center, the Moneda Palace, the Cathedral, the Museum of 3 a. 10; b. rockets; c. glass; d. pills; e. Mars, National History and the Central Post Office, Santa Lucía Hill, Parque Forestal Mercury, Pluto. and the Fine Arts Museum. LISTENING - SPACE TOURISM 15 e. Where is the tour finishing? (The tour is finishing) at the Los Graneros del Alba village. 4 a. expensive; b. safer; c. colonizing; d. will; e. dream. PAGE 68 5 a. space; b. robots; c. temperature; d. Moon; e. Humans. UNIT CHECK 6 e.; d.; b.; c; a.Explain to the students that the purpose of this TRANSCRIPT - SPACE TOURISM 15section is to help them revise contents andevaluate their performance in the whole unit. Interviewer: Dr. Graham, what can you tell us about thisRead the instructions and make sure all the crazy idea of vacations in space?students understand what they are expected to Dr. Graham: Well, tourist agencies are offering a new kind ofdo in each activity. Encourage them to give adventure vacation – visit a space-station, checkhonest answers in order to detect their strengths into a space hotel and even take a spacewalk!and weaknesses. That is a very expensive kind of vacation, butCheck students’ results and revise any points when space tourism becomes cheaper, ordinarythat the majority of them had problems with. people will be able to afford them.For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page Interviewer: How many people will want to risk their lives6 of the Introduction. when there is a chance of not coming back? Dr. Graham: But it’s just the beginning! Flights will Answers definitely become safer.READING - LIVING IN SPACE Interviewer: What do you think about colonizing Mars? Dr. Graham: The European Space Agency has started a new 1 a. They will work and live in settlements project that will send robots to explore the Red that will allow people to lead a normal Planet but it will be a long time before there is life. a colony on Mars, or even on the Moon. b.They will stay for six months. Interviewer: Will it be easy to live in space? c. By the end of the century there will be Dr. Graham: Definitely not. On the Moon, the temperature permanent settlements on the Moon. rises to more than 100°C and falls to less than d.They will take water from a large ice lake on the Moon. -100°C, and it’s not much better on Mars. e. Life is going to be easier than living on a Interviewer: Dr. Graham, do you think we will live on the space station. Moon one day? Dr. Graham: Believe it or not, humans will definitely live on other planets one day. It may sound strange, but we have to remember that air travel once seemed to be an impossible dream. 65
  • 67. PAGE 70 WRITING LANGUAGE 10 The students write a paragraph (120-150 7 a. will live; b. is sending; c. are going; words) about how they imagine a city on the moon. You can assign a mark according to d. are visiting; e. won’t wear. these criteria: 8 a. I don’t want to see that movie. Besides, 5 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, without it’s too late. grammar or spelling mistakes. b.Although Iris hates studying math, she 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent always gets good marks. short paragraph, but he / she makes some c. Although Jim studied a lot, he failed the grammar and spelling mistakes. exam. 1 - 2 points: student cant write a coherent d.Although my sister is eighteen, she can’t short paragraph with personal information, drive our father’s car. and he / she makes a lot of spelling and e. Walking the dog is lots of fun. Besides, grammar mistakes. it’s good for your health. PAGE 71 SPEAKING FINAL REFLECTION 9 In pairs, the students exchange information about their fixed arrangements for next week. Make sure they use the Present The purpose of this section is to allow students Continuous tense and that they change reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. Make roles to ask and answer. You can assign a sure all the students understand what they are mark according to these criteria: expected to do and give enough time to answer 5 points: student can introduce him / herself the questions. Encourage students to give honest and ask and answer basic questions about answers and show interest in their results. personal information, with a minimum of For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, hesitation and grammar mistakes. see page 6 of the Introduction. 3 - 4 points: student can exchange personal information, but he / she hesitates and makes some grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student cant exchange personal information; he / she hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes.66 UNIT 2
  • 68. BELIEVE IT OR NOTEXTRA TEST UNIT 2EXTRAREADING - GOODNIGHT NURSE http://idealog.co.nz/magazine/november-december-2007/now/goodnight-nurse By Lauren Bartlett - Originally published in Idealog #12, page 26 FINALLY, A NURSE WHO DOESN’T COMPLAIN: A ROBOT The engineers are merging new computer software with a robot from Samsung to create a robot nurse capable of carrying out simple tasks such as reading a bar-coded medication list and giving it to a patient. The robot can recognize faces, speak multiple languages, and talk with other robots through airwaves, and it doesn’t complain about the job. “It’s an interesting combination of electrical and computer science, together with psychology,” says Dr Santokh Singh, the research manager for the project at the University of Auckland. The university hopes the robot will alleviate nurses. By using a wireless network to connect groups of robots to a central server cluster, nursebots could be cheaper too—around $1,000 each. The robots are intended only as an aid to the nursing industry, but while the robot will be able to respond sympathetically to patients, it’s no substitute for Florence Nightingale. Their brains can make decisions, such as calling for help in emergencies or answering questions. These special nurses can recognize patients, doctors and visitors. Their arms and hands are able to check a patient’s pulse rate and pick up medicines. Robots can also communicate with patients and know what is best for them. They are able to communicate with doctors, nurses and patients in eight different languages. “Human nurses have no need to fear for their jobs yet,” says Shahin Maghsoudi of Robot- Hosting. “The robots are just designed to make their job easier.” 1 Have a look at the text and choose the best answer. What type of text is it? 1 pt. a. An encyclopedia article. b. An advertisement. c. A scientific article.2 Read the text again and answer these questions. 5 pts. a. Who wrote the article? b. Who are collaborating to make the nursebots? c. Who is Santokh Singh? d. How much could the nursebots cost? e. How many languages can the robots speak?3 Read the text once more. Find the following information: 4 pts. a. City in which the project is being carried out: ___________________________ b. Decisions that robots can make: _____________, ______________________ c. People that robots can recognize: ___________, ___________, ___________ d. Actions that robots can do with their arms: ____________, _______________ 67
  • 69. LISTENING 4 Listen to the recording. What type of text is it? 1 pt. a. An interview. b. An advertisement. c. A dialogue. d. A lecture. 5 Listen to the recording again. Are these statements true or false? 5 pts. a. Technology will create smart homes. b. You will turn off the lights by remote control. c. The refrigerator will check your food. d. You will need special keys to open the front door. e. The smart home will choose your favorite music. 6 Listen to the recording once more and complete these sentences. 4 pts. a. The repairman says it was the ________ who called. b. The ________ lights in your house will create the perfect atmosphere. c. The ________ will deliver to your ________ . LANGUAGE 7 Write five sentences about your arrangements for next week. 5 pts. a. _______________________________________________________________ b. _______________________________________________________________ c. _______________________________________________________________ d. _______________________________________________________________ e. _______________________________________________________________ SPEAKING Itinerary: Day 1: Reception and transfer to San Pedro de Ataca ma 8 Mr. and Mrs. Newman from Calama airport. Day 2: Breakfast in hotel. 08.00: departure from hotel 5 pts. are from Scotland. Visit to the town of Toconao and Bell Tower of Saint . They are visiting San Lucas. From there we will continue our journey to the Pedro de Atacama Atacama Salt Flats and the Flamingos National Reser Time of arrival in San Pedro: 19.00. ve. next week. Look at the brochure of their visit Day 3: 04.00: departure from hotel. 07.00: arriva at the Geysers of El Tatio. We then continue to Caspalna, and, in pairs, the Pukará of Lasana, the petroglyphs in the Valley of exchange questions the Loa River, and the church and village of Chiu-Chiu. and answers about the Time of arrival in Calama: 16.00. Duration: 4 days / 3 nights Day 4: Free morning. 14:00 hrs. Transfer to the world information that Date: December 31, 2008 ’s largest open-pit mine (Chuquicamata). During the visit it contains. 2 nights in San Pedro de it will be possible observe the extraction of copper and Atacama; one night in Calama, its production process. Transfer to the airport. visiting Chuquicamata. End of our services. WRITING 5 pts. 9 With the information in Exercise 8, write a short paragraph (100-150 words) about Mr. and Mrs. Newman’s planned trip. 35 pts. TOTAL 0 - 12 13 - 21 22 - 29 30 - 35 Keep trying! Good! Very good! Excellent!68 UNIT 2
  • 70. BELIEVE IT OR NOT A "smart home" like this will lock the doors, close the ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 2 windows, turn the lights on and off, turn on your favorite music, and open the front door to you - all automatically.READING - GOODNIGHT NURSE Call us and youll receive all the information about the 1 c. Smart Home! Order your Smart home and let our technology enter your life! 2 a. Lauren Bartlett. b. The University of Auckland and Robot LANGUAGE Hosting Company. 7 Answers will vary. Accept any coherent c. He’s the Research Manager for the project. d. Around U$S 1,000. answer. Make sure the students use the e. They can speak eight languages. Present Continuous tense for future arrangements. 3 a. Auckland. SPEAKING b. Call for help, answer questions. c. Patients, doctors and visitors. 8 In pairs, the students study the information in d. Check a patient’s pulse rate, pick up the brochure and exchange information about medicines. Mr. and Mrs. Newman’s arrangements for 16 next week. Make sure they use the PresentLISTENING Continuous Tense and that they change roles 4 b. to ask and answer. You can assign points according to these criteria: 5 a. True; b. True; c. True; d. False; e. True. 5 points: student can introduce him / herself and ask and answer basic questions about 6 a. washing machine; b. 3,000; c. store, house. personal information, with a minimum of hesitation and grammar mistakes. TRANSCRIPT - MOVING TO A NEW HOME 16 3 - 4 points: student can exchange personal information, but he / she hesitates and makes Speaker: A repairman arrives at your home to fix the washing some grammar mistakes. machine. You say that you didnt call for a repair. The 1 - 2 points: student cant exchange personal information; he / she hesitates a lot and repairman says it was the washing machine who called! makes a lot of grammar mistakes. Technology will soon make the dream of a Smart Home come true. WRITING Youll turn off the bedroom lights using your remote control connection when youre away from home. 9 With the information in Exercise 8, the If you want the right atmosphere for the evening or for a students write a paragraph (120-150 words) dinner party, this is great! Youll push a button and the about Mr. and Mrs. Newman’s next visit to San Pedro de Atacama. You can assign 3,000 lights in your house will create the perfect points according to these criteria: atmosphere. 5 points: student can write a coherent short If you dont like going to the supermarket, a special kind paragraph with personal information, without of refrigerator will check your milk and order some more grammar or spelling mistakes. when you run out. The store will deliver to your house 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent short and you wont have to go out to the shops after a long paragraph, but he / she makes some day at work. grammar and spelling mistakes. If you get home with a huge shopping bag, you wont 1 - 2 points: student cant write a coherent need to look for your keys. The front door will recognize short paragraph with personal information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar your face and voice and open automatically. mistakes. 69
  • 71. UNIT TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS In this unit you will: Speaking Didactic resources · read a web page · ask and answer questions about biographical · Complementary material such as articles · read a biography information magazines, Student Forum chats. · listen to a conversation · exchange opinions about inventions and · Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher · listen to a radio program technology and by the students to illustrate the diversity of You will learn how to: Writing teenage cultures. Reading · write a short summary of a biography · Support material such as lists of adjectives, · find general and specific information · complete a paragraph about a new invention dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed · identify the sequence of events You will also: handouts, library material, etc. · identify type of text · assess and appreciate the role of technology in Methodological suggestions Listening everyday life · discriminate between correct and incorrect · develop respect and acceptance of other people’s · Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand information opinions considering that thorough prior preparation · relate speakers and speech Development allows them to think of and apply some useful · discriminate sounds and words · Lesson 1: four hours ideas. It is their chance to make the class · identify sequence · Lesson 2: four hours entertaining and to involve students in the Language · Lesson 3: four hours learning process. · use the Simple Past Tense · Lesson 4: four hours · Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources · use linking words · Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours throughout the book. · use relative pronouns + home assignments Types of Evaluation Indicators Continuous/informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Reflection spot Students analyze and evaluate their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Self - evaluation Unit Check Reading: Students identify and extract specific information. Unit evaluation Listening: Students identify specific information and the correct sequence and discriminate sounds. Language: Students use the Simple Past Tense and relative pronouns. Speaking: Students exchange information about an imaginary invention. Writing: Students write a short description of a gadget. Final Reflection Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Extra Test Reading: Students find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use the Simple Present and Present Progressive tense. Writing: Students write a short paragraph describing their best friend. Speaking: Students imitate an interview and exchange information about routines, interests and favorite activities.70 UNIT 3
  • 72. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONSPAGE 72 PAGE 74 LESSON 1 GETTING READY READING1 The object of this activity is to set the POPULAR TEENAGE INVENTIONS context for the topic of the unit. Ask the students to look at the pictures and then BEFORE READING identify the name of the inventions in the box. Check that they all identify and know Start a general conversation about the role and the names of the gadgets in English, so that development of technology in recent years, and they can easily find the words. how it has changed or affected our everyday life. At this stage, you may accept Spanish, as Answers the objective of the activity is to involve theCD or DVD player / remote control; bycicles; cellular students in the topic of the lesson.phone; microwave oven; jet plane; personal computer;digital camera; credit card; calculator. 1 ++ Ask the students to choose, in pairs, a few2 In their notebook, the students copy and recent inventions that they feel have complete the chart writing the name of the changed their lives and then to tell their invention in the correct column. Warn them classmates about them. that there are inventions that fit the two (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). columns. You can check the exercise asking a student to copy and complete the 2 ++ chart on the board, or telling them to say Ask the students to look at the pictures their answers aloud. and then answer which of the inventions they think was invented or conceived of by Answers teens. Elicit their answers, also telling them Work / Study Leisure (Free time) to speculate about the reasons and calculator cellular phone circumstances in which the inventors cellular phone computer created each object. computer credit card (L.A.: to relate topic and students’ previous camera DVD knowledge). jet plane bicycle Possible answers microwave oven camera The three inventions were invented by teenagers. jet plane Background Information3 Ask the students to work in pairs and add The inventors mentioned in the introduction of two inventions to each column. Then, tell the article are: Chester Greenwood (1858- them to share their work with their 1937), who, tired of cold ears while ice skating, classmates. invented earmuffs at age 15; Philo T. Farnsworth (1906-1971), who invented a prototype for a working television at age 14 and later built one; and Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who was 19 when he began work on what became the Pascaline, the first business machine and second mechanical calculator. 71
  • 73. If it is possible, you may also recommend your Optional activity students to search the Internet and find Ask the students to give examples to illustrate additional information at: each word in the Key Word Spot, mime them if For more information on Background they are actions, or write sentences using them, information see page 7 of the Introduction. in order to check they have understood their meaning correctly. http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/earmuff.htm http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/television.htm http://www.xnumber.com/xnumber/mechanical3.htm 5 +++ Tell the students to identify the cognates in 3 +++ the text and then choose the alternatives they think are correct. Again, reinforce the Explain to your students that they are going idea that cognates are very useful to help to read about two young inventors whose set the context for the reading creativity is making life a little easier for comprehension tasks. You may also ask the others. Ask them to have a look at the students to anticipate a list of cognates they pictures and then choose the correct name think they will find according to the topic of for each invention. You can guide the the lesson, and then check their predictions exercise asking the students to describe skimming the text. what they see in the pictures and what they (L.A.: to use cognates to predict content). think the object is useful for. Once they have identified the inventions, they can Cognates: I.: invent, electronic, music, choose a name for each from the list. Do ideas, company, manufactures, inventions, not check their answers at this stage. prototype, model, final, product, patent, (L.A.: to infer meaning from visuals). invention. II.: animal, memorize, programming, problem, site, final, product, 4 ++ memorization, enter, data, vocabulary, Tell the students to study the words in the Key history, science, information, generates, Word Spot and then look them up in a test, program, inventors, invent. dictionary. Remind them that this is a very important activity before they face any reading PAGE 76 task, even in Spanish. Make sure you devote enough time to allow students to understand READING the meaning of the words. It may also be a good idea to make the students complete a glossary in their notebooks, including the 6 + Spanish translation for each word an example Students read the text quickly and check and a drawing, when applicable. their predictions in Exercises 3 and 5. (L.A.: to develop study skills). (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers Answers Clap: to hit your open hands together several times 3., 1. d. Quizlet, 2. b. Hands on hand-clap game, 5. c.; d. to show that you approve of or have enjoyed something. (aplaudir) 7 ++ Skill: a particular ability or type of ability. The students read the text again, this time (habilidad, capacidad) more carefully, and choose the best Tool: an instrument that you hold in your hand and alternative to complete the sentences. Ask use for making or repairing things. them to note the words in the text that help (herramienta) them decide on their answers and check the Launch: to start an activity, especially an organized exercise orally. one. (lanzar, comenzar) (L.A.: to identify specific information).72 UNIT 3
  • 74. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS Answers Background information: An acronym is a word formed from the first a. - ii.; b. – i.; c. – iii.; d. – ii.; e. – ii. initials of several words. Newsgroups, chat rooms, and e-mail have spawned a rich set of acronyms and abbreviations for common phrases. An 8 ++ acronym is pronounced as if it were a word rather Now the students read the text again to than just a series of individual letters. identify the correct sequence of events for each invention. It may be a good idea to Additional exercises read the sentences aloud and tell the 1.Identify the words that formed these acronyms. students to decide the logical order of the a. ASAP, b. BTW, c. FWIW, d. FYI, e. IMO, events. They can write the sequences on f. LOL, g. TIA the board and then check reading the text. Answ ers: a. As Soon As Possible; b. By (L.A.: to identify the sequence of events). The Way; c. For What Itʼs Worth; d. For Your Information; e. In My Opinion; f. Laughing Out Answers Loud; g. Thanks In Advance a.: iv.; i.; ii.; v.; iii.; b.: iv.; iii.; ii.; i. 2.Write a list of acronyms that are familiar and used in everyday life.Optional activity Possible answ ers: UNICEF, ANFP,Ask the students to identify and extract the UNESCO, CD, DVD, MP3, laser, sonar, PSU,sentences in the text that illustrate the sequence etc.of events described in the exercise. For more information on Background information see page 7 of the Introduction. PAGE 77 AFTER READING 9 +++ Tell the students to read the text once more 10 +++ and then answer the questions in their Motivate the students to reflect about the text notebooks. Ask some students to read their they have read, talking about the motives answers aloud and make sure all the class and circumstances in which both inventors get the correct answers. created their objects. Then, invite them to (L.A.: to extract specific information). share their comments with their classmates. Answers Encourage the students to express and listen a. It stands for By Kids for Kids. It’s an acronym. to everybody’s opinions with respect. b. It is a model of the final product. (L.A.: to express opinions). c. You can enter vocabulary words, history dates, Answers science facts. Will vary. d. To look at everyday life and invent something to improve it. 11 +++ 17 ERROR ALERT Encourage the students to work in pairs and Stand for = mean, represent; express indirectly by an use the information from Exercise 10 to image, form, or model; be a symbol; denote or connote. complete the dialogue with their own ideas. (NOT: the act of standing) Invite the students to listen to the recording and check their answers. Explain to them For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of that they have to check the general meaning, the Introduction. as there is not one single correct answer. (L.A.: to express opinions). 73
  • 75. Answers Reflection Spot See transcript. TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 17 Make sure you assign enough time of your class to allow students to reflect on their A: Which of the two inventions do you like the most? achievements and weaknesses. They read B: I like the clap game. the statements and assess: A: Why? • their ability to search for information in B: Because I think it’s very useful for children who don’t have order to prepare a presentation. friends to play with. Do you agree? • their ability to give an oral presentation. A: No. I think the other one is better. For more information on the Reflection Spot, B: Why do you say that? see page 6 of the Introduction. A: Well, because, in my opinion, it really helps you to study and revise for tests. 13 +++ 12 +++ The objective of this activity is to allow Ask the students to form groups of four and students to relate the topic of the lesson to choose an inventor. Explain to them that their own reality, and at the same time they can use the library, encyclopedias, etc. practice their oral skills applying the new or they can visit the web site structures they have learned, in a funny and www.invent.org., and choose one of the relaxed atmosphere. Ask the students to inventors listed there.(In that case, they think of an invention that would make life must go to the “Hall of Fame” link, far left, easier, name and describe it to their and search by inventor or invention.) partners. Then, invite them to change roles. Tell the students they must write a short (L.A.: to describe a device/gadget). paragraph and prepare a brief presentation about the inventor or the invention they chose. 14 ++ Encourage them to include information about Motivate the students to make a drawing of the origin of the idea and to list the steps the the inventions they/their partners described inventor took to go from idea to reality. in Exercise 13. Encourage them to show Motivate the groups to add visual material to their drawings to their classmates and then illustrate the presentations. display them in a visible place in the Do not interrupt students’ presentations to classroom. correct the information or their English. (L.A.: to relate text and visuals). Take notes of the most important mistakes and, at the end of the session, start a general conversation reflecting on the points that the students should reinforce / practice more to improve in the future. You may also ask each group to assess their classmates’ performances and assign an extra mark, according to their self and peer evaluation. (L.A.: to give an oral presentation).74 UNIT 3
  • 76. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONSPAGE 78 Answers a. The children can’t go to the beach because it’s too LANGUAGE SPOT cold. / Because it’s too cold, the children can’t go to the beach.Because b. Paul’s car didn’t start because the battery was dead. /Remind students that this section is designed to Because the battery was dead, Paul’s car didn’t start.help them revise or discover a particular c. My sister got up very early because she wanted togrammar structure or an interesting item of revise for a test. / Because she wanted to revise for avocabulary related to the text. test, my sister got up very early.Always keep in mind that the activities aremeant to promote independent learning, so d. I can’t eat that huge sandwich because I need to losehelp, guide and check, but do not tell them the weight. / Because I need to lose weight, I can’t eatanswers. that huge sandwich. e. Debbie is learning Italian because she is traveling to 1. The students revise the sentences from the Rome next year. / Because she is traveling to Rome text and other examples paying special next year, Debbie is learning Italian. attention to the word in bold. Tell them to compare the sentences and find the similarities among them. PAGE 79 2. Now, the students analyze each sentence and answer the questions. If necessary, 16 +++ FL analyze each alternative aloud and make Faster students complete the five sentences sure they understand the differences clearly. in their notebooks using the connector they Answ e rs: a . Two; b. ii. learned in the LANGUAGE SPOT following the example. Encourage them to be 3. Invite the students to copy and complete the creative and invite some students to write general rule in their notebooks, their sentences on the board; make sure Answ e rs: all of them can check their answers. We can use the word be c a use to join two (L.A.: to use a new language structure). ideas that express a reason and a c a use . We use be c a use to introduce the sentence Answers that expresses the reason. Will vary. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. LET’S CHECK 1715 ++ The purpose of this section is to allow Using the information from the LANGUAGE students to check their progress and to SPOT, the students join the sentences. Ask provide information to the teacher about any them to write each sentence twice, points that the majority of the students have changing the order of the clauses, as in the problems with. Make sure they understand example. Draw students’ attention to the what they are expected to do and give them use of the comma in each case, according enough time to answer individually. Then, to the location of the connector. check on the board to allow students to (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. For more information on LETS CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. 75
  • 77. Answers and at the same time recall their previous knowledge about it. They may not know the a. Because Jim was hot and tired, he sat under a tree in word gadget, so it may be a good idea to the garden. /Jim sat under a tree in the garden write it on the word and brainstorm students’ because he was hot and tired. ideas about its meaning. b. Because she was very thirsty, my mother drank some A gadget is a small tool or device that does tea. / My mother drank some tea because she was something useful (aparato, artilugio). very thirsty. (L.A.: to infer information from the context). c. Susan hurried up because she was late for school. / Because she was late for school, Susan hurried up. Answers d. Because the weather is cold, my father is wearing a Will vary heavy coat. / My father is wearing a heavy coat because the weather is cold. 2 ++ e. Dan can’t reach the top shelf because he isn’t very Explain to the students that they are going tall. / Because he isn’t very tall, Dan can’t reach the to listen to a recording about inventions. Ask top shelf. them to predict the topic of the recording f. Children can easily identify Italy on a map because it you will play. Do not provide the correct has the shape of a boot. / Because it has the shape of answer at this stage. a boot, children can easily identify Italy on a map. (L.A.: to predict topic from the context). g. My sister has a sore throat because she shouted loudly at the game. / Because she shouted loudly at 3 ++ the game, my sister has a sore throat. Before playing the recording, it is very h. Helen is putting on her nicest dress because she is important that the students know the going to a party. / Because she is going to a party, meaning of the new words they will hear. Helen is putting on her nicest dress. Ask them to read the words in the Key Word Spot and then match them with their REAL LIFE SPOT pictures. Allow the use of dictionaries if necessary. The objective of this section is to provide a bit of (L.A.: to infer meaning from visuals). humor to the class. All the jokes and cartoons are Answers related to the topic of the lesson. Give some minutes to allow students to read and then invite Octopus – 4 – pulpo them to share their comments to make sure they Screw – 5 – tornillo understood the joke. At this point, you may allow Sketch – 1 – dibujo en borrador the use of Spanish to check comprehension. Switch – 3 – interruptor For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, Tire – 2 – neumático see page 6 of the Introduction. PAGE 80 Optional activity LESSON 2 Once they understand the meaning of each word in the Key Word Spot, you can ask your students to predict why the words will appear in the LISTENING recording. MY BEST INVENTION You may also tell them to relate the name of the lesson and the key words to predict the content BEFORE LISTENING of the recording. 1 + The objective of this activity is to get students involved in the topic of the lesson,76 UNIT 3
  • 78. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONSPAGE 81 Answers a. ceilings; b. cups; c. posted; d. 4000; e. finding; f. hideLISTENING ERROR ALERT4 + 18 /æ/ and /A/ sounds Ask the students to listen to the recording /æ/ as in cap is pronounced with lips stretched to the and check their predictions in Exercise 2. sides. Remind the students that this first time they /A/ as in cup is pronounced with lips in a neutral only have to focus their attention on the position, slightly separated. general content of the recording. They may For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of not concentrate on details or on specific the Introduction. information. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Additional exercise Answers Repeat each pair of words, paying special b. attention to the different pronunciation of the vowel sound.5 ++ 18 bad = bud drag = drug ran = run damp = dump Now, the students listen to the recording tab = tub began = begun again and focus their attention on the track = truck stand = stunned content. Another alternative to this exercise bag = bug raffle = ruffle would be to ask the students to choose the ban = bun rat = rut correct alternative first, and then check back = buck jazz = just while listening to the recording. drank = drunk (L.A.: to recognize general information). Answers 8 ++ 18 c. Invite your students to copy the sentences into their notebooks. Then, play the6 ++ 18 recording once more to allow them to match Before playing the recording again, read the each speaker with what they say. list of names aloud. Tell the students they (L.A.: to relate speakers and speech). now have to identify what kind of inventions Answers the kids are talking about. Play the a. ii.; v.; iii.; iv.; vi.; i.; b. i. Brian; ii. Jen.; iii. Brian; recording and ask the students to match iv. Jen; v. Jen; vi. The teacher. each speaker with the invention. (L.A.: to relate speakers and speech). 18 TRANSCRIPT - MY BEST INVENTION Answers Brian – f.; Jen – d. Teacher: Silence, please. Let’s share ideas. Brian, what can you tell us?7 +++ 18 Brian: I invented Suction Tires to ride up walls and ceilings The students listen to the recording again. because I wanted to take bike riding to new heights. Ask them to focus their attention on the Teacher: Where did you get the idea? alternatives and choose the correct one for Brian: In our science class we learned that an octopus has each sentence. Before playing the eight arms with a bunch of suction cups that can stick recording, read the sentences aloud, to almost anything and then I got the idea to attach drawing the students’ attention to the suction cups to my bike tires to ride on walls. After a different pronunciation of the alternatives. lot of different designs, I managed to keep the suction (L.A.: to discriminate sounds and words). cups attached to the tires with glue and screws. 77
  • 79. invent things, you can ask them to share Teacher: What are you going to do with your creation? their experience with the rest of the class. Brian: I made the final sketch and I posted my idea at (L.A.: to express opinions). InventNow.org. I hope that, soon enough, we can ride Answers up walls! Teacher: What about you, Jen? Will vary, according to students’ own ideas and opinions. Jen: I invented Hide-N-Seek 4000 because I needed a challenge. LANGUAGE SPOT Teacher: Tell us about it. Jen: I always thought that a robot with eyes could be really The Simple Past good at finding things, so I designed a robot to play Remind students that this section is designed to Hide-N-Seek. help them revise or discover a particular grammar Teacher: Very interesting; how does it do that? structure or an interesting item of vocabulary Jen: My robot can use its arms to push back curtains and related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant branches of trees. It also needs to hide, so I added a to promote independent learning, so help, guide switch that changes it from a seeker to a hider. and check, but do not tell them the answers. Teacher: What materials did you use? 1. Invite the students to revise the sentences Jen: I used a computer, an old camera and a filing cabinet from the text. to design Hide-N- Seek 4000 and I also posted my idea at InventNow.org. 2. Tell them to read carefully and then answer the questions. Answ ers: Reflection Spot a. - i. ; b. the Simple Past tense. 3. The student must copy and complete the rule in Once they have evaluated their classmates, their notebooks. Invite one student to copy the make sure you assign enough time of your rule on the board to allow the rest to check it. class to allow students reflect on their own We use the Simple Past tense to talk about achievements and weaknesses. They read events that happened in the past and are the statements and assess: finished now. • their ability to discriminate sounds and 4. Invite the students to revise the exercises from words in a recording. the listening section and identify all the • their ability to relate speakers and their sentences in the Simple Past Tense they can speech in a recording. find. Then, ask them to copy the sentences in For more information on the Reflection Spot, their notebooks. Check orally. see page 6 of the Introduction. Answ ers: Exercise 7: a. I invented Suction Tires to ride up walls and PAGE 82 ceilings. b. That gave me the idea to attach suction AFTER LISTENING cups. c. I posted my idea at InventNow.org. e. I thought that a robot could be good at 9 +++ finding things. Form groups of four students and tell them Exercise 8: to talk about the recording. Ask them to b. I added a switch. answer the questions and take notes in their c. I made a final sketch. notebooks. Then, tell the groups to appoint d. I needed a new challenge. one member to read their comments aloud e. I used a computer. and organize a general conversation about For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, the topic. If there are students who like to see page 6 of the Introduction.78 UNIT 3
  • 80. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONSBackground information PAGE 83 We can often identify the Simple Past tense bythe use of signal w ords such as: yesterday, a 11 +++month ago, last summer, in … (month, year), etc. Tell the students to look at the pictures on For more information on Background page 83, and write complete sentencesinformation, see page 7 of the Introduction. about what these people did yesterday using the verbs in the box. Invite some students to ERROR ALERT write the sentences on the board and make To make the past tense form of most regular verbs we sure they all check their answers. If simply add -ed at the end. necessary, help them identify the irregular Examples: walked, danced, arrived, etc. verbs and provide their Past Tense forms. Irregular verbs are not that simple. We sometimes need (L.A.: to use a new language structure). a dictionary to help us write the different forms of Answers irregular verbs. Yesterday… For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of 1. Anna danced all night. the Introduction. 2. Ben went to France. 3. Bob swam in the ocean.Additional exercise 4. Charles cooked lunch.Change the verb in each sentence to its past 5. Emily and Eddie saw Titanic on TV.tense form and write it in the blank. You may 6. Gina talked to her friend.refer to a dictionary or to a list of verbs. 7. Jill and Nick had a picnic.1.I _________ all my homework at school.(do) 8. Kim wrote a letter.2.She _________ of a better way to do it.(think) 9. Maggie played the piano.3.Sam _________ us to lock the doors.(remind) 10. Nick sang at the theater.4.They _________ their names on the list.(put ) 11. Philip drove his car.5.Who _________ my new jacket?(see) 12. Sheila rode her pony.6.We never _________ his real name.(know) 13. Sue and Tom bought some new clothes. 14. Terry caught rabbits. 15. Vincent went to London.10 ++ The students must read the paragraph and complete it with the Simple Past tense of PAGE 84 the verbs in brackets. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). 12 ++ 19 Answers The students work in pairs and fill in the In 1824, when he was 15, Louis Braille invented a blanks in the dialogue. Let them know how way for blind people to read. His personal experience important it is that they read the whole text was very important. first, then sentence by sentence, so that He became blind at the age of 3; when he was 12, they can make use of all the textual clues he went to a school for the blind in Paris. When a that can give them information on the soldier called Charles Barbier visited the school, he missing word(s). It is also important to told Louis about something called “night-writing”. remind them to make use of everything During the next three years, Louis simplified the system they have done in this lesson so far. and finally developed the Braille system of reading. (L.A.: to make use of textual clues and previous knowledge; to relate written and oral version of a text). Answers See transcript. 79
  • 81. TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 19 Answers Krysta Morlan was 16 when she invented the Teacher: What can you tell us about your invention? waterbike. She got the idea when she was doing Molly: I invented the Karate Glove, to chop through exercises in the pool. Krysta had spent a lot of time in anything from cement blocks to a minibus! hospital and needed to recover her strength. She loved Teacher: Where did you get the idea? bicycles, but hadn’t ridden for a long time, so the new Molly: I saw people chopping through blocks in movies waterbike helped her to workout; besides, she invited and I wondered how I could do that. After her friends and they had a lot of fun in the pool. karate class one day, I saw some workers tearing up the street with a super-powerful PAGE 85 jackhammer. It was tough enough for concrete, so that gave me the idea! 15 +++ FL Teacher: What did you do next? It may also be a good idea to assign this Molly: I added a power switch and I made the final sketch. activity as homework or as a mini-project, Teacher: What are you planning to do with your creation? with an extra mark for the whole class. Molly: Submit my idea to the Gallery at InventNow.org. Form groups of four students and ask them to think about a funny invention they would like to create. 13 +++ 19 Encourage them to draw a sketch and write The students listen to the recording again a short description of it, like the one in the and practice the dialogue in pairs to role- recording. Devote the next class to the play it in front of their classmates. You can presentations. You may also prepare copies organize a class competition and ask the of the peer-evaluation sheet and ask the students to choose the best performance of students to evaluate their classmates’ work. the dialogue. (L.A.: to relate topic to students’ own reality). (L.A.: to imitate a pattern of intonation and pronunciation). Reflection Spot LET’S CHECK Once they have evaluated their classmates, make sure you assign enough time of your 14 The purpose of this section is to allow class to allow students to reflect on their own achievements and weaknesses. They read students to check their progress and to the statements and assess: provide information to the teacher about any • their ability to draw a sketch and to points that the majority of the students have describe an invention. problems with. Make sure they understand • their ability to write a description of an what they are expected to do and give them invention. enough time to answer individually. Then, For more information on the Reflection Spot, check on the board to allow students to see page 6 of the Introduction. correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. The students must copy and complete the paragraph with the Simple Past tense of the verbs in the box. Again, remind them that it is very important to identify the kind of verb (regular / irregular) to decide which form they are going to use in each case. For more information on LETS CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.80 UNIT 3
  • 82. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS PAGE 86 GAME SPOT LESSON 3Games are highly motivating since they areamusing and at the same time challenging for the READINGstudents. They employ language in real contexts THE WIZARD OF MENLO PARKand they also encourage and increase cooperation.They create the motivation for learners of English to BEFORE READINGget involved and participate actively in the learning Before starting the lesson and while the studentsactivities, bring real world context into theclassroom, and enhance students’ use of English in still have their books closed, brainstorm the mosta flexible, communicative way. important inventions in history. Ask the students the name of the inventions they consideredRemember that games are used not only for mere changed people’s life and also the name of thefun, but more importantly, for the useful practice inventors. Write them on the board.and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaningof the language the students listen to, read, speakand write will be more vividly experienced and, 1 +therefore, better remembered. Explain to the Form groups of four students and ask themstudents that the list a. – i. includes some of the to write a list of the most famous inventionsinventions that have been submitted to the Gallery that changed people’s life.at InventNow.org. Tell them to look at the pictures Then, invite the groups to share their listsand find a name for them in the list. Motivate them with the rest of the class and finally,to find clues that help them to identify the name of organize a general conversation so that thethe invention. If it is possible, encourage the students can reach an agreement to appointstudents to visit the web site and find other funnyinventions that have been submitted. the most important invention in history. (L.A.: to relate previous knowledge with theFor more information on the GAME SPOT, see topic of the lesson).page 7 of the Introduction. Answers Answers Will vary. 1. – Super Heat Dress; 2. – Camera Glasses; 3. – Electric-Heat Shirt; 4. – Mouse Thermometer; 2 ++ 5. – Space Center; 6. – Gaming Tree House Invite the students to look at the pictures and identify the names in the list (a. – f.) Then, encourage them to find the name of16 FL the inventors in the box. Encourage fast learners to read the (L.A.: to relate text and visuals). descriptions and then find the name of each Answers invention in the list in the GAME SPOT. a. – 4 – Blaise Pascal; b. – 1 – Wilbur and Orville This activity represents a more advanced Wright; c. – 5 – James Watt; d. – 2 – Thomas A. Edison; step in which fast students must relate a e. – 3 – Johannes Guttenberg; f. – 6 – Filo T. Farnsworth description with a name, without the help of a visual clue. Again, tell the students to pay Background information special attention to the words that may Filo T. Farnsw orth was fifteen years old, represent clues. Ask them to share their and a high-school student, when he read of the answer with the rest of the class. research being carried out in the Soviet Union by (L.A.: to infer meaning from titles). Boris Rosing on transmitting moving images by Answers electricity. He quickly designed a schematica. Space Center; b. Sklurfboard; c. Super Heat Dress; drawing of the required system. Farnsworthd. The Book Sorter; e. Electric Heat Shirt. entered Brigham Young University the next year 81
  • 83. and remained there for two years until the death Bible), has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic of his father. A San Francisco banker named and technical quality. William H. Crocker built a laboratory for James Watt was a Scottish inventor and Farnsworth so that he could continue his mechanical engineer whose improvements to the research into the practical development of his steam engine were fundamental to the changes television system. brought by the Industrial Revolution both in Wright Brothers: In 1899, after Wilbur Wright Britain and in the world. had written a letter of request to the Smithsonian For more information on Background Institution for information about flight information, see page 7 of the Introduction. experiments, the Wright Brothers designed their http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki first aircraft: a small, biplane glider flown as a kite to test their solution for controlling the craft by 3 ++ wing warping. Wing warping is a method of Tell the students that they are going to read arching the wingtips slightly to control the about one of the most famous inventors in aircraftʼs rolling motion and balance. history. Invite them to guess his / her name, Over the next three years, Wilbur and his according to their choice in Exercise 1. Do brother Orville designed a series of gliders which not correct answers at this stage. would be flown in both unmanned (as kites) and (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to piloted flights. They recognized that control of the predict topic). flying aircraft would be the most crucial and hardest problem to solve. Reflection Spot In 1900, the Wrights successfully tested their new 50-pound biplane glider with its 17-foot wingspan The purpose of this activity is to help and wing-warping mechanism at Kitty Hawk, in students reflect on their learning process both unmanned and piloted flights. In fact, it was and to raise students’ awareness of how the first piloted glider. Based upon the results, the they develop their own learning strategies to Wright Brothers planned to refine the controls and become more effective learners. They landing gear, and build a bigger glider.  should work on their own but you may help Blaise Pascal: At the age of 14 Blaise Pascal and guide the work when necessary. started to accompany his father. Soon, by the The students read the statements and assess: time he was 16, Pascal presented a single piece • their ability to relate the topic of the lesson of paper which contained a number of projective with their previous knowledge. geometry theorems, including Pascalʼs mystic • their ability to use their previous knowledge hexagon. to make predictions. Blaise had his first work, Essay on Conic For more information on the Reflection Spot, Sections published in February 1640. see page 6 of the Introduction. He invented the first digital calculator to help his father with his work collecting taxes. He worked on it for three years, between 1642 and 1645. 4 +++ The device, called the Pascaline, resembled a Again, remind the students that this activity is mechanical calculator of the 1940s. This, almost very important to face any reading text. The certainly, makes Pascal the second person to cognates they can identify will be very helpful to invent a mechanical calculator, for Schickard had prepare for the reading tasks and to get the manufactured one in 1624. general meaning of text. Invite the students to J oha nne s Gut e nbe rg was a German read the text quickly and find the cognates in it. goldsmith and printer who is credited with being Then, ask them to identify their relationship with the first European to use movable type printing, the topic of the text. Check the list of cognates in around 1439, and the global inventor of the inviting a student to read his / her list aloud, but mechanical printing press. His major work, the do not check their predictions at this stage Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line (L.A.: to use cognates to make predictions).82 UNIT 3
  • 84. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS Cognates: February, adult, fruits, Answers vegetables, devoured, dictionary, science, 3. Thomas A. Edison, 4. These cognates indicate that practical, obtained, telegraph, operators, the text is about a person who developed inventions: civil, finally, authentic, invention, automatic science, practical, telegraph, operators, invention, repeater, transmitted, signals, stations, automatic repeater, transmitted, signals, stations, patented, initial, version, idea, hours, patented, projects, patent, constructed, electric, voice, projects, received, patent, constructed, transmitter, laboratory, phonograph, invented. electric, voice, disaster, quadruple, transmitter, progress, laboratory, moved, phonograph, invented, incandescent, firm, 7 ++ general, corporation, responsible, creating. The students read the text again, this time more carefully, to identify the kind of text itPAGE 87 is. Before doing the exercise, brainstorm students’ ideas (it may be in Spanish) about5 +++ the characteristics and differences of the different kinds of texts enumerated, to help The students read the words in the Key them find the correct answer. Word Spot and find them in the text. They (L.A.: to identify kind of text). must choose the correct meaning for each word. For this activity, it is very important Answers that the students understand clearly the c. context in which each word has been used, and then decide the most logical meaning. Background information An easy way to demonstrate this is to A short story is a work of fiction that is usually replace the word for each meaning and written in prose, usually in narrative format. check if it fits. A biography (from the Greek words bíos (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). meaning “life”, and gráphein meaning “to write”) is Answers a description of someoneʼs life, usually publisheda. - ii.; b. – i.; c. – i.; d. – ii.; e. – ii. in the form of a book or essay, or in some other form, such as a film. An autobiography (auto, meaning “self”,READING giving self-biography) is a biography by the same person it is about. A biography is more than a list of impersonal6 + facts (education, work, relationships and death), it Invite the students to read the text on page also portrays the subjectʼs experience of those 88 quickly and check their predictions in events. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae Exercises 3 and 4. Reinforce the idea that (resume), a biography presents the subjectʼs this first time is only to validate / correct story, highlighting various aspects of his her life, what they had predicted before reading the including intimate details of experiences, and may text. It is not necessary for them to include an analysis of the subjectʼs personality. understand every single word. A work is biographical if it covers all of a (L.A.: to validate predictions through personʼs life. As such, biographical works are skimming). usually non-fiction. Together, all biographical works form the genre known as biography, in literature, film, and other forms of media. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction. http://en.wikipedia.org 83
  • 85. Motivate them to write a coherent piece of 8 ++ writing, and to connect their ideas with Invite the students to read the text once more sequencing words such as: before, after, and then decide if the statements are true or then, etc. and to use other textual false. Once the students have decided which references like who; where; which, etc. statements are false, ask them to write the You may assign this activity as homework, correct sentences in their notebooks. Invite giving an extra mark for it. The following some students to read their answers aloud to class, ask the students to read their work check the exercise. aloud. It would also be a good idea to prepare (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and copies of the Writing Rubric (page ___ of this incorrect information). book) and ask the students to evaluate Answers themselves or to evaluate their classmates. (L.A.: to write a biography). a. True; b. True; c. False (Edison never patented the initial version of this idea) d. True; e. True f. False (He didn’t die Possible Answers alone, his wife Mina was by his side). Thomas A. Edison was born on February 11th, 1847, in Ohio, USA. In 1859 he started his own business selling fruits and vegetables. In 1862, he obtained a job 9 +++ replacing a telegraph operator. In 1863, he invented the Tell the students to copy and complete the “automatic repeater” which was a disaster. In 1874, time line of Thomas Edison’s life in their Thomas Edison opened his first laboratory in Newark, notebooks. and he then moved to Menlo Park. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of events). In 1877 he invented the first phonograph and a year Answers later he invented the incandescent light bulb. 1847: He was born on February 11, in Ohio, USA. By 1892, his company had become a great firm, which 1859: He started his own business selling fruits and was the General Electric Corporation. vegetables. In 1900, Edison began to slow down. He obtained his 1862: He obtained a job replacing a telegraph operator. last patent in 1930, when he was 83, and he died on 1863: He invented the “automatic repeater”. October 18th, 193. 1874: He opened his first laboratory in Newark, New Jersey. 1876: He moved his laboratory to Menlo Park. 1877: He invented the first phonograph. 1879: He invented the first incandescent light bulb. 1892: His company became the General Electric Corporation. 1900: He began to slow down. 1930: He obtained his 1093rd (last) patent when he was 83. 1931: He died on October 18th, in New Jersey. PAGE 89 AFTER READING 10 +++ Ask the students to work in pairs to prepare a summary of Edison’s biography using the information in the time line in Exercise 9.84 UNIT 3
  • 86. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONSLANGUAGE SPOT 11 ++ Tell the students to join the sentences in ARelative pronouns and B using the correct relative pronoun.Remind students that this section is designed to (L.A.: to apply a new language structure).help them revise or discover a particulargrammar structure or an interesting item of Answersvocabulary related to the text. a. Thomas Alva Edison was an important inventor whoAlways keep in mind that the activities are meant invented the incandescent light bulb.to promote independent learning, so help, guide b. Edison invented the “automatic repeater” whichand check, but do not tell them the answers. transmitted telegraph signals between stations.1. The students revise the sentences from the c. Edison got his first patent for an electric voice – text. Draw their attention to the words in bold recording machine which was a disaster. in each sentence. PAGE 902. Help the students to identify what the words in bold introduce to the sentences in Point 1, and 12 +++ what kind of information they are related to. Answ ers: The students must use their own ideas to a. i.; b. who – person, which – object; when – complete the sentences using the correct time; where – place. relative pronoun. Invite some students to write their sentences on the board and make3. Ask the students to copy and complete the sure that the rest check their answers. general rule in their notebooks. Answ ers: (L.A.: to use a new language structure). a. We use w ho when we want to add Answers information about a person. Will vary according to students ideas, but check that b. We use w hich when we want to add they use the correct relative pronoun: information about an object. a. who. b. where / which. c. when. d. where. e. who. c. We use w here when we want to add information about a place. d. We use w hen when we want to add 13 +++ 20 information about time. In pairs, the students complete the dialogue4. Once they have finished Activity 3, the on Edison’s biography and then they check students go back to the reading text and find with the recording. Draw students’ attention three sentences that contain a relative to what kind of information they are pronoun. Ask them also to identify what the expected to supply in each blank. For relative pronouns refer to. example, in the first one the question begins Answ ers: with who, so they must complete it with the 1. At 16, he finally came up with his first name of a person. They can copy and authentic invention, an automatic repeater complete the dialogue in their notebook. w hich transmitted telegraph signals Play the recording again, with pauses. Ask the between stations. (object: the automatic repeater) students to listen to it and practice the 2. Shortly before passing away, he awoke and dialogue with their partners. Invite some pairs whispered to his wife Mina w ho was by his to role-play it in front of their classmates. side:”It is very beautiful over there”. (person: Remember not to interrupt the students while Edisonʼs wife, Mina) they are doing speaking activities to correct them. It is better to take notes of the mostFor more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, important mistakes and devote some time atsee page 6 of the Introduction. the end of the class to correct them in general. (L.A.: to exchange biographical information). Answers See transcript. 85
  • 87. required in each blank (a verb, a noun, a TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE 20 proper noun, an adjective, etc.) A: Who was Thomas Alva Edison? (L.A.: to use vocabulary related to the topic of the lesson). B: He was an American inventor who developed many For more information on LETS CHECK, see devices that changed modern life. page 6 of the Introduction. A: And what important inventions did he develop? B: He invented the phonograph and the electric light bulb, Answers among other things. THE INVENTION OF THE BARBIE DOLL A: Do you know how many inventions he patented? Perhaps one of the most famous toys in American history is the Barbie doll. Along with co-founding the company B: Over a thousand inventions, I think. Mattel, woman inventor Ruth Handler also designed A: In what area were his main contributions? the doll that became an American cultural icon. B: His main contributions were in the area of She had always seen her daughter playing with paper telecommunications. dolls, so she invented a grown-up, three-dimensional doll that girls could use to act out their dreams. 14 +++ FL Mrs. Handler named her new invention after the nickname of her daughter Barbara. You can assign this consolidation activity to After the Toy Fair in 1959, Barbie became an instant fast learners or as homework with an extra sensation. mark for the whole class. The students must To this day, the Barbie doll invention remains one of work in pairs and find information about a Mattel’s best-selling products. famous inventor. Then, with the information they collect, they must write and role-play a dialogue like the one in Exercise 13. PAGE 91 Encourage them to be creative and look for interesting information to share. REAL LIFE SPOT (L.A: to consolidate topic and language structures). This section is intended to allow students to make Answers connections between the topic of the lesson and Will vary according to students’ information. real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to LET’S CHECK read, and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. 15 The purpose of this section is to allow students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about @ any points that the majority of the students @@ CLICK ON have problems with. Make sure they If possible, encourage your students to visit the understand what they are expected to do web site, and take notes about some interesting and give them enough time to answer information they find. Next class, you may ask individually. Then, check on the board to some of them to read their notes and share the allow students to correct their work and information. You may also visit the site yourself, assign themselves a mark according to and take notes of any funny or strange facts. the scale. For more information on CLICK ON, see page The students must complete the paragraph 12 of the Introduction. with words from the box. Again, before http://www.pocketgadget.org/2008/01/14/serendipity- starting the exercise, invite the students to 10-accidental-inventions analyze the kind of information that is86 UNIT 3
  • 88. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONSPAGE 92 LISTENING LESSON 4 5 + 21 LISTENING Play the recording to allow the students to TECHNOLOGY UPDATE check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. Give clear instructions to your students toBEFORE LISTENING concentrate on the general information that will give them the clues to identify the name 1 + and function of each gadget. Invite the students to work in groups (L.A.: to validate predictions). thinking about possible inventions that do Answers not exist yet but they think they need and 3. a. C - pen - picture 5; b. TIVO - picture 2; c. Thought will exist in the future. control remote - picture 4. (L.A.: to relate the topic to students’ own 4. a. TiVo; b. Thought control remote; c. C-pen; reality). d. Thought control remote2 ++ 6 ++ 21 Invite the groups to appoint a member to The students listen to the recording again and share their comments with their classmates, number the gadgets as they are mentioned. giving reasons for their choices. Take notes (L.A.: to identify the sequence of information). on the board and ask the students to reach an agreement on the best and most useful Answers idea for the future. a. 2; b. 3; c. 1 (L.A.: to exchange opinions). Answers 7 +++ 21Will vary. The students listen to the recording again to decide which of the statements are true and which are false. This time, they have to3 ++ concentrate on details to identify the incorrect Invite the students to look at the pictures of information that each sentence may contain. three new gadgets and then match them An alternative exercise would be to ask the with their names. Do not check at this stage. students to predict the answers and then (L.A.: to infer meaning from visuals). check with the recording. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct andPAGE 93 incorrect information). Answers4 +++ a. False; b. True; c. False; d. False; e. True; f. True Once they have chosen the names, brainstorm the uses the students would give Optional exercise to each gadget. You can make a chart on the Additionally, you can ask the students to correct board and take notes of the student’s ideas. the false sentences in Exercise 7. Then, ask them to copy sentences Answ ers: a. – d. into their notebooks and then complete a.With TiVo, you can see action as it happens in them with the name of the corresponding slow motion. gadget according to the function they think c.The C-pen looks like a highlighter pen, but it is they have. Do not check at this stage. a small portable scanner. (L.A.: to infer meaning from visuals). d. The C-pen can store up to 3,000 pages of text. 87
  • 89. TRANSCRIPT - TECHNOLOGY UPDATE 21 8 +++ 21 Tell the students to copy the sentences in Presenter: And now, Jim Mc Bride, in our section Technology their notebooks. Then, they listen to the update. What do you have for us today, Jim? recording again and write the name of the Jim: I have three gadgets that will surprise you. The corresponding gadget. first is Tivo. Tivo is a remote control system that Again, you can transform this exercise and ask the students to write the name they allows you to interact with live TV. think is correct and then check with the Presenter: Interact with TV? Explain that, please. recording. In this case, ask them to give Jim: When watching TV, you can pause, replay or see reasons for their choices. all the action, as it happens, in slow motion. Example: When you go back to normal viewing, the TV will a. Tivo is paradise for sports lovers because continue from the point where you left off. people who watch sports events on TV Presenter: It sounds like paradise for sports lovers! What else like to replay or see things in slow motion. do you have? b. Thought Control Remote understands Jim: The second gadget today is the C-pen pocket what you think; it can understand scanner. With it, you will never have to search the peoples thoughts. streets for a photocopy store again. c. C-pen can always be with you because it is portable. Presenter: Do you mean it is like a portable photocopier d. C-pen can store a lot of information; it machine? can store up to 3,000 pages of text. Jim: Exactly. Although it looks like a highlighter pen, it e. TiVo allows you to replay all the actions; is a small portable scanner that can read and replay is something you do with movies memorize a text line-by-line and then transfer it or recordings. directly to your PC. Besides, it can store up to 3,000 f. Thought Control Remote shows your pages of text. commands through the cursor; Thought Presenter: Wow! And what is the last gadget for today? Control Remote sends your commands to Jim: How would you like a computer that understands the computer and the cursor obeys. your thoughts and acts upon them? (L.A.: to identify specific information). Presenter: I can’t even imagine that although I know it is Answers possible. a. TiVo; b. Thought Control Remote; c. C-pen; d. C-pen; Jim: Believe it or not, it is. With this device, you don’t e. TiVo; f. Thought Control Remote need a mouse or a keyboard; you just think of the command that you want to give the computer and the cursor moves where you want it to. Presenter: This is the ideal gadget for people who are physically disadvantaged. For example, … (fade)88 UNIT 3
  • 90. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONSPAGE 94 Additional exercise Relate these two sentences usingAFTER LISTENING although / though, w hile, and how ever. They all indicate contrast. They are different types of words. LANGUAGE SPOT Answers Linking words a. Although / though they all indicate contrast, they are Remind students that this section is designed to different types of words. help them revise or discover a particular b. They are different types of words, while they all grammar structure or an interesting item of indicate contrast. vocabulary related to the text. c. They are all different types of words. However, they Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to all indicate contrast. promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 9 ++ 1. The students read the sentences. Draw their attention to the words in bold. Refer the students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to complete the sentences in their 2. Tell the students to identify what the words in notebooks. Invite some of them to write bold express and choose an alternative from their sentences on the board to check their the list. To do this task, it is very important that answers. they can first identify the two parts in each sentence and then decide what they express. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answ ers: Answers a. contrast a. Although / though, b. However, c. while, 3. Once they have checked the answer, the d. Although / though students copy and complete the rule in their notebooks. Linking words like although, how ever, Reflection Spot w hile and though indicate a relationship of contrast between ideas. Although and though are generally placed The purpose of this activity is to help at the beginning of a supporting idea. students reflect on their learning process How ever goes at the beginning of the and to raise students’ awareness of how second sentence and is followed by a comma. they develop their own learning strategies to While is placed either at the beginning or in become more effective learners. They the middle of two main clauses expressing should work on their own but you can help contrasting ideas. and guide the work when necessary. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, The students read the statements and see page 6 of the Introduction. assess: • their ability to use linking words to combine ideas. ERROR ALERT • their ability to identify what linking wordsLinking words are extremely important since they express.indicate the relationship between ideas. Connectors can For more information on the Reflection Spot,be grouped according to meaning. see page 6 of the Introduction.For example, while, however, and although all indicatecontrast or qualification. However, they are different typesof words, and require different punctuation. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. 89
  • 91. PAGE 95 illustrate it. Explain that they can use the information in Exercise 10 to help them. 10 +++ 22 Next class, the students must read their descriptions in their groups. The other The objective of this activity is to allow students must make a drawing as they students to apply vocabulary and language listen to the description and then compare structures from the lesson to a real context. their drawings to find the most similar to the Tell the students to copy and complete the original one. description of a new invention in their (L.A.: to consolidate language and notebooks and to make a drawing to vocabulary). illustrate it. Then, invite them to form groups and compare their descriptions and Answers drawings. Will vary. Finally, play the recording to allow the students to check their work. (L.A.: to consolidate language and PAGE 96 vocabulary). GAME SPOT Answers See transcript. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE 22 students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. Speaker: This gadget is called CyberBug. It allows you to listen They create the motivation for learners of English to to peoples conversations. It has a microphone and get involved and participate actively in the learning an amplifier, and a small headphone. Besides, it is activities, bring real world context into the very cheap and portable. You can put it in your bag classroom, and enhance students’ use of English in and take it to work or even to the gym! With it, you a flexible, communicative way. can hear conversations between people although Remember that games are used not only for mere they are up to 50 meters away! fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak 11 +++ and write will be more vividly experienced and, Group competition! Play the recording and therefore, better remembered. Students must make the students practice saying the choose an everyday object, make notes and then description. Then, ask them to repeat it in describe it to their partners without naming the their groups and choose the best imitator of object. The partner must guess what the object is. the recording. They can describe the objects in the pictures, or (L.A.: to imitate a pattern of intonation and they can choose others. pronunciation). For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction. Optional exercise Organize a further competition among the winners of each group, to select the best imitator LET’S CHECK of the class. 12 +++ FL 13 The purpose of this section is to allow students to check their progress and to You can assign this activity to fast learners or provide information to the teacher about any as homework for the whole class. Ask the points that the majority of the students have students to write a description of a new gadget problems with. Make sure they understand on a piece of cardboard and a drawing to90 UNIT 3
  • 92. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, 1 The students must look for information check on the board to allow students to about the inventions in the box and then correct their work and assign themselves a complete the fact file in their notebooks. mark according to the scale. Possible Answers The students must choose a gadget from the box and write a short description of it (100 – Name of invention: Bicycle. 120 words). Make sure they include all the Name of inventor: Kirkpatrick MacMillan. necessary information, such as: the use of the Place: Scotland. Year: 1939 gadget, the components it has, if it is Additional information: affordable or not, its advantages and Name of invention: Bikini. disadvantages, the people who may find it Name of inventor: Louis Reard useful, etc. Place: France Year: 1949. You can prepare copies of the Writing Additional information: It took its name from the Rubric to allow students to evaluate Bikini islands. themselves, or their peers. Name of invention: Glasses. For more information on LETS CHECK, see Name of inventor: Galileo. page 6 of the Introduction. Place: Italy. Year: 1609.PAGE 97 Additional information: Galileo used them first to observe the universe, and that was the beginning of Astronomy. Name of invention: Kites. REAL LIFE SPOT Name of inventor: Unknown.This section is intended to allow students to make Place: China. Year: 2800 BC.connections between the topic of the lesson and Additional information: After its appearance in Chila,real life, and at the same time provide additional the kite migrated to Japan, Korea, Thailand, Burmainformation that may be useful for them. (Myanmar), India, Arabia and North Africa.Ask the students to try to solve the crossword Name of invention: Telescope.puzzle and find out how many words from the Name of inventor: Hans Lippershey.lesson they can identify. Place: Netherlands. Year: 1608.For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, Additional information: Niccolo Zucchi is credited withsee page 6 of the Introduction. constructing the first reflecting telescope in 1616. In 1668, Isaac Newton designed and improved the reflecting Answers telescope that bears his name, the Newtonian reflector. Across: 1. gadget; 4. remote control; 5. PC; 7. scanner; Name of invention: Umbrella. 8. keyboard Name of inventor: Unknown. Down: 2. television; 3. screen; 6. mouse Place: Ancient Egypt. Year: Unknown. Additional information: In Egypt, the parasol is found in various shapes. In some instances, it is depicted as aPAGE 98 faellum, a fan of palm leaves or colored feathers fixed on a long handle, resembling those now carried behind YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION the Pope in processions. 2 Read the instructions aloud and make sureThis section provides additional exercises that all the students understand what they arerepresent a good opportunity for students to expected to do. Once they have completedconsolidate topics and language structures of the the task, invite them to share their work withlessons. You can assign these activities at the their classmates and make them choose theend of each lesson, or as homework and give best invention.them an extra mark. Display the sketches in a visible place in the classroom. 91
  • 93. Answers b. He has designed bunkers, tree houses, robots and caffeinated cereal. Will vary. c. He thinks it is a constructive activity. PAGE 99 d. By playing video games. 3 To do this task, the students have to look 3 a. His garage. b. The glove. for information in books, encyclopedias, the c. Six hours every weekend. Internet, etc. and then complete the timeline d. An electric boat powered by solar panels. of the most important XX century inventions. Draw the timeline on the board for students PAGE 101 to correct their work. Answers 4 a. ii, b. ii, c. ii., d. ii, e. i. 1900 - automobile; 1901 - vacuum cleaner; 1902 - electric typewriter; 1903 - airplane; LISTENING – THE GARBAGE EATER AND 1911 - refrigerator; 1920 - credit card; 1927 - television; THE HUMAN ROBOT 23 1940 - Velcro; 1956 - liquid paper; 1973 - Internet; 1980 - CD; 1983 - cell phone; 1986 - MP3; 1995 - DVD; 5 a. 2005 - You Tube; 2005 - Facebook 6 a. 2,000; b. five; c. work; d. made 4 The students must choose one of the inventions from the time line in Exercise 3 7 and look for information about its inventor to can can’t write his / her biography like the one of change garbage into drugs or Thomas Alva Edison. Ask them to prepare The garbage alcohol an oral presentation to share their work with eater change garbage into human or their classmates. animal PAGE 100 The human clean the house robot help with homework UNIT CHECK PAGE 102 Explain to the students that the purpose of this 8 b. – e. – a. – d. – f. – c. section is to help them revise contents and evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Read TRANSCRIPT - THE GARBAGE EATER AND the instructions and make sure all the students THE HUMAN ROBOT 23 understand what they are expected to do in each activity. Encourage them to give honest answers in Teacher: So, Michael, what can you tell us about your sketch? order to detect their strengths and weaknesses. Michael: The Garbage Eater-2000 is an easier way to recycle. Check students’ results and revise any points Teacher: How does it work? that the majority of them had problems with. Michael: First you decide how many pieces you need the For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page eater to suck up. Then you type in what you want 6 of the Introduction. the garbage to turn into. Next, hammers inside the machine pound the garbage 2,000 times in five Answers minutes and two rods melt the garbage at a READING – THE LIFE OF A TEEN INVENTOR temperature of 2,000 degrees. Now the machine re- shapes the garbage into the shape you wanted, 1 c. and it also spray paints it and forms the texture on the outside. Finally the object wanted is produced. 2 a. They require pieces of trash and drugstore supplies.92 UNIT 3
  • 94. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS pronunciation but hesitates and makesTeacher: Any special rules for the Garbage Eater-2000? grammar mistakes.Michael: The Garbage-Eater 2000 cant change garbage into 1 - 2 points: student cant exchange human or animal, and it cant change garbage into information about the topic, pronunciation drugs or alcohol. You cant type in any swear words, interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot or foul language, or suck in any item that is not and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. garbage; it may cause the machine to break down.Teacher: Thanks, Michael. Lydia, tell us about your work. WRITINGLydia: This is a robot that looks just like a real human being. 12 The students must write a description (120 – I made one that looks just like me. 150 words) of a gadget or device they findTeacher: Why do you think its a useful device? useful for everyday life. They must includeLydia: Think of all the possible actions that this human sized information about its function and the reason robot can do! It can help you with your homework, do it is useful for them. It is important that they your chores, and even clean your house for you. combine their ideas with linking words they Besides, it looks very real. It is coated with paint, and have seen in the unit, such as: however, made out of old parts of toys, cars, and more! although, while. You can assign points according to these criteria:LANGUAGE 7 - 8 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph about the topic, using9 a. invented; b. thought; c. developed; d. worked; correct textual references and without e. had to grammar or spelling mistakes. 5 - 6 points: student can write a coherent10 a. Carla visited Argentina where she bought a lovely short paragraph about the topic, using a few leather bag. textual references and with a minimum of b. This is the museum where there is an Egyptian grammar or spelling mistakes. mummy. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent c. We visited the castle where Ann Boleyn was short paragraph about the topic, but he / she executed. makes no use of textual references and d. Those are the students who got the highest marks. makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. e. I didn’t like the film which you recommended. 1 - 2 points: student cant write a coherent short paragraph about the topic and he / sheSPEAKING makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.11 In pairs, the students exchange information about an imaginary invention. Make sure PAGE 103 they exchange information about its name, where they got the idea, the materials they used and why it is useful for life. FINAL REFLECTION You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points:student can ask and answer The purpose of this section is to allow students complete questions about the topic, with to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. correct pronunciation, no hesitations and Make sure all the students understand what they without grammar mistakes. are expected to do and give enough time to 5 - 6: student can ask and answer complete answer the questions. Encourage students to questions about the topic, with correct give honest answers and show interest in their pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations results. and grammar mistakes. For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, 3 - 4 points: student can exchange see page 6 of the Introduction. information about the topic with acceptable 93
  • 95. EXTRA TEST UNIT 3 READING - A NEW HYBRID ENGINE A NEW HYBRID ENGINE Gas is used first because methanol, an alcoholic to apply complicated scientific principles to Next week at the Inventors Showcase in San substance similar to ethanol, lacks the punch his project. Diego, Santana High School senior Josh Wesolowski plans to unveil an invention he hopes needed to heat the engine for full ignition. Wesolowski, 17, got the idea for hydrogen energy will hold an answer to the energy riddle. Wesolowski will demonstrate that process to the while he was in the sixth grade, when he learned judges at the Inventors Showcase. that magnesium could combust water. Constructed from an old lawn-mower engine, the “hybrid” engine runs on four different types of The project started more than a year ago as part Wesolowski said hydrogen fuel may provide U.S. fuel: gasoline, propane, methanol and hydrogen. of an effort by Santana High School to find motorists a means of alternative energy for their methods of producing hydrogen fuel. vehicles without having to eliminate the cars “I built this engine to simply prove that it’s not Jacob Bagnell, an automotive teacher who also they love. difficult to run any engine on many different fuels,” the inventor said. taught Wesolowski’s father and older brother, The public can start viewing the new invention at donated the lawn-mower motor for the 9 a.m., next Thursday. The Awards ceremony The machine is simplistic in appearance but machine. starts at 6 p.m., and admission is free. performs a unique function – alternating between four very different fuel sources with the He assisted Wesolowski in bringing his idea to life and said the young inventor worked hard By Declan Desmond / UNION-TRIBUNE flip of a switch, all while the motor is running. 1 Read the text and answer these questions. 5 pt. a. When and where does Josh Wesolowski plan to show his new invention? b. What did he use to make his machine? c. Why did he create his invention? d. What does the machine do? e. Who donated the material for the invention? 10 pts., 2 Read the text again. Choose the best alternative to finish each sentence. 2 pts. each a. Josh Wesolowski is i. one of the youngest students in his school. ii. one of the oldest students in his school. iii. an university student. b. The “hybrid” engine uses different types of fuel: i. gasoline, propane, methanol and hydrogen. ii. gasoline, methanol and hydrogen. iii. gasoline, propane, and hydrogen. c. Methanol is very similar to i. gasoline. ii. ethanol. iii. propane. d. The project started because the inventor i. was bored. ii. found an old lawn mower. iii. participated in a school project. e. The public who want to see the new invention i. have to pay a fee to enter the exhibition. ii. don’t need to pay to enter the exhibition. iii. have to wait for the awards ceremony to see the invention.94 UNIT 3
  • 96. TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS T ECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONSLISTENING - TWO NEW GAMES 3 Listen to the recording. Who said these sentences, Speaker 1 or Speaker 2? 5 pts. a. _______: A player catches the ball. b. _______: All you need is a ball. c. _______: The referee can also call timeouts. d. _______: They have one more game. e. _______: The teams rush to the ball. 10 pts., 4 Listen again and choose the correct alternative. 2 pts. each a. You start out with four / two people on the middle line. b. There are three / thirteen privates, four / fourteen Snipers. c. The game starts with two / four players in each team. d. The quarters are ten / fifteen minutes long. e. You have two / four timeouts in the game.LANGUAGE 5 Fill in the blanks in these sentences with the Simple Past form of the verb in brackets. 10 pts. a. Beth ________ (arrive) just before the film ________ (start) b. Geoff ________ (not find) his parents at the airport, so he ________ (get) very nervous. c. The jazz singer ________ (sing) an old blues song and ________ (play) a beautiful melody. d. Sophie ________ (get) a new job as a receptionist; she ________ (not like) to work as a teacher. e We ________ (go) down to the beach as soon as the rain ________ (stop).SPEAKING 6 Choose an everyday object and describe it to your partner but don’t name it. Tell 8 pts. him/her about its shape, its functions, its components, etc., so that your partner guesses what the object is. Then change roles.WRITING 7 Write a short description of an imaginary invention. Include information about its 8 pts. name, where you got the idea, the materials you used to make it and why it is useful for everyday life. 56 pts. TOTAL 0 - 13 14 - 28 29 - 43 44 - 56 Keep trying! Good! Very good! Excellent! 95
  • 97. LANGUAGE ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 3 5 a. arrived, started b. didn’t find, got c. sang, played d. got, didn’t like e. went, stopped. READING - A NEW HYBRID ENGINE SPEAKING 6 In pairs, the students exchange information about 1 a. Next week at the Inventors Showcase in an everyday object. Make sure they exchange all San Diego. the necessary information to guess what object it b. He used an old lawn-mower engine. is. You can assign points according to these c. To prove that it’s not difficult to run any criteria: engine on many different fuels. 7 - 8 points: student can ask and answer d. It performs a unique function – alternating complete questions about the topic, with correct between four very different fuel sources. pronunciation, no hesitations and without e. Jacob Bagnell donated the lawn-mower grammar mistakes. motor for the machine. 5 - 6: student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct 2 a. – ii.; b. – i.; c. – ii.; d. – iii.; e. – ii. pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes. LISTENING - TWO NEW GAMES 24 3 - 4 points: student can exchange information about the topic with acceptable pronunciation but 3 Speaker 1: a.; d., Speaker 2: b.; c.; e. hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student cant exchange information 4 a. two; b. three, four; c. four; d. ten; e. four about the topic, pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot TRANSCRIPT - TWO NEW GAMES 24 of grammar mistakes. Speaker 1: War Ball is a game that combines football with war. WRITING You start out with two people on the middle line, and 7 The students must write a description (120 - 150 then a player catches the ball and starts running. words) of an imaginary gadget or device. They There is a base instead of a touchdown zone, so when must include information about its name, its a player gets a touchdown they are actually winning a function and the reason its useful for them. It is war. All the other players hide behind objects on the important that they combine their ideas with field. The positions are General, Soldiers, Snipers and linking words they have seen in the unit, such as Privates. There are three Privates, four Snipers, five however, although, while. You can assign points Soldiers and one General. The player who gets to 40 according to these criteria: points in one hour or who has the most points wins! If 7 - 8 points:student can write a coherent description providing the required information, there is a tie, then they have one more game. And all using correct textual references and linking words, the darts are foam so they wont hurt if you get hit. and without grammar or spelling mistakes. Speaker 2: This sport is a mix of two very popular sports: football 5 - 6 points: student can write a coherent and soccer. All you need is a ball. The objective of the description providing the required information, game is to kick the ball into the goal. There are ten using a few textual references and linking words, people in a team. The game starts with four players in and with a minimum of grammar or spelling each team on each side, with the round ball in the mistakes. center of the field. The game starts and the teams rush 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent to the ball. The aim is to get the most goals by the end description providing some of the required of the 4th quarter. The quarters are ten minutes long. information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and linking words, and makes some You have four timeouts in the game. The timeouts are grammar and spelling mistakes. one and a half minutes long. The referee can also call 1 - 2 points: student cant write a coherent timeouts. description and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.96 UNIT 3
  • 98. UNIT SONGS - MUSIC AND WORDSIn this unit you will: · use the First and Second Conditional Didactic resources· read a piece of chat Speaking · Complementary material such as articles· read book reviews · ask people about imaginary situations magazines, Student Forum chats.· listen to a television program · request information using polite questions · Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher and· listen to a song Writing by the students to illustrate the diversity of teenageYou will learn how to: · write a book review cultures.Reading · write questions and answers in a chat room· distinguish general and specific information You will also: · Support material such as lists of adjectives,· discriminate between correct and incorrect · assess and appreciate the value of music and dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed information literature handouts, library material, etc.· identify type of text · develop respect for the role of music and literature Methodological suggestionsListening as a means of communication · Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand· infer mood of speakers Development considering that thorough prior preparation allows· relate speakers and speech · Lesson 1: four hours them to think of and apply some useful ideas. It is· discriminate sounds · Lesson 2: four hours their chance to make the class entertaining and toLanguage · Lesson 3: four hours· use would and could · Lesson 4: four hours involve students in the learning process.· use modal verbs must, have to, need to · Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours + · Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources· use the Passive Voice home assignments throughout the book.Types of Evaluation IndicatorsContinuous/informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Reflection spot Students analyze and evaluate their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Self - evaluation Unit Check Reading: Students identify and extract specific information. Unit evaluation Listening: Students identify the correct sequence of information and discriminate sounds. Language: Students use the Second Conditional Structure and the Present Passive Voice. Speaking: Students imitate an interview between a famous artist and a fan. Writing: Students write a book review. Final Reflection Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Extra Test Reading: Students find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use the Passive Voice and the Second Conditional. Writing: Students write a short paragraph describing their best friend. Speaking: Students imitate an interview and exchange information about routines, interests and favorite activities. 97
  • 99. PAGE 104 2 ++ GETTING READY Tell the students to work in pairs and copy and complete the chart in their notebooks. Invite some students to write the chart on 1 In their groups, the students write a list of all the board to check the activity. the words related to music and literature (L.A.: to relate topic and students’ previous they know in English. Ask them to copy and knowledge). complete the chart onto a piece of paper. Answers Possible Answers Name Country Year of birth Discipline Mahani Teave Chile 1983 Classical music - piano Music Literature Kudai Chile 2004 (band) Pop music - band music, song, melody, book, novel, writer, Ma. José Quintanilla Chile 1990 Mexican music – Singer lyrics, instruments, story, chapter, character, Miley Cirus USA 1992 Pop music – Singer singer, orchestra, protagonist, title, plays, Jonas Brothers USA 2005 (band) Pop music – band concert, CD, DVD, drama, plot, setting Gareth Johnson USA 1985 Classical music - violin MP3, musician, chorus Rihanna Barbados 1988 Pop music – Singer Aria Tesolin Canada 1994 Opera 2 Invite the groups to display their charts on the board to compare their list with other Background information groups and to share new words. Then, tell Riha nna them to look up the meanings of the words Robyn Rihanna Fenty (born February 20, they do not know in an English-English 1988), known as Rihanna, is a Barbadian dictionary and write a glossary related to the singer, model and fashion designer. She also topic of the unit in their notebooks. serves as the cultural ambassador for the island of Barbados.She is the first Barbadian artist to 3 Invite the students to imagine they are lost officially win a Grammy Award. Rihanna is on an island in the middle of the ocean. Tell currently signed to the Def Jam Recordings them to choose a book and a music album label. Five of her singles have been on the they would like to have. In their groups, the Billboard tops. students share their comments giving Rihanna broke into the industry in 2005 with the reasons for their choices. release of her debut album Music of the Sun, which features her hit single “Pon de Replay”. PAGE 106 Less than a year later, Rihanna released A Girl Like Me and earned her first number-one single, LESSON 1 “SOS”. In 2007, Rihanna released her third studio album, Good Girl Gone Bad. The album READING has yielded six hit singles, including three CHATTING WITH A YOUNG WINNER worldwide number one singles: “Umbrella”, “Donʼt Stop the Music”, and “Take a Bow”. Since BEFORE READING the release of her debut album, Rihanna has amassed twelve top 40 hit singles in the U.S. K uda i is a Latin Grammy Award-Nominated 1 + Chilean pop rock group founded in Santiago, Ask the students to look at the pictures on Chile. Its original members were Tomás Cañas page 106 and identify what the people have Manzi, Pablo Holman Concha, Nicole Natalino in common. and Bárbara Sepúlveda Labra. In 2006 Nicole (L.A.: to relate previous knowledge with the Natalino left the group citing personal reasons, topic of the lesson). and was replaced by Ecuadorian Gabriela Answers Villalba. The bandʼs name comes from the They are all singers and teenagers. Mapudungun word küdaw, meaning “work.”98 UNIT 4
  • 100. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDSThey released three albums in Latin America studied at the Cleveland Institute of Music,“Vuelo” in 2004, “Sobrevive” in 2006 and under the tutelage of Sergei Babayan.“Nadha” in 2008, this is the first album of the M a ría J ose Quint a nilla Sa ndova l wasband released in the United States. born on February, 17th, 1990 in Santiago, Chile. The group is hugely popular mostly among She lived with her family in Maipú. She beganteenagers in South America, the Caribbean, singing when she was a little girl, and sheCentral America, and Mexico, and has sold admires Mexican music.around 1 million records worldwide. Ga re t h J ohnson: Having heard the famed They are well-known for hit songs, such as Itzhak Perlman, Johnson at the age of ten“Sin Despertar”, “Ya Nada Queda”, “Escapar”, declared, “I can play that instrument!”  His“Déjame Gritar”, “Llévame”, “Tal Vez”, and most passion and persistence to master the violin hasrecently, “Lejos De Aquí”. allowed him to become one of the most talented M ile y Ra y Cyrus (born Destiny Hope Cyrus African American violinists of his time.on November 23, 1992) is an American actress As a winner of the Sphinx Competition, aand Golden Globe-nominated singer-songwriter. competition designed to reveal the talents ofCyrus is better known for starring as Miley African and Hispanic Americans, he has helpedStewart / Hannah Montana in the television students throughout America understand that withseries Hannah Montana on the Disney Channel. hard work, commitment and focus, they too can Cyrus became a sensation after Hannah achieve their dreams. During his presentationsMontana debuted in March 2006. Following the most students are astonished at the fact that insuccess of the show, in October 2006, a addition to his talents as a classical violinist, he issoundtrack CD was released in which she sang a devoted composer, arranger and performer ofeight songs from the show. As of December New Age styles of music.2007, she worked on a movie spin-off of Aria T e solin: She was born in Canada, inHannah Montana, titled “ Hannah Montana: The 1994. At age 3, inspired by the music in DisneyMovie” which was released in April, 2009. and other childrenʼs movies and later at 4, by Cyrusʼs solo music career began with the the movie musical “Evita”, Aria began singingrelease of her debut album, “Meet Miley Cyrus” complex melodies untypical for her age.on June 23, 2007. Her second album, At age 6 she discovered a love for opera music“Breakout” was released on July 22, 2008. from hearing tenor Andrea Bocelli. Attending her“Breakout” is Cyrusʼs first album that does not first live opera “Carmen” at 7, she announced thatinvolve the Hannah Montana franchise. Both she would some day sing the role of Carmen.albums debuted at #1 on the Billboard 200. One day she suddenly burst into an energetic ʻLa In 2008, Cyrus was listed among artists and Donna e Mobileʼ. She named one of her rabbitsentertainers as one of Time magazineʼs 100 Puccini after her favorite composer.Most Influential People in The World. Aria began studying opera at 7 with Gofreddo The Jonas Brothers are an AMA-winning, Ricci, from Rome, Italy, coach trainer for operaGrammy-nominated American boy band. The singers from the Canadian Opera Company &band gained their popularity from the childrenʼs Mississauga Opera Company. After his death intelevision network, Disney Channel. Hailing from 2003 she began studying with Professor MaratWyckoff, New Jersey, the band consists of three Maxutov, an exceptional vocal trainer frombrothers: Kevin Jonas, Joe Jonas, and Nick Russia, who has excellent knowledge of voiceJonas. They starred in a spin off of “High School physiology for young people. Aria is of NorthernMusical” called “Camp Rock”. They have released Italian descent, fluent in French and English, singsthree albums: “Itʼs About Time” (2006), “Jonas in 5 languages and lives in Canada.Brothers” (2007), and “A Little Bit Longer” (2008). The young artist released her debut album Baby M a ha ni T e a ve is unique for being the only Soprano at age 12, with a challenging and solidclassical musician from her native Easter Island 14-track opera repertoire and was probably the(Chile). Ms. Teave is a winner of numerous youngest opera singer in the world at the time.international piano competitions and is one of To date she has sung popular opera arias inthe most sought after pianists in Chile. She several concerts featured with “Canadaʼs 3 99
  • 101. Tenors - Andrea Garofalo, Peter Marino, Mitch Seekins & Charles DiRaimondo, arranged by Mr. READING Rino Ianone. Aria opened Canada Day Please note that this text is from a British celebrations for the City of Toronto in both 2003 & website. For this reason some words use 2005 singing for up to 20,000 people and in 2007 the British instead of the American spelling. for 44,000 at the Toronto Blue Jays Baseball American English British English game. organize organise For more information on Background practice practice (noun) information, see page 7 of the Introduction. (verb and noun) practise (verb) 6 + 3 +++ The students read the text quickly and Ask students to have a look at the name of check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. this lesson and at the picture of the girl in the (L.A.: to validate predictions). text on page 108 of their book. Elicit their ideas about why they think the girl is a young Answers winner. Tell them to choose an alternative, 3. c; 4. music, idol, inspiration, project, musician, favorite but do not check their predictions at this stage. 7 ++ (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to make Ask the students to read Sarah’s answers predictions). again and find the correct location for each question (a. – g.). PAGE 107 (L.A.: to locate missing information). 4 Explain to the students that award winning Answers Sarah Bennett answers questions from the a. – I; b. – IV; c. – II; d. VII; e. – V; f. – III; g. – VI public on an Internet web site. Ask them to select the cognates they expect to find in 8 +++ the text from the words in the boxes. Invite the students to read the text again (L.A.: to predict content from cognates). and decide if the statements a. – e. are true Optional exercise or false. As an additional exercise, you can Once the students have selected the cognates ask the students to identify the incorrect information in the false statements and then they expect to find in the text, ask them to give correct them in their notebooks. examples of sentences using the cognates. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information). 5 Before reading the text, tell the students to Answers read the words in the Key Word Spot and a. True; b. False (She says it’s difficult); c. False. look up their meanings in a dictionary. (Songwriting is the only thing in her life she can (L.A.: to develop study skills). organise); d. True; e. True. Answers chords: two or more notes played together. 9 +++ lyric: the words of a song. The students read the text once more and vessel: a tube that carries blood through the then answer questions a. – d. in their body. notebooks. Motivate them to write complete venue: a place where people meet for an sentences and check orally. organized event. (L.A.: to extract specific information). jigsaw puzzle: a picture printed on cardboard or wood, that has been cut up into a lot of small pieces that you have to fit together again.100 UNIT 4
  • 102. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS Possible answers Answ ers:a. 6,500 people went to see Sarah at Exeter. Indirect questions are more polite, longerb. They are free events where people can sing. forms of normal questions. Indirect questionsc. Sarah would like to play at the Albert Hall one day. are formed of tw o parts: a polite expression,d. In the future, Sarah would like to work in a project like Could you tell me, What do you like Live Aid. think, and a question which has no subject / verb inversion or does not use an auxiliary, like a direct question.PAGE 109 4. Once they have completed the rule, the students go back to the text and copy all theAFTER READING questions in their notebooks. Then, they turn the direct questions into indirect ones, and the10 ++ indirect questions into direct ones. Answ ers: In their groups, the students talk about the a. How hard is it to write a song? text they read. Tell them to think of three b. Could you tell me what you think of first – more questions to ask Sarah in the chat and the music or the lyrics? invite some students to share their questions c. What should I do? with their classmates. As an optional activity, d. Can you tell me what your dream project is? you can ask the students to take notes of e. Could you tell me where you get the the questions. If possible, as homework, inspiration for your lyrics? encourage students to visit the web-site: f. Who are your music idols? http://www.bbc.co.uk/blast/music/people/sarah_ g. Can you tell me who your favorite musician is? bennett.shtml and find the answers. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction. LANGUAGE SPOTIndirect questions ERROR ALERT Indirect questions do not use the auxiliary verb do inRemind students that this section is designed tohelp them revise or discover a particular the main question. For example:grammar structure or any interesting item of - When does the next train arrive? - Direct questionvocabulary related to the text. - Do you know when the next train arrives? - IndirectAlways keep in mind that the activities are meant to questionpromote independent learning, so help, guide and - Do you know when does the next train arrive? - Incorrectcheck, but do not tell them the answers. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of1. The students read the questions from the text. the Introduction.2. They analyze and compare questions a. – c. with questions d. - g. Guide them to identify Additional exercise the answers to questions i. – v. Transform these direct questions into indirect Answ ers: questions, using a polite expression. i. – a., b., c..g.; ii. – d., e., f.; iii. – indirect a.What is your name? questions are more polite; iv. – they are shorter than indirect questions; v. – they are b.Why do you want this job? longer than direct questions. c.How much do you earn? d.How soon can you start?3. The students copy and complete the general e.When did you see the advertisement? rule in their notebooks. f. Where do you live? g.Which newspaper did you see the advertisement in? h.Who gave you my name? 101
  • 103. PAGE 110 a. Could you tell me what your name is? b. Can you tell me why you want this job? 13 ++ c. Would you mind telling me how much you earn? The students use their questions from d. Can you tell me how soon you can start? Exercise 10 and transform them into polite e. Could you tell me when you saw the advertisement? questions. Ask them to write the sentences f. Can I ask you where you live? in their notebooks. Invite some students to g. Can I ask you which newspaper you saw the write them on the board to allow the rest to advertisement in? check the activity. h. Could you tell me who gave you my name? (L.A.: to use a new language structure). 11 ++ 25 Reflection Spot Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT The purpose of this activity is to help and tell them to put the words in order to students reflect on their learning process make polite questions. Then, ask them to and to raise students’ awareness of how write also the corresponding direct they develop their own learning strategies to questions. Play the recording to allow become more effective learners. They students to check their answers should work on their own but you may help (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). and guide the work when necessary. Answers The students read the statements and See transcript assess: • their ability to make polite questions. • their ability to use polite questions in a TRANSCRIPT – ORAL PRACTICE 25 conversation. For more information on the Reflection Spot, a. I wonder if you could give me some information. see page 6 of the Introduction. Could you give me some information? b. What time is it? Could you tell me what time it is? 14 +++ c. Do you know where I can buy a map? In pairs, the students use the polite Where can I buy a map? expressions in the bubbles to write a short d. I’d like to know where I can change some money. interview using indirect questions. (L.A.: to apply a language structure to a Where can I change some money? communicative situation). e. Can you tell me where I can find a pharmacy? Where can I find a pharmacy? Answers Will vary. 12 +++ 25 The students listen to the recording again 15 +++ and practice saying the questions. Then, in Encourage the students to role-play the pairs, they take turns to say a direct interview they wrote. You can supply question and the corresponding indirect copies of the Oral Presentation Rubric question. (page - of this bak) and ask the rest to (L.A.: to imitate a model of pronunciation). evaluate their classmates’ performance. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation).102 UNIT 4
  • 104. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS PAGE 111 LET’S CHECK REAL LIFE SPOT16 The purpose of this section is to allow This section is intended to allow students to make students to check their progress and to connections between the topic of the lesson and provide information to the teacher about any real life, and at the same time provide additional points that the majority of the students have information that may be useful for them. problems with. Make sure they understand Make sure you give enough time for them to read what they are expected to do and give them and then elicit their comments. enough time to answer individually. Then, For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, check on the board to allow students to see page 6 of the Introduction. correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. @ The students must use the polite @@ CLICK ON expressions in the box to transform Motivate students to visit the web-site indicated questions a. – e. into indirect questions. at the bottom of page 111 to find more Answers information on the topic of the REAL LIFE SPOT.Any of the expressions + For more information on CLICK ON, see pagea. …when the next train arrives? 12 of the Introduction.b. …what time the museum closes?c. …how hard it is to be an artist? PAGE 112d. …when you wrote your first story? LESSON 2e. … if we can hear your latest song? LISTENING17 +++ FL NEW STARS You can assign this activity to fast learners as homework for whole class. Invite your students to think about a famous young BEFORE LISTENING artist they would like to chat with. In their Draw the students’ attention to the pictures. Elicit notebooks, ask them to write a short piece students’ ideas about what they see in them. of chat like the one in the text, with the questions they would like to ask and the 1 + artist’s answers. Explain to the students that these are all names (L.A.: to exchange information in a chat of radio or TV programs (according to their room). location in one of the pictures) and they are all Answers related to music. Students work in pairs and write a list of radio and TV programs related to musicWill vary. that they know. The share it with other pairs. Invite some students to write their lists on the18 + board. If you assigned Exercise 17 as homework, (L.A.: to relate previous knowledge to the next class encourage the students to show topic of the lesson). their work to their classmates. Organize a Answers general conversation about the importance of being capable to exchange information on Will vary, according to students’ own lists. the Internet, and the usefulness of English as a general means of communication. (L.A.: to relate content to students’ own reality). 103
  • 105. 2 ++ 5 ++ 26 Read the name of the lesson aloud and Tell the students to listen and identify where brainstorm students’ ideas about what they the text was taken from. think it is. Write the ideas on the board but (L.A.: to identify the origin of a text). do not correct at this stage. Answers (L.A.: to predict content from titles). c. 3 +++ Ask the students to read the words in the 6 ++ 26 Key Word Spot and then identify their The students listen to the recording again, meanings in the list (a. – e.). You may also this time with the objective of identifying tell the students to predict or guess the each speaker’s job in the academy. Draw meanings and then check their answers students’ attention to the personal with a dictionary. introduction of each speaker. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). (L.A.: to relate speakers and speech). Answers Answers audience: c.; coach: b.; contestant: a.; fit: e.; pretend: d. a. – iii.; b. – i.; c. – ii. Reflection Spot 7 ++ 26 Ask the students to listen to the recording The purpose of this activity is to help students again and choose the correct alternative. reflect on their learning process and to raise (L.A.: to discriminate sounds and words). students’ awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more Answers effective learners. They should work on their a. sing; b. leave; c. great; d. cool; e. feeling own but you can help and guide the work when necessary. ERROR ALERT The students read the statements and assess: Pay special attention to the different pronunciation of • their ability to apply study skills. these sounds: • their ability to infer the meaning of new words. th / o / and s /s/ For more information on the Reflection Spot, For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of see page 6 of the Introduction. the Introduction. PAGE 113 Additional exercise a. Read and repeat these pairs of words. LISTENING thick - sick think - sink mouth - mouse path - pass 4 + 26 Ask the students to listen to the recording b. Think of more examples and complete the chart. and check their predictions in Exercise 2. / o/ /s/ Remind your students that they don’t need thick sick to understand every single word. This first think sink time they should concentrate on general mouth mouse meaning, just to check or correct their path pass predictions. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers a.104 UNIT 4
  • 106. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS Possible Answers TRANSCRIPT - NEW STARS 26 / o/ /s/ Spencer: Hello, everybody. I’m Spencer, the Director. I’d like thunder say to welcome you and wish you success. You will thief set thanks sing spend three months with us, at the New Stars thought so music academy. Here, you will learn to sing and thin some compose, and each week you will perform one of through sum your own songs on a TV show. The audience will math mass vote for them by phone. If you get the lowest number of votes you will leave the program. You must obey our rules and attend all your classes.PAGE 114 Our coaches are great and they will teach you to develop your talents. Any questions for them?8 +++ 26 Girl: Can you tell me how you will make stars of us? Tell the students to copy the sentences Savannah: I’m Savannah, your voice coach. You have to know into their notebooks. As they listen, they that everyone here can sing, but not everyone can must write the name of the speaker in the provided spaces. An optional exercise sing like a star. My job here is to help you to find would be to invite the students to read your special voice, but you need to work hard. If each sentence carefully, predict the you do that, you will stay with us till the end. speakers and then check with the Boy: I’d like to know how you get the music to fit the lyrics. recording. You may guide the students to Adam: Hi, my name’s Adam and I’m your songwriting predict correctly, according to the content coach. Songwriting is cool, but not everyone has of each sentence. (Example: the director is to be a composer. You don’t need to be a poet; the the person who is in charge of talking important thing is to fit the words to the music. about the rules and general information; Most of our contestants do it, and they say that the voice coach talks about singing; the performing their own songs is a great feeling. songwriting coach talks about lyrics and Director: Any more questions? Anyone? composing) (L.A.: to relate speakers and speech). Answersa. Adam; b. Spencer; c. Adam; d. Savannah; AFTER LISTENINGe. Spencer; f. Savannah. 10 ++9 +++ 26 In their groups, the students answer the Ask the students to listen to the recording questions and then share answers with once more to match the answers (i. – iv.) another group. Encourage the use of and the questions (a. – d.). Again, you can English as much as possible, as for the change the order of the activity, majority of the students these are the only encouraging the students to predict their occasions in which they can practice. answers and then check with the Remember not to interrupt to correct them recording. while they are speaking. It’s better to talk (L.A.: to identify specific information). about the most important general mistakes at the end of the activity or the class. Invite Answers some groups to report their answers to thea. – iii.; b. – i.; c. – iv.; d. – ii. rest of the class. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). 105
  • 107. PAGE 115 Additional exercise Use must, have to, mustnʼt or not have to in the LANGUAGE SPOT following sentences. a. Jack __________ (go) home early today. He Need to, don’t need to, must has got homework. Remind students that this section is designed to b. Children __________ (play) with cleaning help them revise or discover a particular liquids. grammar structure or an interesting item of c. We __________ (go) now. It’s already vocabulary related to the text. midnight! Always keep in mind that the activities are d. Peter __________ (arrive) to work at 8:00 meant to promote independent learning, so help, every day. guide and check, but do not tell them the e. You __________ (do) the cleaning today. I’ve answers. already done it. 1. Ask the students to read the sentences from f. We __________ (hurry). We’re on time. the text. 2. Help them discover what the sentences express and ask them to relate this to the 11 +++ verbs used. Encourage your students to write Answ e rs: sentences in their notebooks using the a . obligation; b. obligation; c . necessity; d. verbs in the LANGUAGE SPOT and the no necessity clues in the box as shown in the example. 3. The students copy and complete the general Invite some of them to write their rule in their notebooks. sentences on the board to allow the rest to We use m ust to express an obligation, and check the exercise. ne e d t o / donʼt ne e d t o to express a (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). ne c e ssit y / no ne c e ssit y. Answers 4. Motivate the students to recall the Will vary. Accept all coherent sentences. conversation they listened to. Ask them to write three more sentences using the verbs in the LANGUAGE SPOT. Possible a nsw e rs: LET’S CHECK The audience must vote by phone. You donʼt need to know how to sing and compose. 12 The purpose of this section is to allow If you get the lowest number of votes you students to check their progress and to must leave the program. provide information to the teacher about You donʼt need to sing like a star. any points that the majority of the students For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, have problems with. Make sure they see page 6 of the Introduction. understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer ERROR ALERT individually. Then, check on the board to As stated in the NOTE of the Language Spot: allow students to correct their work and have to = must assign a mark according to the scale. don’t have to = don’t need to. Ask the students to complete the sentences with facts that are true for them. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of For more information on LETS CHECK, see the Introduction. page 6 of the Introduction.106 UNIT 4
  • 108. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS Possible Answers PAGE 117a. I’ve got to go now. I must arrive home early.b. You have got a lot of games. You don’t need to buy GAME SPOT more. Games are highly motivating since they arec. He is a very rich man. He doesn’t need to work. amusing and at the same time challenging for thed. My mother doesn’t feel well. She needs to rest. / She students. They employ language in real contexts must call the doctor. and they also encourage and increase cooperation.e. I’ve got a message for you. You must call Susan. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into thePAGE 116 classroom, and enhance students’ use of English in a flexible, communicative way.13 ++ 27 Remember that games are used not only for mere In pairs, the students complete the dialogue fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and using the clues in the boxes. Then, play the review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and recording and ask them to check their write will be more vividly experienced and, answers. therefore, better remembered. (L.A.: to exchange information). Read the instructions aloud and motivate the Answers students to apply the Truth Questionnaire to two of their classmates.See transcript. For more information on the GAME SPOT, seeTRANSCRIPT – ORAL PRACTICE 27 page 7 of the Introduction. AnswersA: Hi! Can I ask you a few questions? I’m new here, you see.B: Sure! What do you need to know? Will vary.A: Well, I’d like to know how long we’re going to stay here.B: We’ll stay here for six weeks, and then we’ll learn to sing and 15 +++ FL compose. You can assign this activity to fast learners or for homework for the whole class. WithA: How about the rules? the information they collected whenB: We must obey their rules and attend all the classes. applying the questionnaire, the studentsA: Tell me about our coaches. must write two short paragraphs aboutB: They are great! They help us to develop our talents, but we their classmates’ answers. need to work hard. Invite the students to read the paragraphs they wrote to a classmate. You may also14 +++ 27 supply copies of the Writing Rubric and ask the students to assess their partner’s work. The students listen to the recording again. (L.A.: to write a short report). Then, they practice and role-play the dialogue with a partner in front of the class. (L.A.: to imitate a model of pronunciation REAL LIFE SPOT and intonation). The objective of this section is to provide a bit of humor to the class. Anyway, all the jokes and cartoons are related to the topic of the lesson. Give some minutes to allow students read and then invite them to share their comments to make sure they understood the joke. At this point, you may allow the use of Spanish to check comprehension. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. 107
  • 109. PAGE 118 - “Kingdom of the Golden Dragon”, (young adult novel) Spain 2003. LESSON 3 - “Forest of the Pygmies”, (young adult novel) 2005. READING - “Zorro”, (novel) Spain 2005. WE WANT YOU TO READ! - “Inés of My Soul”, (novel) Spain 2006. - “The Sum of Our Days”, (novel) Spain 2007. BEFORE READING Albe rt o Fugue t : Alberto Fuguet was born in Santiago, Chile, but he lived in Encino, 1 + California until he was 13. He is a graduate of the Universidad de Chileʼs School of Journalism. Draw students’ attention to the people in In 1999 Time called Fuguet one of the 50 most the pictures. Elicit their ideas about what important Latin Americans for the next these people have in common. Make them millennium. In 2003, he was featured on the relate the title of the lesson to the pictures cover of the international edition of Newsweek and ask them to predict the general topic magazine to represent a new generation of of the lesson. Latino writers. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to predict Fuguet currently heads the program in topic). Contemporary Audiovisual Culture at the Answers Universidad Alberto Hurtadoʼs School of Journalism The people in the pictures are all famous writers. in Santiago. He also writes for the newspaper El The general topic of the lesson is literature. Mercurio and is at work on two new projects: the film “Perdidos” and the book “Missing”. Fuguetʼs work is characterized by a United Background information States / Chilean hybridity, with constant cross- I sa be l Alle nde : Chilean writer; she was references to the popular cultures of the two born on August 2nd, 1942. She worked as a nations. In 1996 he co-edited (with Sergio journalist in Chile from 1964 to 1974, and in Gómez) the anthology McOndo, whose title Venezuela from 1975 to 1984. combined McDonalds with Macondo, the As an author she has published articles in fictional town created by Gabriel García newspapers and magazines in America and Márquez. McOndo represented popular culture Europe, has made lecture tours in America and while largely rejecting the use of magical realism Europe colleges and taught literature at the in contemporary Latin American fiction. University of Virginia, Charlottesville , Montclair Fuguetʼs other books are the short story College, New Jersey and University of collections “Sobredosis” and “Cortos”; the California, Berkeley. novels “Mala onda”, “Por favor, Rebobinar”, Her most important novels are: “Tinta roja” and “Las películas de mi vida”; and - “The House of the Spirits”, (novel) Spain 1982. the non-fiction collection “Primera parte”. “Mala - “Of Love and Shadows”, (novel) Spain 1984. onda”, which narrates a week in the life of a - “Eva Lunaʼ”, (novel) Spain 1985. Santiago teenager in 1980, has received wide - “Stories of Eva Luna”, (short stories) Spain 1989. acclaim. “Tinta roja” has been made into a film. - “The Infinite Plan”, (novel) Spain 1991. “Las películas de mi vida” is a semi- - “Paula”, (novel) Spain 1994. autobiographical novel about a Chilean - “Aphrodite” (recipes, stories and other seismologist who grew up in California and later aphrodisiacs) Spain 1997. returned to Chile. Its protagonist recounts his life - “Daughter of Fortune”, (novel) Spain 1999. with references to movies he has watched. - “Portrait in Sepia”, (novel) Spain 2000. Some of Fuguetʼs work, including “Mala onda” - “The City of the Beasts” (young adult novel) and “Las películas de mi vida”, have been Spain 2002. translated into English and published in the - “My Invented Country”, (novel) Spain 2003. United States.108 UNIT 4
  • 110. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS 2007 saw the release of “Road Story”, a M a rc e la Pa z (February 28, 1902 - June 12,graphic novel illustrated by Gonzalo Martínez 1985) was the pen name of Esther Huneeusbased on one of the stories in “Cortos”. Salas de Claro, a Chilean writer. She also used Gabriel García Márquez was born on March the pen names of Paula de la Sierra, Lukim6, 1927 in the town of Aracataca, Colombia. In Retse, P. Neka and Juanita Godoy.January 1929, his parents moved to Baranquilla Paz was born in Santiago, Chile, the secondwhile García Marquez stayed in Aracataca. He child of a wealthy family. She studied at home.was raised by his maternal grandparents. When In 1926 she traveled to Paris to study arts andhe was eight, his grandfather died, and he moved returned to Chile at the age of 24, when sheto his parentsʼ home in Barranquilla where his started her literary work. She wrote forfather owned a pharmacy. magazines like El Peneca, Ecran, Zig-Zag, Eva Since García Márquezʼs parents were more or and Margarita, and newspapers like La Nación,less strangers to him for the first few years of El Mercurio and La Tercera. In 1933 shehis life, his grandparents influenced his early published her first book, “Tiempo, papel y lápiz”.development very strongly. His grandfather was The same year she married José Luis Claro.an excellent storyteller. He taught García In 1947 Paz created her most famousMárquez lessons from the dictionary, took him character, Papelucho. Between 1964 y 1967,to the circus each year, and was the first to she directed the Asociación Internacional delintroduce his grandson to ice—a “miracle” found Libro Juvenil (IBBY).at the United Fruit Company store. García In 1968 she received the Hans ChristianMárquezʼs political and ideological views were Andersen Award. In 1979 she received the goldshaped by his grandfatherʼs stories. García medal from the Instituto Cultural de Providencia.Márquezʼs grandmother played an equally In 1982, she received the Premio Nacional deinfluential role in his upbringing. The house was Literatura de Chile.filled with stories of ghosts and premonitions, J oa nne Row ling: (born 31 July 1965), whoomens and portents, all of which were writes under the pen name J . K . Row ling, is astudiously ignored by her husband. According to British author, best known as the creator of theGarcía Márquez she was “the source of the Harry Potter fantasy series, the idea for whichmagical, superstitious and supernatural view of was conceived whilst on a train trip fromreality”. It was a style that, some thirty years Manchester to London in 1990. The Potter bookslater, heavily influenced her grandsonʼs most have gained worldwide attention, won multiplepopular novel, “One Hundred Years of Solitude”. awards, and sold more than 400 million copies. In 1940, García Márquez left his family, which She has become a notable philanthropist,had moved a year earlier to Sucre, in order to supporting such charities as Comic Relief, Onebegin his secondary school education at the Parent Families and the Multiple SclerosisJesuit boarding school of San José in Society of Great Britain.Barranquilla. At San José, he first published his J .R.R.T olk ie n: John Ronald Reuel Tolkienwords in the school magazine Juventud. was born on 3 January 1892, in Bloemfontein in After graduation in 1947, he started law school the Orange Free State (now Free Stateat the National University of Colombia in Province, part of South Africa). As a child,Bogotá. Although his passion was now writing, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider (ahe continued in law school to please his father. type of tarantula) in the garden, an event whichBy 1950, he gave up the idea of becoming a would have later echoes in his stories.lawyer to focus on journalism. He moved back When he was three, Tolkien went to Englandto Barranquilla to write for the newspaper, El with his mother and brother on what wasHeraldo. Although García Márquez never intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father,finished university, Columbia University in New however, died in South Africa of rheumatic feverYork awarded him an honorary doctorate of before he could join them. His mother tutoredletters in 1971. her two sons, and Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil. She taught him a 109
  • 111. great deal of botany, and awakened in her son Genre Name the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Comic Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and Detective trees, but his favorite lessons were those History concerning languages, and his mother taught Horror him the rudiments of Latin very early. He could Manual read by the age of four, and could write fluently Play soon afterwards. His mother allowed him to read Romance many books. He disliked “Treasure Island” and Science Fiction “The Pied Piper”, and thought “Aliceʼs Thriller Adventures in Wonderland” by Lewis Carroll Other was amusing but disturbing. You may need some background Tolkien attended King Edwardʼs School, information to help your students identify the Birmingham and St. Philipʼs School. characteristics of each genre. He lived in the shadow of Perrottʼs Folly and the Victorian tower of Edgbaston Waterworks, Background information which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works. De t e c t ive Detective fiction has become almost For more information on Background synonymous with mystery. These stories relate information, see page 7 of the Introduction. the solving of a crime, usually one or more murders, by a protagonist who may or may not 2 ++ be a professional investigator. This large, popular genre has many subgenres, reflecting Ask the students to look at the pictures of differences in tone, character, and it always the book covers and then match them with contains criminal and detective settings. their names. ʻH orror (L.A.: to relate topic and previous Horror fiction aims to evoke some combination knowledge). of fear, fascination, and revulsion in its readers. Answers This genre, like others, continues to develop, a. A Hundred Years of Solitude (1) recently moving away from stories with a b. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (4) religious or supernatural basis to ones making c. Kingdom of the Golden Dragon ( 2) use of medical or psychological ideologies. d. Papelucho and the Alien (6) Sc ie nc e fic t ion e. The Lord of the Rings (3) Science fiction is defined more by setting f. The Movies of my Life (5) details than by other story elements. Science fiction by definition includes extrapolated or 3 ++ theoretical future science and technology as a major component, and is often set on other In pairs, the students make a list of the most planets, in outer space, or on a future version of interesting books they have ever read. Tell Earth. Within these setting details, however, the them to say the genre of the books. conventions of almost any other genre may be Optionally, you can ask the students to used, including comedy, action-adventure and draw and complete a chart in their mystery. A sub-genre of science fiction is notebooks with the name of a book they alternate history where, for some specific can remember for each category. reason, the history of the novel deviates from (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). the history of our world. Both alternate history and science fiction are often referred to alongside fantasy fiction, magical realism and some horror fiction under the umbrella term speculative fiction.110 UNIT 4
  • 112. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS Rom a nc e T ra gic om e dy: A play such as Romance is currently the largest and best- Shakespeareʼs A Winterʼs Tale that mixesselling fiction genre in North America. It has elements of tragedy and comedy.produced a wide array of subgenres, the majority One -a c t pla y: A play consisting of a singleof which feature the mutual attraction and love of act, without intermission and running usuallya man and a woman as the main plot, and have less than an hour. Edward Albeeʼs Zoo Story isa happy ending. This genre, much like fantasy a well-known example.fiction, is broad enough in definition that it is T hrille reasily and commonly seen combined with other The genre “Action Thriller” is, on its surface, agenres, such as comedy, fantasy fiction, realistic mixture of action and thriller content. Tofiction, or action-adventure. understand what this genreʼs name actually Pla y means, however, we must analyze its A story meant to be performed in a theater components.before an audience. Most plays are written in It features a down-to-earth plot, and itdialogue form and are divided into several frequently plays into peopleʼs fears (e.g. the filma c t s. Many include stage directions and “Alien” is a thriller.). However, thriller has ainstructions for sets and costumes. greater tendency toward digression than action. Com e dy: A lighthearted play characterized by H ist oryhumor and a happy ending. It is the study of the past, with special attention Fa rc e : A form of high-energy comedy that to the written record of the activities of humanplays on confusions and deceptions between beings over time. Scholars who write aboutcharacters and features a convoluted and fast- history are called historians. It is a field ofpaced plot. Farce often incorporates buffoonery, research which uses a narrative to examine andslapstick, and stock characters to provoke analyze the sequence of events, and it oftenuproarious laughter. Molière was a master of attempts to investigate objectively the patternsfarce with such plays as The Imaginary Invalid. of cause and effect that determine events. M ira c le pla y: A play from the Middle Ages Ot he r na rra t ive form sfeaturing saints or miraculous appearances by • Electronic literature is a literary genrethe Virgin Mary. consisting of works which originate in digital M ora lit y pla y: A play written in the fifteenth environments.or sixteenth centuries that presents an • Films, videos and broadcast soap operasa lle gory of the Christian struggle for salvation. have carved out a niche which often parallels M yst e ry pla y: A short play based on a the functionality of prose fiction.biblical story. Mystery plays, popular in the • Graphic novels and comic books presentMiddle Ages, often were presented in c yc le s, stories told in a combination of sequentialin which dozens of plays were performed at artwork, dialogue and text.different locations throughout a city and For more information on Backgroundcollectively presented the most significant information, see page 7 of the Introduction.moments in the Bible. N oh dra m a : A ritualized form of Japanese PAGE 119drama that evolved in the 1300s involvingmasks and slow, stylized movement. Proble m pla y: A play that confronts a 4 ++contemporary social problem with the intent of Invite the students to have a quick look atchanging public opinion on the matter. Henrik the texts and guess what kind of text theyIbsen popularized this form in plays such as are. Write students’ ideas on the board butHedda Gabler. do not correct at this stage. T ra ge dy: A serious play that ends unhappily (L.A.: to identify of text).for the protagonist. Sophoclesʼ Antigone is oneof the best-known Greek tragedies. 111
  • 113. 5 +++ 8 ++ Tell the students to write a list of cognates Now, the students read the texts again to find they expect to find in a text related to books. the answer to questions a. – f. Encourage Brainstorm students’ ideas, write a tentative them to write the questions and the answers list on the board, but do not correct yet. in their notebooks and check orally. (L.A.: to use cognates to predict content). (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers 6 +++ a. Charmain’s father is a baker. Invite the students to read the words in the b. Charmain discovers that she is not a very nice person. KEY WORD SPOT and find them in the c. Marley is a Labrador (dog). text. Then, tell them to choose the correct d. Marley’s master’s is called John Grogan. meaning according to the context in which e. Johnny Trott works at a hotel in London. they are used. f. Kaspar’s owner is Countess Kandinsky. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers a. – i.; b. – ii.; c. – i.; d. – ii.; e. – i. PAGE 121 9 +++ Reflection Spot Tell the students to copy the sentences into Make sure you assign enough time of your their notebooks. Then, ask them to read the class to allow students to reflect on their texts carefully again and write the name of achievements and weaknesses. They read the book that corresponds. the statements and assess: (L.A.: to identify specific information). • their ability to use their previous Answers knowledge to understand the topic of the a. Kaspar, Prince of Cats; b. Marley: A Dog Like No lesson. Other; c. Kaspar; d. Kaspar; e. House of Many Ways. • their ability to relate their own experience to the topic. For more information on the Reflection Spot, 10 +++ see page 6 of the Introduction. If necessary, the students read the texts again to find the name of the review section for each definition. Before doing this activity, you may recall students’ knowledge of READING literature to make sure they understand the concepts. 7 + (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Tell the students to read the texts quickly to Answers check their predictions in Exercises 4 and 5. a. character; b. highlights; c. protagonist; d. author; To check students predictions in Exercise 5 e. plot. refer to the words written on the board. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 4. – a. 5.: author, characters, role, family, magic, discovers, person, idea, Labrador, story, based, specially, adapted, original, connect, really, interesting, adventures, magnificent, events, protagonist, illustrations.112 UNIT 4
  • 114. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS PAGE 12211 ++ Invite your students to copy and complete LANGUAGE SPOT the fact file into their notebooks with information from the reviews. Copy the chart Passive Voice – Present Tense on the board and ask some students to Remind students that this section is designed to complete it, to allow the rest to check. help them revise or discover a particular (L.A.: to extract specific information). grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Answers Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to Name of Book Author Characters promote independent learning, so help, guide and House of Diana Wynne Chairman check, but do not tell them the answers. Many Ways Jones 1. The students revise the sentences from the Marley: A Dog John Grogan Marley, John, text. Like No Other Jenny 2. Tell the students to answer questions a. – c. Kaspar, Michael Johnny Trott, Answ ers: Prince of Cats Morpurgo Countess a. a. a story; b. a dog; c. a name. Kandinsky, b. at the beginning of the sentences. LizzieBeth c. that the subject does not perform the action. It receives the effect of it. 3. In their notebooks, the students copy andAFTER READING complete the general rule. Answ ers:12 +++ We use the Passive Voice when we want to draw the attention to the person/thing that In groups, the students compare their lists received the effect of the action, more than to from Exercise 3 and exchange information the person who executed the action. about their preferences in literature. Choose The Present Simple Passive is formed with the some students to report their answers to present tense of the verb to be their classmates. You can also organize a + the participle of a main verb. short survey to discover your students’ For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, favorite book, genre and author (to relate see page 6 of the Introduction. content of the text on their own reality).13 +++ ERROR ALERT The Passive Voice is generally used when the subject of the The first part of this activity can be assigned sentence is indefinite, general, or unimportant. In the as homework. Ask the students to think of a sentence: They mine coal in Pennsylvania, the subject book they have recently read and write a is so indefinite that it is not clear what is meant by they. It review for it like those in the reading texts. might mean the miners, the people, or the companies. Next class, organize a group game. Tell the These sentences are improved by putting the verb in the student to read the reviews in their groups Passive Voice (Coal is mined in Pennsylvania). without saying the name of the books, and The Passive Voice is also used when what is done is see if their classmates can guess the more important than the doer of the action. The Passive names. Voice is generally used when you want to emphasize the (L.A.: to write a short review). receiver rather than the doer. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. 113
  • 115. Additional exercise pairs to say the quotations aloud, to provide Write these sentences in the Passive Voice. Add a model to their classmates. by… where necessary. (L.A.: to imitate a model of intonation and a. Children open the door all the time. pronunciation). b. We set the table every night. 28 TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE c. People pay a lot of money in taxes. d. People wear white shoes in summer. a. A kind word is never wasted. e. They donʼt help you. b. Everyday is a gift, thats why it is called the present. f. They open the book at the beginning of the class. c. Gods laughter is heard when birds sing. g. You do not write the letter. h. They build houses for poor people. d. Opportunity is always dressed in "work clothes". i. Does the police officer catch thieves? e. People are known by the company they keep. 14 ++ 17 +++ FL Refer the students to the LANGUAGE SPOT. Tell them to order the words to form Tell fast learners analyze the sayings in sentences in the Passive Voice. Exercise 15 and answer the questions. Additionally, you may ask your students to Additionally, you can ask the students to write three more examples of the structure find similar expressions in Spanish, and in their notebooks and then invite some write both of them on the board and in their students to read them aloud. notebooks. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). (L.A.: to exchange opinions). Answers Answers a. This title is designed to advertise the new website. a. They are all expressed in the Passive Voice. b. Those books are printed on recycled paper. b. Will vary. c. Our website is visited by thousands of people. c. Will vary. d. Dime con quién andas y te diré quién eres. 15 ++ 28 LET’S CHECK Motivate the students to match the first part of the sentences (a. - e.) with the second part (i. - v.) to form famous sayings. Then, play 18 The purpose of this section is to allow the recording and ask the students to check students to check their progress and to their answers. If necessary, invite some provide information to the teacher about any students to write the sayings on the board to points that the majority of the students have be sure they all check their answers. problems with. Make sure they understand (L.A.: to use a new language structure). what they are expected to do and give them Answers enough time to answer individually. Then, a. – v.; b. – i.; c. – iii.; d. – ii.; e. – iv. check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. PAGE 123 The students complete the sentences with the Simple Present Passive of the verbs in 16 +++ 28 brackets. For more information on LETS CHECK, see Play the recording again. Tell the students page 6 of the Introduction. to listen and imitate the way the sayings are delivered. Then, ask the students to work in Answers pairs taking turns to say the beginnings and a. are written; b. are drawn; c. is used; the endings of each saying. Invite some d. are sold; e. are bought114 UNIT 4
  • 116. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS Background information REAL LIFE SPOT Eric Patrick Clapton (born 30 March 1945) is an English blues-rock guitarist, singer, songwriterThis section is intended to allow students to make and composer. He is probably most famous forconnections between the topic of the lesson and his mastery of the Stratocaster guitar. Claptonreal life, and at the same time provide additional has entered the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as ainformation that may be useful for them. member of The Yardbirds, of Cream, and as aMake sure you give enough time for them to read solo performer. Often viewed by critics and fansand then elicit their comments. alike as one of the greatest guitarists of all time,For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, Clapton was ranked fourth in Rolling Stonesee page 6 of the Introduction. magazineʼs list of the “100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time” and #53 on their list of the Immortals: PAGE 124 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. LESSON 4 Although Clapton has varied his musical style throughout his career, it has always remained grounded in the Blues. Yet, in spite of this focus, LISTENING he is credited as an innovator in a wide variety of WOULD YOU KNOW MY NAME? genres. These include blues-rock (with John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers and The Yardbirds)BEFORE LISTENING and psychedelic rock (with Cream). Additionally, Claptonʼs chart success was not limited to the 1 ++ Blues, with chart-toppers in Delta blues (Me and Motivate the students to work in pairs, solve Mr. Johnson), pop (“Change the World”) and the crossword and find out how much they reggae (Bob Marleyʼs “I Shot the Sheriff”). One of know about music. When they have finished, his most successful recordings was the hit love elicit their ideas about the relationship song “Layla,” which he played with the band between the name of the lesson and the topic. Derek and the Dominos. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). For more information on Background information see page 7 of the Introduction. Answers Across: 2. (rhythm), 3. (music), 6. (solo) Down: 1. (lyrics), 3. (musician), 4. (chorus), 5. (song) 4 ++ Explain to the students that they are going 2 + to listen to a recording related to this singer. Motivate them to predict what kind of text it Ask the students to copy and complete the is. Do not correct at this stage. chart in their notebooks with the names of (L.A.: to make predictions from the context). bands and singers they know according to the kind of music they interpret. Then, invite 5 ++ them to compare their work with other groups. Before listening, ask the students to look up (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). the words in the Key Word Spot in a Answers dictionary. Will vary. (L.A.: to develop study skills). Answers PAGE 125 beg: to ask for something, especially in an anxious way. belong: to be in the right or suitable place. 3 +++ bend: to move an arm or a leg, so that it is no longer Draw students’ attention to the man in the straight. photo. Ask them to answer the questions in heaven: the place believed to be the home of God where pairs. good people go when they die. (L.A.: to infer information from visuals). knee: the joint between the top and bottom parts of the leg. 115
  • 117. TRANSCRIPT - WOULD YOU KNOW MY 29 LISTENING NAME? (ERIC CLAPTON, SUNG BY RODRIGO GONZÁLEZ) 6 + 29 Would you know my name if I saw you in heaven? Ask the students to listen to the recording Would it be the same if I saw you in heaven? and check their prediction in Exercise 4. I must be strong and carry on (L.A.: to validate predictions). ‘Cause I know I don’t belong here in heaven. Answers Would you hold my hand if I saw you in heaven? a. Would you help me stand if I saw you in heaven? I’ll find my way through night and day 7 ++ 29 ‘Cause I know I just can’t stay here in heaven. Time can bring you down, time can bend your knees; Ask the students to listen again and choose Time can break your heart, have you begging, please, the best answer for each question. Explain Begging, please. to them that more than paying attention to Beyond the door there’s peace, for sure, specific words or sounds, they should And I know there’ll be no more tears in heaven. concentrate on the general atmosphere of Would you know my name if I saw you in heaven? the song, so that they can identify its mood and objective. Would it be the same if I saw you in heaven? (L.A.: to infer mood of speaker). I must be strong and carry on ‘Cause I know I don’t belong here in heaven. Answers a. iii; b. ii. AFTER LISTENING 8 ++ 29 Read the words in the boxes aloud with the 10 +++ students. Tell them that for this activity they The students form groups of four, answer have to listen carefully to identify which of questions a. – c. and talk about the song they the words are mentioned. Play the recording have listened to. Invite them to share their once or twice. answers with the rest of their classmates. (L.A.: to discriminate sounds and words). (L.A.: to exchange opinions). Answers Answers day, hand, heart, know, name, stay, strong, time, a. The situation that the song describes is a father asking tears, way a question to his son who is dead and in heaven. b. It is an imaginary situation: the father and the son together in heaven. PAGE 126 c. A father is singing to his son. 9 +++ 29 Background information Tell the students to copy the sentences into Tears in Heaven” is a ballad written by Eric their notebooks. Then, play the recording Clapton and Will Jennings about the pain Clapton again and ask them to complete them. felt following the 1991 death of his four-year-old (L.A. to extract specific information). son, Conor, who fell from a 53rd-story window in his Answers motherʼs friendʼs New York City condominium. By all accounts, the death was simply a tragic accident, a. know, heaven; b. help, heaven; c. find, d. time, heart; and Clapton was distraught for months afterwards. e. know, tears. This song is one of Claptonʼs most successful, reaching #2 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart in the U.S. The song also spent three weeks at #1 on the American adult contemporary chart in 1992. Clapton wrote the song with Will Jennings, who116 UNIT 4
  • 118. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDSwas reluctant at first to help him with such a PAGE 127personal song. Clapton stopped playing it in 2004, as well as the 11 ++song “My Fatherʼs Eyes”. “I didnʼt feel the loss anymore, which is so much a Ask the students to read each situationpart of performing those songs. I really have to carefully, and then use the Secondconnect with the feelings that were there when I Conditional to express them as in the givenwrote them. Theyʼre kind of gone and I really donʼt example. Help them to recognize which iswant them to come back, particularly. My life is the condition and which is the result in eachdifferent now. They probably just need a rest and situation, so that they can apply themaybe Iʼll introduce them for a much more structure correctly. Explain to them that thedetached point of view.” order of the clauses is not important. For more information on Background information, (L.A.: to use a new language structure).see page 7 of the Introduction. Answers LANGUAGE SPOT a. Tom would go to the concert if he had money for the ticket. Hypothetical situations b. If I understood Math, I would help my sister. Remind students that this section is designed to c. If we spoke Chinese, we would talk to the new student. help them revise or discover a particular d. If I was / were 18, I would drive my father’s car. grammar structure or any interesting item of e. If she didn’t live abroad, my grandmother would vocabulary related to the text. visit us. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. ERROR ALERT 1. The students read the sentences from the The Second Conditional (also called Conditional song and other examples. type 2) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future. 2. Help them find the answers to questions a. and b. Answ ers: The Second Conditional is used to talk about things a. two ; b. iii. which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future — things which don’t or won’t happen: 3. Ask the students to copy and complete the Additional exercise rule in their notebooks. When we talk about situations that are only Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences. hypothetical, and their results, we use a verb Identify which of them are hypothetical situations and why. tense called the Second Conditional. a. If I was less busy i. I’ll give him your phone It consists of If + Simple Past tense in the number. condition+ w ould + base form of a verb in the b. If I stay late at work ii. I’d meet you for lunch. result. c. I will get bored iii. I’ll take a taxi. We use if to introduce the condition and d. We’ll be home by six iv. I’ll finish the project. w ould with the result. e. If I see Jack v. I could buy a nice jacket. 4. The students go back to Unit 2, Lesson 3, f. If I were you vi. if the train’s on time. page 57, and compare the First and the g. If I saved $5,000 vii. if I go to that party. Second Conditional. a month Answ ers: h. If it’s raining in the viii. I’d get a new job. a. They both contain two clauses in a sentence; In both, If is used to introduce the condition. morning b. The First Conditional refers to possible Answers: future situations. The Second Conditional a. – ii.; b. – iv.; c. – vii.; d. – vi.; e. – i.; f. – viii.; refers to hypothetical situations, which are not g. – v.; h. – iii. very likely to happen. Both structures use different tenses in their clauses. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. 117
  • 119. PAGE 128 12 ++ 30 Motivate the students to copy and complete 15 +++ FL the dialogue in their notebooks. Read all the With the information from the chart, tell keener questions aloud and guide them to discover students to write a paragraph about one of the what kind of situations they are (they are all interviews they did. Explain to them that they hypothetical). Then, play the recording and can follow the pattern provided. You can tell the students to compare their answers. assign this activity in class or assign it for (L.A.: to use a language structure in a homework for the whole class. communicative situation). (L.A.: to write a short report). Answers Answers See transcript. Will vary. TRANSCRIPT – ORAL PRACTICE 30 16 ++ Andy: If you could choose a place, where would you be now? Invite the students to share their reports in Beth: I would be on a tropical island. their groups Andy: If you could go to that island, how would you get there? (L.A.: to give an oral report). Beth: I would travel by plane. Andy: If you could go with someone, who would you invite? GAME SPOT Beth: I would invite my best friend to go with me. Games are highly motivating since they are Andy: If you could take only one thing with you, what would amusing and at the same time challenging for the you take? students. They employ language in real contexts Beth: I would take my favorite book. and they also encourage and increase cooperation. Andy: If you could decide, how long would you stay there? Beth: I would stay at least a month! They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the 13 +++ 30 classroom, and enhance students’ use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Play the recording again. The students listen and practice the dialogue answering with Remember that games are used not only for mere their own ideas. Encourage them to role-play fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice the conversation in front of the class. You and review of language lessons. Thus, the can assign a prize or an extra mark to the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly best presentations. experienced and, therefore, better remembered. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation). Ask the students to form groups of four or five and 14 +++ then ask and answer questions about the imaginary situations in the pictures. Invite a group Motivate the students to use the structure to play in front of the class to provide a model for they have learnt in an everyday situation. their classmates. Tell them to copy the chart on page 127 into their notebooks. Then, ask them to interview For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction. three students using the questions in Exercise 12 and complete the chart with the information they collect. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers Will vary.118 UNIT 4
  • 120. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS @ Reflection Spot @@ CLICK ON Make sure you assign enough time of your If possible, encourage your students to visit the class to allow students to reflect on their web site suggested at the bottom of page 129 achievements and weaknesses. They read and play the game about the lives and the statements and assess: relationships of four teenagers. • their ability to apply a new structure to an For more information on CLICK ON, see page everyday situation. 12 of the Introduction. • their ability to play games with their classmates. PAGE 130 For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction. YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION LET’S CHECK This section provides additional exercises that 17 The purpose of this section is to allow represent a good opportunity for students to students to check their progress and to consolidate topics and language structures of the provide information to the teacher about any lessons. You can assign these activities at the points that the majority of the students have end of each lesson, or as homework and give problems with. Make sure they understand them an extra mark. what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, 1 In pairs, the students agree on a very check on the board to allow students to famous singer / composer they would like to correct their work and assign themselves a chat with and write a set of questions. Then, mark according to the scale. they collect information from magazines and The students read the sentences and choose newspapers to find the answers to their the correct alternative. Remind them to pay questions. As a final stage, they practice special attention to the verb tenses, so that and act out the interview in front of their they can recognize the hypothetical situations. classmates. For more information on LETS CHECK, see Answers page 6 of the Introduction. Will vary. Answers a. will; b. were; c. isn’t: d. will; e. were; f. will; g. knew; 2 Tell the students that they must imagine h. refuses; i. wouldn’t; j. can. they are participating at the New Stars TV show. From there, they have to write an e- PAGE 129 mail to a friend or to their parents describing their experiences at the academy. Explain to them that they must include information REAL LIFE SPOT about duties, activities, the coaches and anyThis section is intended to allow students to make other interesting points they may want toconnections between the topic of the lesson and write about.the real life, and at the same time provide Answersadditional information that may be useful for them. Will vary.Make sure you give enough time for them to readand then elicit their comments.For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT,see page 6 of the Introduction. 119
  • 121. PAGE 131 PAGE 132 3 The students must copy and complete the UNIT CHECK chart about famous books in their notebooks. Name Author Characters Explain to the students that the purpose of this Harry Potter and J.K. Rowling Harry Potter, section is to help them revise contents and the Goblet of Fire Hermione, Prof. evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Dumbledore Read the instructions and make sure all the Sandokan, the Emilio Salgari Sandokan students understand what they are expected to Tiger of Malaysia do in each activity. Encourage them to give Romeo and Juliet William Romeo and Juliet honest answers in order to detect their strengths Shakespeare and weaknesses. 20,000 Leagues J. Verne Captain Nemo Check students’ results and revise any points under the Sea that the majority of them had problems with. The Lord of J.R.R. Tolkien Lebolas, For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page the Rings 6 of the Introduction. Papelucho Marcela Paz Papelucho Little Women Louise May Alcott Jo, Beth, May, Laurie PAGE 133 Narnia Chronicles C.S. Lewis Lion, wizard Answers The Iliad Homero Achilles, Hector Sinbad the sailor unknown Sinbad READING - SPOT LIGHT ON BEVERLEY The Call of the Wild Jack London Buck, John KNIGHT Thornton Oliver Twist Charles Dickens Oliver 1 a. She is a singer and a composer. The Hound of A.C. Doyle Charles b. She started singing when she was a teenager. the Baskervilles Baskerville, c. She takes her inspiration from events that happen Dr. Mortimer to her. Adventures of Mark Twain Huck Finn, Tom d. No, she doesn’t. Huckleberry Finn e. She thinks Alicia Keys is a great artist. 2 a. British; b. two very important awards; 4 The students make a word map for music in c. once a day. their notebooks. Encourage them to use not only words from this unit but to add as 3 a. the church; b. best artist, best album; c. birthday many words as they know about the topic. You can also ask the students to draw their party for a local radio station; d. Nirvana, Coldplay; e. word maps on a piece of cardboard, add drama club, dance classes. some illustrations and display them in a visible place in the classroom. LISTENING - CHANGE 31 Possible Answers Professions: musician, violinist, pianist, guitarist, 4 a. die; b. change; c. fall; d. get; e. losses composer, singer, orchestra director. Instruments: piano, violin, guitar, flute, triangle, saxophone, 5 d.; c.; b.; a.; e. oboe, tuba, drums, trumpet, cello trombone, bass. Styles: pop, classic, opera, rock and roll, heavy metal, blues, jazz, mariachi, folk, grunge, twist, disco, electronic, 6 a. face / heart, b. love rap, reggaeton, reggae, salsa, cumbia, mambo, tango. Famous songs: will vary. People: will vary.120 UNIT 4
  • 122. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS S ONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS 3 - 4 points: student can exchangeTRANSCRIPT - CHANGE (TRACY CHAPMAN 31 information about the topic with acceptableSUNG BY MINERVA CARRIZO) pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes.If you knew that you would die today, 1 - 2 points: student cant exchangeSaw the face of God and love, information about the topic, pronunciationWould you change? Would you change? interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes.If you knew that love can break your heartWhen you’re down so low you cannot fall WRITINGWould you change? Would you change? 10 The students choose a book they haveHow bad, how good does it need to get? recently read and write a review of it.How many losses? How much regret? Explain to them they must includeWhat chain reaction would cause an effect? information about the author, the mainMakes you turn around, characters, the plot and any other importantMakes you try to explain, information they consider of interast. You can assign points according to theseMakes you forgive and forget, criteria:Makes you change? Makes you change? 7 - 8 points: student can write a coherent review, including the required information,If you knew that you would be alone, using correct textual references and withoutKnowing right, being wrong, grammar or spelling mistakes.Would you change? Would you change? 5 - 6 points: student can write a coherent review, including most of the required PAGE 134 information, using a few textual references and with a minimum of grammar or spellingLANGUAGE mistakes. 7 a. – ii.; b. – i.; c. – v.; d. – iii.; e. – iv. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent review, including some of the required8 a. The Eiffel Tower is situated in France. information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and makes some b. The Harry Potter series is written by J.K. Rowling. grammar and spelling mistakes. c. 32 pieces are used in a game of chess. 1 - 2 points: student cant write a coherent d. Cold milk is served with tea in England. review, does not include the required information, and he / she makes a lot ofSPEAKING spelling and grammar mistakes.9 In pairs, the students role-play and interview PAGE 135 between a fan and a famous artist. Make sure they use direct and indirect questions as well as the First and Second Conditional. FINAL REFLECTION You can assign points according to these criteria: 8 - 10 points: student can ask and answer The purpose of this section is to allow students to complete questions about the topic, with reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. Make correct pronunciation, no hesitations and sure all the students understand what they are without grammar mistakes. expected to do and give enough time to answer 5 - 7 points: student can ask and answer the questions. Encourage students to give complete questions about the topic, with honest answers and show interest in their results. correct pronunciation, and a minimum of For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, hesitations and grammar mistakes. see page 6 of the Introduction. 121
  • 123. EXTRA TEST UNIT 4 READING - A BOOK REVIEW THE FAMOUS FIVE’S SURVIVAL GUIDE Plot And it’s left for you to actually solve the mystery Author Time for another adventure with lots of ginger yourself by following the clues included in the book. It’s written by the Famous Five - who were beer and plenty of fantastic scrapes! Highlights created by famous author Enid Blyton, back in the A mysterious reporter turns up at Uncle Quentin’s Using the decoder to reveal the real message in a 1940s! house asking about a shipwreck that happened years long-lost letter is really cool, plus George’s escape Publication date ago - and in which a precious jewel had been lost. from capture is VERY dramatic. Out now Of course, this sparks a huge adventure for the And, as the book is written in the style of the Characters Famous Five - with secret rooms, spooky towers, Famous Five, it’s quite funny! The Famous Five are back! This time we catch up a train drama and dangerous camping. Any weak bits? with a mystery back in 1959, with a lost treasure Great guides Sometimes you can’t decide whether to skip to - the Royal Dragon of Siam. This book is written through diary extracts from the the next bit of the story to find out what is There’s Julian, who’s very sensible, Dick, who likes four kids, plus their drawings, photos and graphics happening or read the guides - but this is a good gadgets and huge bits of chocolate cake, Anne, of clues that they find on their exciting adventure. thing really! who prefers preparing picnics to getting dirty and And as well as the story, the book includes useful This is a great book for boys and girls. If you read George, short for Georgina, who’s always getting advice on topics such as code breaking, using a the story, the adventure advice will be something into scrapes. compass, building an escape raft, first aid, you can dip into again and again. And of course, don’t forget Timmy the dog, who’s got a brilliant knack for helping the kids find vital clues. camping, and much more. 1 Read the text and complete the fact file. 5 pt. Name Author Date of publication Time setting Characters 2 Read the text again. Are these statements true or false? 5 pts. a. The plot is about finding a treasure. b. George is a boy who is always getting into trouble. c. The Famous Five are five kids. d. The story gives the reader clues to solve the mystery. e. The book includes two different kinds of texts. 3 Read the text once more. Answer these questions. 5 pts. a. What’s the name of the lost treasure? b. How was the treasure lost? c. Why is the dog important? d. What is the most dramatic moment of the story? e. Who is the story written for?122 UNIT 4
  • 124. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS S ONGS - MUSI C AND WORDSLISTENING - DISCUSSING THE RULES 4 Listen to the recording. Choose the correct alternative for each sentence. 5 pts. a. I wouldnʼt / couldnʼt get to the meeting. b. We’ll stay here for three months / weeks. c. Each week we will perform one of our own songs on a radio / TV show. d. If you get the highest / lowest number of votes… e. Performing my own songs will be a great feeling / filling. 5 Listen to the recording again. Number the questions in the order you hear them. 6 pts. a. Are there any rules? d. What else would you like to know? b. Can I ask you a few questions? e. What happens if we cant sing like stars? c. Can you explain that, please? f. What would you like to know? 6 Listen to the recording once more. Complete each sentence with one word. 4 pts. a. I’m _______________ here. c. Our _______________ are great! b. We must obey all the rules and d. Everyone here can ____________. attend all the ____________.LANGUAGE 7 Transform these direct questions into indirect questions. Use different openings. 4 pts. a. Where do you live? c. What time does the bus arrive? b. Where can I find a pharmacy? d. Who is your favorite artist? 8 Write these sentences in the Passive Voice. 4 pts. a. Meteorologists make the weather forecast every day. b. Many people use Facebook as a tool of communication. c. People buy a lot of things through the Internet nowadays. d. We print our books on recycled paper. 9 Complete these sentences using the Second Conditional. 8 pts. a. People __________ (buy) our books if they ____________ (be)cheaper. b. If the computer ___________ (crash) again, we ___________ (call) an engineer. c. If I ___________ (not like) my teacher, I __________ (leave) this course. d. If paper _____________ (be) cheaper, we __________ (print) more catalogues.SPEAKING10 With your partner, take turns to exchange information about what you would do in two 10 pts. imaginary situations. You can choose from these suggestions or use four own ideas. • see a ghost • meet your favorite music star • travel to spaceWRITING11 Imagine you are a famous music / TV star and you are chatting with a fan. Write the 10 pts. answers to these questions. a. When and where did you start singing / acting? b. How difficult is it to write a song / act in a play, movie, etc.? 66 pts. c. Who are your idols? TOTAL d. What is your dream project? 0 - 20 21 - 37 38 - 54 55 - 66 Keep trying! Good! Very good! Excellent! 123
  • 125. TRANSCRIPT - DISUSSING THE RULES 32 ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 4 A: Hi! Can I ask you a few questions? I’m new here, and I couldn’t get to the meeting with the Director on time, you see. READING - A BOOK REVIEW B: What would you like to know? A: I’d like to know how long we’re going to stay here. 1 B: We’ll stay here for three months, more or less, if you don’t Name The Famous Five’s have to leave earlier. Survival Guide A: Can you explain that, please? Author Enid Blyton B: Well, you know we are here to learn to sing and compose Date of publication Out now and each week we will perform one of our own songs on a Time setting 1959 TV show. The audience will vote for them by phone. If you Characters Julian, Dick, Ann, get the lowest number of votes you will leave the program. Georgina, Timmy A: Are there any rules? B: We must obey all the rules and attend all the classes. A: I wonder how they will make music stars of us. 2 a. True; b. False; c. False; d. True; e. True B: Let me tell you, our coaches are great! They will help us to develop our talents, but we need to work hard. They promised we will work together. We have to do that to stay till the end. 3 a. The Royal Dragon of Siam; b. In a A: What happens if we can’t sing like stars? shipwreck; c. Because it helps the kids to B: I think everyone here can sing, and their job is just to help find vital clues; d. George’s escape from capture; e. It’s written for boys and girls. us find our special voice. A: For me, the most difficult thing is to get the music to fit the lyrics. LISTENING - DISCUSSING THE RULES 32 B: Eddie, our songwriting coach, said that we don’t need to be poets. The important thing is to fit the words to the music, 4 a. couldn’t; b. months; c. TV; and that most of the participants can do that. What else d. lowest; e. feeling. would you like to know? A: Oh, that’s all, thanks! I’m sure that even if I stay here for only 5 b.; f; c.; a.; e.; d. a week, performing my own songs will be a great feeling. 6 a. new; b. classes; c. coaches; d. sing.124 UNIT 4
  • 126. SONGS - MUSI C AND WORDS S ONGS - MUSI C AND WORDSLANGUAGE WRITING 7 Possible answers: 11 The students imagine they are famous a. Can you tell me where you live? artists chatting with fans on their website, b.Can you tell me where I can find a answering their questions. Encourage them pharmacy? to provide complete answers to the fans c. Do you know what time the bus arrives? questions. d.Would you mind telling me who your You can assign points according to these favorite artist is? criteria. 9 - 10 points: student can write coherent answers, including the required information,8 a. Weather forecasts are made by using correct textual references and without meteorologists every day. grammar or spelling mistakes. b. Facebook is used as a tool of 6 - 8 points: student can write coherent communication. answers, including most of the required c. Nowadays, a lot of things are bought information, using a few textual references through the Internet. and with a minimum of grammar or spelling d. Our books are printed on recycled paper. mistakes. 3 - 5 points: student can write coherent answers, including some of the required9 a. would buy, were; b. crashed, would call; information, but he / she makes no use of c. didn’t like, would leave; d. were, would textual references and makes some print. grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student cant write coherentSPEAKING answers, does not include the required information, and he / she makes a lot of10 In pairs, the students exchange information spelling and grammar mistakes. about two imaginary situations. Make sure they take turns to ask and answer questions and that they use the Second Conditional correctly. You can assign points according to these criteria: 8 - 10 points: student can ask and answer questions about the situation, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. 5 - 7: student can ask and answer questions about the situation, with correct pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can ask and answer some questions about the situation with acceptable pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student cant ask and answer questions about the situation, pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. 125
  • 127. UNIT HOW ABOUT WORKING? In this unit you will: Speaking Didactic resources · read a leaflet · ask people about preferences · Complementary material such as articles · read a letter of application · participate in a telephone conversation magazines, Student Forum chats. · listen to an advertisement Writing · Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher · listen to telephone conversations · write a letter of application and by the students to illustrate the diversity of You will learn how to: Reading · write a leaflet promoting an organization teenage cultures. · locate missing information in a text You will also: · Support material such as lists of adjectives, · discriminate between correct and incorrect · assess and appreciate the role of volunteer dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed information organizations around the world handouts, library material, etc. · distinguish facts and inferences · value the importance of voluntary work for Methodological suggestions Listening people in need · Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand · discriminate between correct and incorrect Development considering that thorough prior preparation information · Lesson 1: four hours allows them to think of and apply some useful · relate speakers and speech · Lesson 2: four hours ideas. It is their chance to make the class · extract specific information from a recording Language · Lesson 3: four hours entertaining and to involve students in the · use Modal Verbs to express necessity · Lesson 4: four hours learning process. · use Modal Verbs to express preferences · Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours · Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources · use polite phrases in a telephone conversation + home assignments throughout the book. Types of evaluation Indicators Continuous / informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Reflection spot Students analyze and evaluate their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Self - evaluation Unit Check Reading: Students identify general information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Unit evaluation Listening: Students identify specific information, relate speakers to their speeches and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use modal verbs to give advice and recommendations. Speaking: Students imitate a telephone conversation to apply for a job. Writing: Students write a letter applying for a volunteer organization. Final Reflection Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Extra Test Reading: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information and between facts and inferences. Listening: students identify the correct sequence of information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use Modal verbs to refer to future situations and to express necessity, obligation and impossibility. Writing: Students write a leaflet promoting a volunteer organization. Speaking: Students role-play a telephone conversation.126 UNIT 5
  • 128. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG?PAGE 136 Background information U nit e d Pla ne t It builds houses for Chileʼs poorest families; GETTING READY teaches English to students; provides daycare for homeless children and becomes role model;1 Invite the students to look at the pictures and supports the sick in a local hospital. then answer the questions. Encourage them All La ngua ge s Abroa d to speculate what information they can It offers the chance to volunteer in selected extract from the visuals. locations around the world helping the local Answers community. These volunteer programs are not just fun and interesting but very rewarding anda. Young people working. meaningful for the local people.b. They are all young. M ondo Cha lle ngec. They are working as volunteers for international V olunt e e r T e a c hing organizations. It works mainly in three rural schools, welcoming pupils aged from 4 to 14 in the villages of Monte2 Ask the students to choose the phrases in Grande, Paihuano and Pisco Elqui. Volunteers the box that they think can be related to help raise the level of English in the comuna, as voluntary work. Organize a general well as teaching sports to the children. conversation about the fields to which each V olunt a rios de la Espe ra nza (V E) phrase can be applied. Elicit examples and Volunteer work in Chile to pursue the mission write some on the board. of combating poverty and child abuse. Answers Volunteers in Santiago work daily in orphanages, community centers and schools,another perspective; a helping hand; community organizing larger scale projects in education,support; great opportunity; rewarding experience; sports, and fundraising throughout Santiago.understanding local cultures; working teams. Former volunteers continue their service through a global network currently functioning in North America, South America, and Europe.3 In pairs, the students complete the chart WorldT e a c h with information on volunteer organizations It offers opportunities for volunteers to make a in Chile. Invite some of students to complete meaningful contribution to education by living the chart on the board. and teaching in developing countries. Answers Cult ura l Em bra c e It provides an outstanding opportunity toWill vary. volunteer in Latin America by choosing to join one of its volunteer projects. It offers projects in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. Projects include working at orphanages, wildlife conservation, construction work, and many more. Globa l V ision I nt e rna t iona l After a comprehensive training period, activities include exploration and trekking on the Ice Caps of the Argentinean Andes, lake traversing by kayak, surveying the Andean Condor, recording mammal species and assisting local rangers and scientists in the field. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction. 127
  • 129. PAGE 138 5 ++ LESSON 1 Once they have written the list of cognates, invite the students to read the words in the READING Key Word Spot and match them with their BREAKING FRONTIERS synonyms. Allow the use of dictionaries if necessary. Additionally, you can ask the students to give you examples in which BEFORE READING these words are used in a text about jobs. (L.A.: to develop study skills). 1 + Answers The students answer the questions in groups. Encourage them to start a abroad - a.; support - b.; insurance - c.; conversation about the pros / cons of developing - d.; placement - e. working during vacations. Listen attentively to their answers and ask them to reach a general agreement. READING (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers 6 + Will vary. The students read the text quickly and check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions). 2 ++ Answers In pairs, the students make a list of characteristics they think a teen job has. 3. a. Brainstorm ideas and get different students 4. unique, international, organization, volunteers, organize, to write them on the board. programs, particular, emphasis, education, community, (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). opportunity, important, local, Latin America, included, experience, cultures, different, gain, cost, family, Possible Answers medical, constant, period, information, interests. temporary; part time; not qualified; not very well paid; flexible. 7 ++ Tell the students to read the text again. 3 ++ Ask them to fill the blanks with a word Ask the students to have a look at the text from the boxes. they are going to read and say what kind of (L.A.: to locate missing information). text it is. Do not check answers at this stage. (L.A.: to predict kind of text from visuals). Answers a. support; b. opportunity; c. contribution; 4 +++ d. locations; e. projects; f. communities; g. contribute; In their notebooks, the students write a list h. host; i. airfare; j. pocket; k. application; l. volunteer of cognates they expect to find in a text about jobs. Make sure the students do not PAGE 140 read the text yet. (L.A.: to predict content from cognates). 8 +++ Ask the students to read the text carefully again and decide if the statements are true or false. Then ask your students to correct the false statements in their notebooks. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information).128 UNIT 5
  • 130. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? Answers LANGUAGE SPOT a. False (It works with volunteers).; b. True; c. False (It offers two kinds of programs: short term and Obligation and necessity long term); d. True; e. False (They must be between 17 Remind students that this section is designed to and 24); f. False (Volunteers need to speak English); help them revise or discover a particular g. True; h. True; i. False (Volunteers must send letters and grammar structure or an interesting item of forms); j. False (Volunteers must apply at least six months vocabulary related to the text. in advance). Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers.AFTER READING 1. The students read the sentences from the text. Draw their attention to the words in bold.9 +++ 2. With information they can infer from the In their groups, the students talk about the sentences, the students answer the questions. text they have just read. Invite them to Answ ers: answer the questions and then share their a. a.; b.; d.; e., b. c., c. must, have to, need to reflections with another group. Invite some 3. In their notebooks, the students copy and groups to report their answers to their complete the general rule. classmates. We can express obligation and necessity (L.A.: to relate topic and own reality). by using certain verbs. We use need to to express necessity. Answers We can use must or have to to express Will vary, according to students’ opinions. obligation. 4. Once they have completed the rule, the students go back to the reading text and rewrite the Reflection Spot instructions in the How to apply section using the verbs they have studied in the LANGUAGE The purpose of this activity is to help SPOT. students reflect on their learning process Answ ers: and to raise students’ awareness of how • You must fill out an application form. they develop their own learning strategies to • You have to write an accompanying letter. become more effective learners. They • You need to give information about your should work on their own but you can help skills, abilities, and interests. • You need to say why you think you would be and guide the work when necessary. a successful volunteer. The students read the statements and assess: • You have to apply at least six months in • their ability to relate the topic to their own advance of the date you want to volunteer. reality. • You must mail your letter and completed form to... • their ability to give and support their opinions. For more information on the Reflection Spot, For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. see page 6 of the Introduction. 129
  • 131. PAGE 141 A: Do I need to speak English? B: Yes, it’s absolutely necessary. 10 ++ A: Oh! How exciting! I think I’m going to work this summer. Tell the students they must choose one of B: I’m sorry, you can’t. You should apply at least three months the verbs in the LANGUAGE SPOT to before the date you want to start. complete the sentences in their notebooks. Then, they must identify what each sentence expresses. PAGE 142 (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers 13 +++ 33 a. need to (necessity); b. must (obligation; it’s a law); Play the recording again. Ask the students c. need to (necessity); d. need to (necessity); to listen and practice the dialogue with their e. must (obligation, it’s a law) partners. Encourage them to role-play it in front of their classmates. 11 ++ (L.A.: to role-play a communicative Ask the students to match the sentences in situation). column A with the replies in column B, and then write the complete exchanges in their 14 ++ notebooks. Invite some students to write Explain to your students that the form on them on the board. page 142 is the Amigos de las Americas (L.A.: to use a new language structure). application form. Ask them to copy it into Answers their notebooks and then fill it in with their personal information. Check answers orally, a. – vi.; b. – v.; c. – i.; d. – ii.; e. – iv.; f. – iii. asking different students to read what they wrote in each section. 12 +++ 33 (L.A: to complete an application form). In pairs, the students complete the dialogue Answers with the phrases in the box. Then, play the Will vary, according to students’ personal information. recording to allow them to check their answers. (L.A.: to exchange information). 15 +++ Answers Once they have completed the application form, tell the students to imagine they want See transcript. to join Amigos de las Americas during their TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE 33 vacation. Tell them to write an accompanying letter for the application form. A: What are you planning to do this summer? Remind them to include all the information B: I’m going to do some voluntary work. that is required in the instructive brochure. A: How interesting! I’d like to do the same. (L.A.: to write a letter of application). B: Then, you have to fill in an application form and write an 16 ++ accompanying letter. Motivate the students to form collocations A: A letter? What must I say in it? related to the topic of the lesson matching B: You must explain what kind of work you would like and the verbs in box A with the phrases in box B. where you would like to go. You must also include (L.A.: to identify collocations related to the information about your skills, abilities and interests, and topic). the reasons why you want to be a volunteer.130 UNIT 5
  • 132. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? Answers REAL LIFE SPOT be young and single; complete an application form; give constant support; make an important contribution; This section is intended to allow students to organize international projects; pay for your food; speak make connections between the topic of the English; stay with a local family; work in teams; write a lesson and real life, and at the same time provide letter. additional information that may be useful for them.PAGE 143 Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT,17 +++ see page 6 of the Introduction. Encourage the students to choose five collocations from Exercise 16 and write five sentences with them using the verbs in the PAGE 144 LANGUAGE SPOT. LESSON 2 (L.A.: to consolidate language and vocabulary of the lesson). LISTENING Answers PEOPLE WHO CAREWill vary. BEFORE LISTENING LET’S CHECK 1 +18 The purpose of this section is to allow The students work in groups and answer students to check their progress and to the questions. Ask them to take notes and provide information to the teacher about any then compare answers with other groups. points that the majority of the students have Invite some groups to report their answers problems with. Make sure they understand to the rest of the class. what they are expected to do and give them (L.A.: to relate topic and own reality). enough time to answer individually. Then, Answers check on the board to allow students to Will vary. correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. 2 ++ Ask the students to choose must / (have to) Ask the students to copy and complete the / need to to complete the sentences. chart in their notebooks. For more information on LETS CHECK, see (L.A.: to relate topic and previous page 6 of the Introduction. knowledge). Answers Possible Answersa. need to; b. need to; c. have to; d. must; e. have to;f. must; g. need to; h. must; i. must; j. have to Positive aspects of Negative aspects of doing voluntary work doing voluntary work Socially rewarding Don’t receive salary Can make a contribution Sometimes they are far from home Can help people Not very good conditions Knowing other cultures Living with another family 131
  • 133. 3 Copy the chart on the board and brainstorm 8 ++ 34 students’ ideas to complete it. Ask the students to listen to the recording Invite the students to share their lists in their again and number the sentences (a. – e.) in groups. Encourage them to exchange the order they hear them. opinions, supporting their choices. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of (L.A.: to exchange opinions related to the information). topic). Answers e.; d.; a.; b.; c. PAGE 145 4 + 9 34 Explain to the students that they are going If necessary, play the recording again. The to listen to a recording about voluntary work. students listen and decide if the statements Ask them to predict what kind of text they are true or false. Optionally, you can ask are going to listen to. Do not check their your students to decide if the sentences are answers at this stage. true or false and then play the recording to (L.A.: to make predictions from the context). check their answers. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and 5 ++ incorrect information). Ask the students to read the words in the Answers Key Word Spot and match them with their a. True; b. False; c. False; d. False; e. False; f. False; Spanish equivalent. g. True. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers 10 34 helping hand- b.; non-profit making - c.; Ask students to try and correct the false worth achieving - a. statements. Then play the recording again for them to complete their corrections. Answers LISTENING b. It has 2,500 volunteers; c. Volunteers receive nothing in return; d. There are also options near some of the 6 + 34 world’s largest urban centers; e. VW welcomes Ask the students to listen to the recording volunteers of all educational backgrounds; f. VW sends and check their prediction in Exercise 4. out hundreds of volunteers every week. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers PAGE 146 c. 11 +++ 34 7 ++ 34 Ask the students to identify the name of the The students listen and check if the positive activities in the pictures. Then, play the and negative aspects in their lists from recording once more. Tell the students to Exercise 2 are mentioned in the recording. listen and identify which of the activities are (L.A.: to identify specific information). mentioned in the recording. Answers (L.A.: to relate text and visuals; to identify Will vary, according to students’ predictions specific information).132 UNIT 5
  • 134. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? Answers AFTER LISTENINGPicture 1: Teach people ( ); Picture 2: Visit a web site(X); Picture 3: Lend a helping hand ( ) Picture 4:Make a profit (X); Picture 5: Distribute medication ( ); LANGUAGE SPOTPicture 6: Build houses (X). Expressing possibility Remind students that this section is designed toTRANSCRIPT - PEOPLE WHO CARE 34 help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or any interesting item of vocabulary related to the text.VW is a non-profit-making organization dedicated to making Always keep in mind that the activities arethe world a better place for all. We rely on the dedication of meant to promote independent learning, so help,our 2500 volunteers that lend a helping hand wherever people guide and check, but do not tell them themay need - it may be cleaning up after natural disasters, answers.distributing food and medication or teaching children and 1. The students read the sentences from theadults to read and write. recording. Tell them to pay special attentionSo why shouldn’t you be interested in joining us? to the words in bold.1. Work and not get paid! You must be joking! No, we’re 2. Help them to identify what the sentences not. The truth is that you will work long, hard hours and express. Ask them to choose an alternative. receive nothing in return. But perhaps you may find helping Answ e rs: b. people more rewarding than any salary. 3. In their notebooks, the students copy and2. Spend a year away from civilization. There are options complete the general rule. for those who feel adventurous enough but we also have M a y and m ight are synonyms and are vacancies in other locations near some of the world’s commonly used to express proba ble largest urban centers. e ve nt s in the fut ure . Note: We use may when something is likely3. It’s too much effort. It’s true that it’s not the easiest thing to happen and might when something is in the world to do. But most things in life that are worth rather less probable to happen. achieving require a little effort. 4. Ask the students to work in pairs. Play the4. So you only want graduates. That is simply not true. We recording once more and invite them to write welcome volunteers of all educational backgrounds and two sentences about things that are likely to provide training in specialist areas for anyone showing happen if they join VW. interest. You may have the chance to acquire skills you Possible answers: never dreamed of. You may help people. You may clean up after a natural disaster.5. You can’t tell me that one person is going to make a You may distribute food and medication. difference. That might be true, but with the hundreds of You may teach children and adults to read other volunteers we send out weekly, you can be sure it and write. makes a big difference. You may find helping people more rewarding Convinced it isn’t for you? Well, give us a ring on 222-0987 than any salary. You may work near an urban center. and we’ll try harder. You may feel tired. Vw, for people who care! You may learn new things. You may make a difference. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. 133
  • 135. PAGE 147 14 +++ 35 12 ++ Ask the students to listen and practice the dialogues in Exercise 12 with a partner. Encourage the students to rewrite Then, invite them to choose two and role- sentences a. – g. using may or might, as in play them in front of their classmates. the example. Guide them to find the (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation). difference in using may / might referring them to the note in the LANGUAGE SPOT. 15 +++ (L.A.: to use a new language structure). In their groups, the students reflect on the Answers recording they have heard and answer the a. I might see you tomorrow. questions. Then, motivate them to b. Ann might forget to book the tickets. compare their answers with other groups. c. It may snow today. (L.A.: to exchange opinions). d. David may work till late today. e. Mary may not be at home tomorrow. PAGE 148 f. They might go away for the weekend. g. You might be right. LET’S CHECK 13 ++ 35 The students work in pairs and complete 16 The purpose of this section is to allow the dialogues using may / might and the students to check their progress and to words in the box. Then, they listen to the provide information to the teacher about recording and check their answers. any points that the majority of the students (L.A.: to use a new language structure). have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do Answers and give them enough time to answer See transcript individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and TRANSCRIPT – ORAL PRACTICE 35 assign themselves a mark according to the scale. A: Where are you going on vacation? Ask the students to complete these B: I’m not sure. I may go to the south. sentences with a suitable verb from the box. They must also use may /may not or A: What are you doing on the weekend? might/mightnʼt according to the probability B: I don’t know. I might go camping, but the weather forecast that the event will happen. is not good. For more information on LETS CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. A: When will you see Ann again? Answers B: I’m not sure. I might see her next week; it’s unlikely. a. may shine., b. may bite., c. might meet., d. may buy., e. might erupt., f. may win., A: How are you getting home after the theater? g. may be., h. might catch., i. may feel., j. might see. B: I don’t know. I may call a taxi. A: What are you doing with the money you won? B: I haven’t decided yet. I might get a new car, but the one I like is very expensive.134 UNIT 5
  • 136. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? PAGE 14917 +++ Ask the students to form groups of four. GAME SPOT Motivate them to prepare an advertisement like the one in the recording, giving Five Games are highly motivating since they are Good Reasons why People Should amusing and at the same time challenging for the Consider Voluntary Work. Explain to them students. They employ language in real contexts that they can use the ideas from the and they also encourage and increase recording and also from their lists in cooperation. Exercise 2. Ask them to get ready to read They create the motivation for learners of English their advertisement to the class. You can to get involved and participate actively in the assign this activity as homework or as a learning activities, bring real world context into the mini-project with an extra mark. classroom, and enhance students’ use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Reflection Spot Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practiceThe purpose of this activity is to help and review of language lessons. Thus, thestudents reflect on their learning process and meaning of the language the students listen to,to raise students’ awareness of how they read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.develop their own learning strategies tobecome more effective learners. They should Explain to the students what they must do andwork on their own but you can help and then read the instructions carefully. Make sureguide the work when necessary. they all understand before they start playing.The students read the statements and assess: For more information on the GAME SPOT, see• their ability to give reasons and support page 7 of the Introduction. their opinions about voluntary work.• their ability to write a text advertising voluntary work. PAGE 150For more information on the Reflection Spot, LESSON 3see page 6 of the Introduction. READING18 +++ MAKING A DIFFERENCE Encourage the students to write their advertisement on a nice piece of paper, BEFORE READING add some art work and display it in the classroom. Next class, organize a class 1 + competition and ask the students to assess Ask the students to work in pairs and answer their classmates work’s. Assign a reward the questions. Tell them to take notes in their to the group that wins. notebooks and then compare answers with (L.A.: to make a graphic advertisement). other pairs. Invite some pairs to share their comments with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers Will vary. 135
  • 137. Answers 2 ++ 3. a. No; b. No; c. No Tell the students to form groups of four. In 4. contribution, cost, difference, exercise, information, their groups, they make a list of the type of member, motivation, multicultural, native, opportunity, information they would include in a letter of organization, politics, program, project, term, volunteer. application. Ask them to write the list in their notebooks and then compare with other groups. 7 ++ (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). Invite the students to read the first letter again. Ask them to match the labels 3 ++ (a. – j.) with the corresponding sections of Explain to the students that they are going to the letter (i. – x.). read two letters of applications for the Amigos (L.A.: to identify general information). de las Americas programs. Ask them to read Answers sentences a. – c. and guess if the information a. - ii.; b. - x.; c. - ix.; d. - iv.; e. - vi.; f. - vii.; g. - v.; is true or false. Do not check at this stage. h. - viii; i. - iii.; j. - i. (L.A.: to make predictions from the context). 8 +++ 4 +++ Tell the students to read the second letter Ask the students to choose the cognates again. Ask them to identify items a. – j. they think they will find in a letter of from Exercise 7 that are included in the application for a job. Make sure they don’t letter. read the text to do this exercise. (L.A.: to identify specific information). (L.A.: to use cognates to predict content). Answers 5 ++ All of them are mentioned. Tell the students to read the words in the Key Word Spot and find them in the text. 9 ++ Then, they must look up their meanings in The students now read the two letters a dictionary, before starting to read the text. again and use the information in them to (L.A.: to develop study skills). complete the chart in their notebooks. You Answers can copy the chart on the board and invite airfare: the money you pay to travel by plane. some students to complete it. get along with: to have a friendly relationship with (L.A.: to extract specific information). somebody. Answers raise: to increase the amount or level of something. Topic Applicant 1 Applicant 2 settlement: a place where people have come to live Name Sandra Duran Thomas Carlyle and make their homes. Age 17 16 strengthen: to become stronger. NationalityChilean American Address Manuel Rodriguez 815, 53 Mill Lane, PAGE 152 Osorno, Chile Cincinatti, Ohio, USA Occupation High school student High school student READING Languages Spanish, English English, Spanish Places Puerto Madryn, Latin America to travel Rio Negro, Argentina 6 + Interests Ocean animals, History, The students read the letters quickly to scuba diving Pre-Spanish cultures check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions).136 UNIT 5
  • 138. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? Answ ers: a. fact; b. inference; c. fact; d.10 +++ inference If necessary, the students read the two For more information on Background information, letters once more and then decide if the see page 7 of the Introduction. sentences either in case, are facts or inferences. Optionally, you can ask the PAGE 153 students to decide first and then check while reading. Make sure they all AFTER READING understand clearly the difference between a fact and an inference. (See Background LANGUAGE SPOT information). Once they have answered, elicit their answers and ask them to explain Expressing preferences the reasons for their choices. Remind students that this section is designed to (L.A.: to distinguish facts and inferences). help them revise or discover a particular Answers grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. a. F: “what I like most is to be in contact with nature.” Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to b. I: the information can be derived from “I enjoy promote independent learning, so help, guide and working as a volunteer at our local organization.” check, but do not tell them the answers. c. I: it derives from: “I’ve always wanted to visit 1. Ask the students to read the sentences from the Patagonia.” text, paying special attention to the words in bold. d. I: it derives from: “I’m confident I will be able to raise the money.” 2. Help them to choose the correct alternative to e. I: it derives from: “first, I’d rather work as a volunteer replace the words in bold in sentences a. – c. for a time.” Answ ers: b. f. F: “I would like to be a politician one day.” 3. In their notebooks, they copy and complete the g. I: it derives from: “The possibility to visit some Maya general rule. or Inca ruins is very motivating.” Answ ers: h. F: “I’ve already raised the money.” When expressing a preference, we can use w ould rather as an alternative to w ould prefer to, followed by an infinitive without to.Background Information Would rather is very common in spoken The term fact refers to something that actually English and is often abbreviated to ʻd rather.exists or can be verified. 4. The students go back to the letters and find all Inference is the process of deriving a the sentences that express a preference. Theyconclusion not only based on facts but also rewrite them using would rather.based on human perceptions, logic, statistical Answ ers:methods etc. Iʼd rather be in contact with nature. Iʼd rather apply for a short-term program.Additional exercise Iʼd rather apply for a long-term program.Read the paragraph. Mark whether each For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT,statement is an inference or a fact. see page 6 of the Introduction.You probably know that humans have red blood.So do other mammals. But other kinds of creatureshave different color of blood. Insects have yellow 11 ++ 36blood, and the blood of the lobster is blue. Fact Inference The students answer the questions using • • a) Humans have red blood. ʻd rather / ʼd prefer to. Ask them to write the • • b) Frogs do not have red blood. questions and the answers in their • • c) Lobsters have blue blood. notebooks. Then, play the recording to allow • • d) Bees have yellow blood. the students to compare with their answers. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). 137
  • 139. Answers See transcript. GAME SPOT Games are highly motivating since they are TRANSCRIPT – ORAL PRACTICE 36 amusing and at the same time challenging for the A: What kind of program would you join? students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. B: I’d prefer to join the short-term program. They create the motivation for learners of English to A: What kind of work would you do? get involved and participate actively in the learning B: I’d rather work teaching people to read and write. activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students’ use of English in A: What country would you apply for? a flexible, communicative way. B: I’d prefer to apply for a place in a Latin American country. Remember that games are used not only for mere A: Would you prefer to stay away from civilization? fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice B: I’d rather stay near a city. and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak A: Would you prefer to visit Patagonia or an Inca settlement? and write will be more vividly experienced and, B: I’d prefer to visit Patagonia. therefore, better remembered. In groups, the students complete the web with PAGE 154 words related to voluntary work. Explain to them that they can use the vocabulary from the lesson or words they already know. LET’S CHECK Set a time limit. The group which has completed more words is the winner. 12 The purpose of this section is to allow students to check their progress and to For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction. provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they Answers understand what they are expected to do Will vary. and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and PAGE 155 assign themselves a mark according to the scale. 13 Motivate the students to imagine they are Tell the students to imagine that they want the directors of a volunteer organization. to do some voluntary work this summer. Encourage them to write a letter accepting They must read the advertisements and or refusing the application they wrote in write a letter of application to one of the Exercise 12, giving reasons for their organizations. Before starting the letter, decision. You can assign this activity as remind the students their letters must homework. Next class, you can invite some include all the sections as in the reading students to read their letters to the rest of texts and also contain all the required the class and listen to their comments. information. You may use the Writing (L.A.: to consolidate language and Rubric to assign a mark, or you can supply vocabulary). copies of it and ask the students to evaluate their classmates’ work. For more information on LETS CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.138 UNIT 5
  • 140. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? Possible Answers REAL LIFE SPOT Answering the phone: Hello? (informal), – Thank youThis section is intended to allow students to make for calling XXX – XX speaking – How may I help you?,connections between the topic of the lesson and – How can I help you?real life, and at the same time provide additional Introducing yourself to the caller: Hi, it’s XXXinformation that may be useful for them. (informal) – Hello, this is XXX calling – Hi, this is XXXMake sure you give enough time for them to read from the accountant’s office – Hi, this is XXX speaking.and then elicit their comments. Asking to speak with someone: Is XXX in? (informal)For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, – Is Mrs XXXX there, please? – Can I talk to Mrs XXX,see page 6 of the Introduction. please? – May I speak with Mr XXX, please? – I’d like to speak to Mrs XXX, please – Would Dr XXX be available? – Is XXX around? (informal). @ Connecting someone: Just a sec, I’ll go and get her@@ CLICK ON (informal) – I’ll just get him (informal) – Hang on aIf possible, motivate your students to visit the second (informal) – Please hold the line – I’ll put youweb site suggested at the bottom of page 155, through to her office – One moment, please – I’mand find more information related to the topic of sorry but her line is engaged at the moment – Wouldthe lesson. Next class, invite those who have you like to call back later? – Bear with me, please –visited the site to share their comments with All of our operators are busy at this moment – Pleasetheir classmates. hold the line – I’m sorry, but she’s not available at theFor more information on CLICK ON, see page moment.12 of the Introduction. Taking a message for someone: Would you like to leave a message? – Who’s calling, please? – I’ll let her PAGE 156 know you called – I’ll make sure she gets the message – May I take a message? – Can I take a LESSON 4 message? – Would you like to leave a message? LISTENING IS IT GOOD NEWS? 2 ++ Ask the students to open their books andBEFORE LISTENING match the phrases in column A with their function in column B. 1 + (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). You can do this activity while the students Answers still have their books closed. In order to a. – iii.; b. – ii.; c. – i.; d. – vii.; e. – v.; f. – iv.; g. vi. prepare them for the listening activities, ask the students to work in pairs and write a list of useful phrases they need when 3 ++ talking on the phone. You may ask them to Explain to your students that they are going write two different lists: one for expressions to listen to two telephone conversations. for an informal conversation, and the other Ask them to guess the phrases in with more formal or business expressions. Exercises 1 and 2 that they think will hear. If necessary, allow them to give examples Do not check at this stage. in Spanish and then find the translation. (L.A.: to make predictions from the Elicit their answers and write some context). examples on the board. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). 139
  • 141. 4 +++ 6 ++ 37 Tell the students to read the words in the Tell the students to copy the sentences in Key Word Spot and choose their Spanish their notebooks. Ask them to listen again equivalent from the list. and write the name of the speaker, Janet, (L.A.: to infer meaning of key words). Steve or Carol, next to each sentence. Answers Check the exercise orally. (L.A.: to identify speakers). actually = realmente application = postulación Answers apply = postular a. Steve; b. Janet; c. Steve; d. Janet; e. Carol; f. Carol form = formulario 7 ++ 37 ERROR ALERT Ask the students to listen to the recording There are literally thousands of words that are the again and number the sentences in the same or similar in appearance in English and Spanish, order they hear them. and have the same meaning in both languages (L.A.: to identify the sequence of events). (“cognates”). There are also, however, many instances Answers where appearances are deceiving and words that look c.; f.; a.; e.; d.; b. alike are quite different in meaning (“false cognates”). False cognates are pairs of words in the same or different 8 +++ 37 languages that are similar in form but have different Tell the students to copy the extracts from meaning. That is, they appear to be or are sometimes the conversations in their notebooks. Then, considered cognates when in fact they are not. play the recording once more and ask Additional exercise them to complete the dialogues. The following list includes some of the most (L.A.: to extract specific information). common false cognates, also known as “false friends”. Look up their real meaning in a Answers dictionary and write the list into your notebook. a. Steve: Hello? actual, assist, college, disgrace, disgust, embarrassed, Janet: Hi, can I speak with Steve, please? exit, firm, grocery, idiom, introduce, large, lecture, b. Janet: So, you’ll be 17 by the time you travel. library, molest, sane, sensible, sympathetic, success, Steve: Well, actually no-I’ll be 16. c. Carol: Hello? Carol Saunders speaking. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of Janet: Hi, Carol. This is Janet Clark. the Introduction. d. Janet: You didn’t complete the back of the form with your medical details, Carol. PAGE 157 Carol: Oh! I’m terribly sorry! LISTENING 9 +++ 37 If necessary, the students listen to the 5 + 37 conversations once more and then answer Ask the students to listen and check their the questions. Invite two students to share predictions in Exercise 3. their answers with their classmates to (L.A.: to validate predictions). allow the rest to check the exercise. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers Answers b.; c.; d.; e.; f. a. Steve is not 17; Carol didn’t send her medical details. b. Steve will apply next year again; Carol will send her medical details as soon as possible.140 UNIT 5
  • 142. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG?TRANSCRIPT – IS IT GOOD NEWS? 37 PAGE 158I. AFTER LISTENINGSteve Hello?Janet: Hi, can I speak with Steve, please? This is Janet, from LANGUAGE SPOT Breaking Frontiers, and I’m calling about his application.Steve: Oh, hello, this is Steve speaking. Is it good news? Obligation, necessity, impossibilityJanet: I’m afraid we can’t say yet. There are one or two points Remind students that this section is designed to I want to check with you. Can we do it now? help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabularySteve: Yes, of course. Is something not clear? related to the text.Janet: You say that you’ve done similar work before. Can you Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to tell me when and where? promote independent learning, so help, guide andSteve: Sure! I went to the north with a group from my school last check, but do not tell them the answers. summer, to help people build and repair their houses. 1. The students read the sentences from theJanet: Right. And one more thing: the form says you’re 16 – recording. Draw their attention to the words in when’s your birthday? bold.Steve: In January. 2. Guide them to discover which of theseJanet: So, you’ll be 17 by the time you travel. sentences expressesSteve: Well…actually no – I’ll be 16. a. A prohibition: a.; d., b. A need: b., c. AnJanet: Oh, dear. I’m so sorry, Steve. I’m afraid you have to be obligation: c.; e. 17 to join us, so you’d better apply again next year. 3. Tell the students to copy and complete theSteve: Yes, I will. Thank you. Bye! general rule in their notebooks. Answ ers: We use canʼt, need to and have to toII. express impossibility, necessity andCarol: Hello, Carol Saunders speaking. obligation.Janet: Hi, Carol. This is Janet Clark and I’m ringing from We use need to to say that it is necessary to Breaking Frontiers. do something and have to when it isCarol: Oh, hello, Janet. obligatory to do something. We use canʼt to express that we are not capableJanet: Many thanks for your application – I think it’s a very of doing something, or that something is prohibited. strong one. I just need to check one thing with you.Carol: Yes, of course. 4. In groups, the students collect information about the conversations they listened to andJanet: You see, you didn’t complete the back of the form with they write two more sentences using the verbs your medical details, Carol. in the LANGUAGE SPOT.Carol: Oh! I’m terribly sorry! I never even looked at the back Answ ers: will vary. Accept any coherent of the form. Is it too late to do it now? sentence related to the recording.Janet: No, but our doctors have to check your medical details For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, to see if it’s OK for you to join us, and we can’t give you see page 6 of the Introduction. a place before they say yes. So, let us have your medical details immediately, and we’ll get back to you ERROR ALERT one or two days after we receive them. Do not have to vs. Must notCarol: Thank you ever so much. I’ll send them to you right away! Do not have to = Do not need to. It means that someone is not required to do something. Must not means that you are prohibited from doing something. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. 141
  • 143. Additional exercise TRANSCRIPT – ORAL PRACTICE 38 Complete the sentences with have to or do not have to. Martha:Hello? a. You ______ hurry up. You can’t be late on your David: Hi, can I speak with Martha, please? I’m ringing from first day. Young Volunteers about her application. b. You ______ give back the book yet. I haven’t finished mine yet. Martha:Oh, this is Martha speaking. Is it good news? c. She is overweight. She ______ do some David: I’m afraid I can’t say yet. There’s one point I want to exercise. check with you over the phone. Is that all right? d. He ______ study so hard. The test is not very Martha:Yes, of course. Is something not clear? difficult. David: You didn’t complete the back of the form with details e. She ______ run. The class begins at 6:00 and about your education. it’s only 5:30. Martha:Oh! I’m terribly sorry! David: You have to send us this information immediately and we’ll get back to you quickly. 10 ++ Martha:Thank you so much. I’ll do it right now! Using the verbs in the LANGUAGE FOCUS, the students complete the sentences in their notebooks. Invite some 12 +++ 38 students to write the sentences on the The students listen to the recording and board to allow the rest to check their practice the conversation with their answers. partners. Encourage them to role-play it in (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). front of the class. Answers (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situtuation). a. have to; b. have to; c. need to; d. have to; e. can’t; f. can’t; g. can’t; h. needs to 13 +++ As homework, ask the students to work in PAGE 159 pairs and write a similar dialogue with their own ideas. Next class, motivate them to 11 ++ 38 role-play it in front of their classmates. You Ask the students to complete the can assign an extra mark to this activity. telephone conversation in pairs. Then, play (L.A.: to consolidate language and the recording and tell them to compare vocabulary). their answers. Answers (L.A.: to use language and vocabulary Will vary. related to the topic). Answers See transcript.142 UNIT 5
  • 144. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? PAGE 160 Reflection Spot 15 ++ The purpose of this activity is to help students Tell the students to copy the chart into reflect on their learning process and to raise their notebooks and then to complete it students’ awareness of how they develop their classifying the expressions under the own learning strategies to become more corresponding labels. Copy the chart on effective learners. They should work on their the board and invite some students to own but you can help and guide the work complete it to allow the rest to check their when necessary. answers. The students read the statements and assess: (L.A.: to consolidate vocabulary). • their ability to use polite phrases in a telephone conversation. Answers • their ability to role-play a telephone Introducing Asking who Asking to Connecting Informing Offering conversation. yourself is calling speak to someone is to take a For more information on the Reflection Spot, someone not available message This is Can I ask May I Can you I’m afraid Could I take see page 6 of the Introduction. Sylvia. who is calling, speak to hold a he is not a message? please? Alan, please? moment? available at the moment. This is Excuse me, Can I speak Can you Mrs. Davies Would you LET’S CHECK George who is this? to Benjamin, hold the is out at the like to leave speaking. please? line? moment. a message? Is Jake in? I’ll put you Mr. Jackson14 The purpose of this section is to allow through. isn’t in students to check their progress and to right now. provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students 16 ++ FL have problems with. Make sure they Encourage fast learners to add one more understand what they are expected to do phrase to each category in the chart. and give them enough time to answer (L.A.: to consolidate vocabulary). individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and Answers assign themselves a mark according to the Will vary. scale. The students must choose the correct 17 +++ alternative to complete the sentences with As homework, ask the students to work in need to, have to or canʼt. pairs and write short conversations for For more information on LETS CHECK, situations a. – c. Tell them to practice the see page 6 of the Introduction. conversations at home and get ready to Answers role-play one of the conversations in front a. have to; b. need to; c. have to; d. can’t; e. can’t; of their classmates. f. can’t; g. need to; h. has to; i. can’t; j. needs to. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation). 143
  • 145. PAGE 161 In the United States, “Telephone” is the most common name for the game. The name “Chinese whispers” reflects the former stereotype in GAME SPOT Europe of the Chinese language as being Games are highly motivating since they are incomprehensible. It is little-used in the United amusing and at the same time challenging for the States and may be considered offensive. It students. They employ language in real contexts remains the common British name for the game. and they also encourage and increase cooperation. The game has no winner: the entertainment They create the motivation for learners of English to comes from comparing the original and final get involved and participate actively in the learning messages. Intermediate messages may also be activities, bring real world context into the compared; some messages will be classroom, and enhance students’ use of English in unrecognizable after only a few steps. a flexible, communicative way. As well as providing amusement, the game Remember that games are used not only for mere can have educational value. It shows how easily fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice information can become corrupted by indirect and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning communication. The game has been used in of the language the students listen to, read, speak schools to simulate the spread of gossip and and write will be more vividly experienced and, supposed harmful effects. It can also be used therefore, better remembered. for older or adult learners of a foreign language, Ask the students to form groups of six or eight where the challenge of speaking members. Read the instructions aloud and make comprehensibly, and understanding, is more sure they understand clearly what the game consists difficult because of the low volume, and hence a on. If necessary, explain the rules in Spanish. greater mastery of the fine points of Finally, tell the students to reflect on the last pronunciation is required. question and ask each group to share their An apocryphal example from World War I of a comments with their classmates. message being sent down the trench line is For more information on the GAME SPOT, see Se nd re inforc e m e nt s, w e ʼre going t o page 7 of the Introduction. a dva nc e which became Send t hre e a nd fourpe nc e , w e ʼre going t o a da nc e (three and fourpence is three shillings and four Background information pence in old British money). In the game variously known as Chinese For more information on Background whispers, Telephone Gossip, Arab Phone (from information, see page 7 of the Introduction. the French Le téléphone arabe), Russian http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_whispers Scandal, and Stille Post (Silent Post), the first player whispers a phrase or sentence to the next player. Each player successively whispers what REAL LIFE SPOT that player believes he or she heard to the next. The last player announces the statement to the The objective of this section is to provide a bit of entire group. Errors typically accumulate in the humor to the class. All the jokes and cartoons retellings, so the statement announced by the last are related to the topic of the lesson. Give some player differs significantly, and often amusingly, minutes to allow students to read and then invite from the one uttered by the first. The game is them to share their comments to make sure often played by children as a party game or in the they understood the joke. At this point, you may playground. It is often invoked as a metaphor for allow the use of Spanish to check cumulative error, especially the inaccuracies as comprehension. rumors or gossip spread, or, more generally, for For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, the unreliability of human recollection. see page 6 of the Introduction.144 UNIT 5
  • 146. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG?PAGE 162 3 Explain to the students that they are going to play “Fortune Teller”. They work in pairs, YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION choose five pictures and their partners will tell them what they mean, as in the example. Make sure the students changeThis section provides additional exercises that roles and take turns to ask and answerrepresent a good opportunity for students to questions. Monitor the activity, but do notconsolidate topics and language structures of take part or interrupt correcting mistakes. Itthe lessons. You can assign these activities at is better to take notes and talk about themthe end of each lesson, or as homework and at the end of the class.give them an extra mark. PAGE 164 1 Explain to the students that this is a real application form to an international volunteer organization. They must UNIT CHECK complete it as if they were really applying to a program. You can copy the form on the board or prepare a transparency, and Explain to the students that the purpose of this then invite a student to complete it. section is to help them revise contents and Answers evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Read the instructions and make sure all the Will vary according to students’ personal information. students understand what they are expected to do in each activity. Encourage them to givePAGE 163 honest answers in order to detect their strengths and weaknesses. 2 In pairs, the students must prepare a Check students’ results and revise any points leaflet. Read the instructions aloud and that the majority of them had problems with. make sure they understand what they have For more information on UNIT CHECK, see to do. page 6 of the Introduction. a. The students must find information about three volunteer organizations that offer PAGE 165 work for teens. Answers b. They must write a short text like the one in Lesson 1 to explain the objectives of READING - TEEN JOBS OFFERED each organization. c. They must choose one of them and 1 b. prepare a leaflet promoting the organization. Ideally, they should add 2 a. – III; b. – IV; c. – I; d. – II; e. – V pictures or some visual material. d. Display students’ works in a visible place 3 a. True; b. False; c. False; d. True; e. False in the classroom. LISTENING - TWO PHONE CALLS 39 4 c. 5 a. Stella; b. Chris; c. Stella; d. Chris; e. Jennifer; f. Chris. 145
  • 147. PAGE 166 Jennifer: Well, actually I’ll be 16. Stella: Oh, I’m so sorry. You have to be 17 to join, and the 6 a. False; b. False; c. False; d. False program starts in November. We hope that you’ll apply again next year. TRANSCRIPT – TWO PHONE CALLS 39 Jennifer: Sure, I will. Thank you. I. Stella: Hello. Can I speak to Chris, please? LANGUAGE Chris: This is Chris speaking. Stella: This is Stella Rawlings. I’m ringing from Children Aid 7 about your application to join one of our programs. Chris: Oh, hi, Stella. arrive ask chew go have leave Stella: Many thanks for your application, Chris. It’s a very look at thank wear write good one, but there are a couple of points I’d like to a. If you want to find a job, you have to read check with you. Can we do it now? the newspaper ads. Chris: Sure. b. You canʼt arrive late for an interview. Stella: You say you’ve been on a similar program before. c. You need to write a good CV. Chris: That’s right. I went with a group from my school to d. You canʼt wear jeans when you go to a help people repair their houses. job interview. Stella: So you are an experienced builder… e. You have to thank the interviewer at the end of the interview. Chris: I can’t say that, but I learned some skills. Stella: The other thing. You said on the form that you SPEAKING weren’t free until July 20th. You know the program you want to join starts on July 12th, don’t you? 8 In pairs, the students role-play a telephone Chris: Yes, and I’ve already spoken to my teachers and conversation about an application for a job. they say I can miss a week of school. They think Make sure they use not only the correct these kinds of programs are great opportunities, so expressions according to each stage, but I can leave on the date the program starts. Are the vocabulary related to the topic. there any places left? You can assign points according to these Stella: Yes, fortunately there are two and one of them is criteria: for you now. Congratulations! Now you need to 7 - 8 points: student can ask and answer start your money raising. complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. II. 5 – 6: student can ask and answer Jennifer: Hello? complete questions about the topic, with Stella: Hello, can I speak to Jennifer, please? correct pronunciation, and a minimum of Jennifer: Speaking. hesitations and grammar mistakes. Stella: This is Stella Rawlings, from Children Aid. I’m 3 – 4 points: student can exchange ringing about your application. information about the topic with acceptable Jennifer: Is it good news? pronunciation but hesitates and makes Stella: There is one point I need to check. On your form, it grammar mistakes. says that you’re 16. When is your birthday, 1 – 2 points: student can’t exchange Jennifer? information about the topic, pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a Jennifer: In December. lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. Stella: So you’ll be 17 then.146 UNIT 5
  • 148. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG?WRITING 9 The students read the personal information in Catalina Lopez’s file and then write her letter of application to an international organization. You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points: student can write a coherent letter of application, including the required information, using correct textual references and without grammar or spelling mistakes. 5 – 6 points: student can write a coherent letter of application, including most of the required information, using a few textual references and with a minimum of grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 – 4 points: student can write a coherent letter of application, including some of the required information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 – 2 points: student can’t write a coherent letter of application, does not include the required information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes. PAGE 167 FINAL REFLECTIONThe purpose of this section is to allow studentsto reflect on their strengths and weaknesses.Make sure all the students understand whatthey are expected to do and give enough timeto answer the questions. Encourage students togive honest answers and show interest in theirresults.For more information on FINAL REFLECTION,see page 6 of the Introduction. 147
  • 149. EXTRA TEST UNIT 5 “ READING - SHARING EXPERIENCES My quest in Chile was an amazing one ! Although you definitely need flexibility due to the demands of each ding things I classroom environment and “ Working at the local restaurant was one of the most rewar resources, I was able to visit and spe ak in several different classrooms have ever done in my life. I had full license to implement any and all of my (grade 4 through university level) and started up a at various different schools. My host ideas in order to market and publicize the business. We family was wonderful! This was wha t I was most worried about, as I had e in nearby tourist delivery service, put up fliers and spoke directly to peopl never stayed with a host family befo re. We will, for sure be, friends forever. more) in the short spots, etc. The profits increased by about 200% (if not I will continue to participate in hum anitarian work here in the USA until that all volunteers amount of time of my stay. This is due to the attention am able to set out on another project with United Planet. I ” ue. ” paid during this time. Hopefully the hard work will contin Cynthia Castaldo, Short-Term Que a st Volunteer, Chile Lizzie Lee, Short-Term Quest Volunteer, Guatemal “ “ for I volunteered in Cusco, Peru for six weeks during the summer of 2008 This experience was definitely a great new experience and it was the kind of experience that I could not possibly obtain any me! Not only did I get to work to help beautify the other way. I worked at a rehabilitation center for young people with environment, I also experienced the real culture of Costa drug and alcohol addictions. Working with the psychologist, I had the Rica by living with a host family. I even went to the beach the opportunity to be a part of the rehabilitation process, helping conduct in my spare time and swam in the ocean! This trip was ” interviews, psychological assessments, and group meetings. perfect balance between hard work and fun!! 1 Logan Nealis, Short-Term Quest Volunteer, Peru Read the text and answer these questions. a. Who worked as a psychologist assistant? b. Who could balance work and fun? ” Erica Hsu, Short-Term Quest Volunteer, Costa Rica 4 pts. c. Who is going to continue working as a volunteer? d. Who could put into practice all of his / her ideas? 2 Read the text again. Are these statements true or false? 4 pts. a. Profits didn’t increase very much during Lizzie’s stay in Guatemala. b. Logan Nealis worked with young people in risk situations. c. It was Cynthia Castaldo’s first experience with a host family. d. Erica Hsu didn’t like her experience. 3 Read the text once more. Which of these sentences are facts (F) and which are 4 pts. inferences (I)? a. Lizzie Lee will continue working hard. b. Logan Nealis’ experience could not be repeated. c. Cynthia Castaldo didn’t visit pre-school students. d. Erica Hsu worked in an environmental project. LISTENING - VOLUNTEER JOBS FOR STUDENTS AND TEENS 4 Listen to the recording. Number the sentences in the order you hear them. 5 pts. a. All volunteers play an integral role. b. Habitat offers basic shared accommodation. c. Volunteering can also help you to gain new skills. d. An associate will contact you.148 UNIT 5
  • 150. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? H OW ABOUT WORKI NG? 5 Listen again. Match the beginnings in column A (a. - c.) with the endings in 5 pts. column B (i. - v.). A B a. Habitat for Humanity i. are carefully screened. b. All volunteer applications ii. needs short term volunteers. c. If you are interested in becoming a iii. please download an application form. volunteer iv. please contact the Volunteer d. For any further questions Program Manager 6 Listen to the recording once more. Are these statements true or false? 5 pts. a. Habitat for Humanity needs volunteers below 16. b. Habitat for Humanity accepts only local volunteers. c. Foreign volunteers need a special visa. d. If you want to join a program, you must send a letter. e. You can contact the Program Manager by e-mail or by phone.LANGUAGE 7 Use one of the modal verbs in brackets to fill each gap. 4 pts. a. They (can / might) ______________ be away for the weekend but I’m not sure. b. It is probable he (might / may) ______________ go to Sheffield. c. Probably, tomorrow (might / may) ______________ be a cooler day. d. You (may / might) ______________ be right but it is not very probable. 8 Complete these sentences expressing preferences and using expressions from the box. 3 pts. walk home / send an e-mail / stay at home / travel before / drink water a. Would you like to go out for dinner tonight? No, ___________________ b. Do you want some orange juice? I ___________________ c. Will you phone me? I ___________________ 9 Write three sentences expressing a. a necessity, b. an obligation and c. an impossibility. 3 pts.SPEAKING10 In pairs, choose one of these situations and role-play a telephone conversation. 10 pts. a. You want to invite your friend to the cinema. b. You want to apply for a temporary job.WRITING11 Write a short leaflet promoting a volunteer organization that offers works for teens. 10 pts. Explain the objectives, the kinds of programs, the way the applicants can apply and any other useful information. 57 pts. TOTAL 0 - 15 16 - 30 31 - 45 46 - 57 Keep trying! Good! Very good! Excellent! 149
  • 151. Speaker 1: All volunteer applications are carefully screened to ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 5 see if your skills match the project opportunities you specify and for all open volunteer opportunities. If your skills match an opportunity, READING - SHARING EXPERIENCES an associate will contact you to conduct an initial phone interview to find out more about your 1 a. Logan Nealis; b. Erica Hsu; c. Cynthia suitability, and to discuss where you would be Castaldo; d. Lizzie Lee. best suited in the organization. 2 a. False; b. True; c. True; d. False. Speaker 2: International volunteers coming to Habitat Headquarters from outside of the United States 3 a. fact; b. inference; c. inference; d. inference. need a B1 business visa. Speaker 3: If you are interested in becoming a volunteer at LISTENING - VOLUNTEER Habitat Headquarters, please download an JOBS FOR STUDENTS AND TEENS 40 application form and return it to: Habitat for Humanity International 4 c.; a.; b.; d. Attn: Volunteer Program Manager 121 Habitat St 5 a. – ii; b. – i.; c. – iii.; d. – iv. Americus, Georgia 31709 6 a. false; b. false; c. true; d. false; e. true. Speaker 1: If you have any further questions regarding the Volunteer program at Habitat for Humanity International, please contact the Volunteer TRANSCRIPT – VOLUNTEER JOBS 40 Program Manager at: FOR STUDENTS AND TEENS volunteer@habitat.org or phone (800) 422 - 4828. Speaker 1: Sometimes, there’s something more important in a job than money. Volunteering can also help you gain new skills, improve your resume, and— LANGUAGE most importantly— help you decide what you really want to do when you graduate. 7 a. might, b. may, c. may, d. may. Speaker 2: Habitat for Humanity needs short term 8 a. I’d rather stay at home. volunteers, aged 16 and up, to assist with various b. I’d rather drink water. projects at the International Headquarters located c. I’d rather send an e-mail. in Americus, Georgia. Volunteering at Habitat is a unique experience that will enable you to develop 9 Will vary. Accept any coherent answer. your skills in different areas. All volunteers play an integral role in every aspect of the project, from administration to construction. Speaker 3: Volunteers who are not from the local area may qualify for shared housing and a small meal allowance. Habitat offers basic shared accommodation in various houses located near the headquarters for volunteers working in Americus, Georgia.150 UNIT 5
  • 152. HOW ABOUT WORKI NG? HOW ABOUT WORKI NG?SPEAKING10 You can assign points according to these criteria: 8 - 10 points: student can participate in a telephone conversation about the topic, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. 5 – 6: student can participate in a telephone conversation about the topic, with correct pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes. 3 – 4 points: student can participate in a telephone conversation about the topic with acceptable pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 – 2 points: student can’t participate in a telephone conversation about the topic; pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes.WRITING11 You can assign points according to these criteria: 8 - 10 points: student can write a coherent leaflet, including the required information, using correct textual references and without grammar or spelling mistakes. 5 – 7 points: student can write a coherent leaflet, including most of the required information, using a few textual references and with a minimum of grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent leaflet, including some of the required information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student cant write a coherent leaflet, does not include the required information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes. 151
  • 153. EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS These are assessment tools you can use to measure students’ work. Applying Evaluation Instruments They are scoring guides to evaluate a student’s performance based on The evaluation instruments provided can be used for the following the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score. purposes: The evaluation instruments provided here include: Self- assessment • Rubrics. Give copies to students and ask them to assess their own progress • Questionnaires. on a task. This should not count toward a grade. The point is to help • Observation sheets. students learn more and produce better final products. Always give These instruments differ from traditional methods of assessment in them time to revise their work after assessing themselves. that they examine students in the process of learning, clearly Peer assessment showing them how their work is being evaluated. They This takes some getting used to. Emphasise the fact that peer- communicate detailed explanations of what excellence is assessment, is also intended to help everyone do better work. You can throughout a task and provide clear teaching directives. then see how accurate their feedback is, and you can ask for evidence The instruments’ strength is their specificity, which means that that supports their opinions when their assessments don’t match individual students can fall between levels, attaining some but not yours. Giving time for revision after peer-assessment is crucial. all standards in a higher level. While scores can be translated into Teacher assessment final grades, we must remind students that not every score “counts.” When you assess student work, use the same instruments that These instruments are meant, to inform and improve teachers’ were used for self- and peer-assessment. When you hand the instruction while giving students the feedback they need to learn marked instrument back with the students’ work, they will know and grow. what they did well and what they need to improve. These instruments can also be used in peer assessment and then To use the evaluation instruments provided in this section: used to provide feedback. • Identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest Prior to assessment, the evaluation instruments can be used to level of quality and assign a number to the students’ performance. communicate expectations to students. During the assessment The gradations increase/decrease in 1 point. phase, they are used to easily score a subjective matter. • The last column shows the actual score assigned to this particular student, based on his / her performance. The overall total score is After an instrument is scored, it should be given back to students to assigned by adding together the scores. communicate them their grade and their strengths and weaknesses. Once you have worked out students’ scores, you can express them in Students can use them to see the correlation between effort and gradations. Gradations are the descriptive levels of quality starting achievement. Sharing the instruments with students is vital as the with the worst quality up to the best quality. feedback empowers students to evaluate their own work. Always keep in mind that, however you use them, the idea is to Advantages of using a variety of instruments: support and to evaluate student learning. • Teachers can improve their direct instruction by providing focus, emphasis, and attention to details as a model for students. Here is a description of each of the evaluation instruments: • Students get explicit guidelines of teacher expectations. Evaluating Listening Comprehension • Students can use the instruments to develop their abilities. Use this instrument two or three times in a semester to assess • Teachers can reuse these instruments for various activities. where the students rank within the four categories and to • Complex products or behaviours can be examined efficiently. determine where the strengths and weaknesses of the class lie. • They are criterion referenced, rather than norm referenced: (“Did After applying the instrument, ask the students to get in groups the student meet the criteria for level 4?” rather than “How well and analyse their results. As a class, discuss important points that did this student do compared to other students?). may help improve listening skills. • Ratings can be done by students to assess their own work, or by others (peers, teachers, instructors, U.T.P. people, etc.).152 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
  • 154. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum show students the instrument beforehand so that they get betternumber of points for achieving the highest level of quality and quality work; they know what they are supposed to produce and itassign a number to the students’ performance according to this saves problems afterwards as they can see where they can havescale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can points taken off.apply this chart to express his/her results: This instrument should also be used after the task is complete, to1= Unsatisfactory – 2 = Fair – 3 = Very Good – 4 = Excellent evaluate the product, and to engage students in reflection on theEvaluating Reading Comprehension work they have produced.The goal of this reading assessment instrument is to determine if To work out the score of each student identify the maximum numberthe students have improved their reading comprehension skills. of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign aUse this instrument once a month. Once you have applied this number to the students’ performance according to this scale. Onceinstrument, make the students identify their strengths and you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply thisweaknesses and brainstorm ideas that could help them improve chart to express his/her results:their performance in the future. 1= Unsatisfactory – 2 = Fair – 3 = Very Good – 4 = ExcellentThis instrument also gives the teacher the opportunity to focus Working with othersdiagnostic attention on students whose performance is as below You can use this instrument when you assign a project or instandard. You can reach this conclusion after calculating students’ isolation. It is designed to be applied as peer assessment. It offersscores and grades and correlating them with the levels stated in the feedback about students’ attitude towards their classmates. It canProgress Map (Page 15 of the Introduction). be a useful source of information for the teacher about individualYou must take into account that the maximum score corresponds to contribution to a final product.the highest expected results conceived by this teaching proposal for To work out the score, students identify the maximum number ofthis level. points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign aTo work out the score of each student identify the maximum number to their partners’ performance.number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and After you have worked out the score of each student, you can applyassign a number to the students’ performance according to this this chart to express his/her results:scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can 1= Unsatisfactory – 2 = Fair – 3 = Very Good – 4 = Excellentapply this chart to express his/her results:1= Unsatisfactory – 2 = Fair – 3 = Very Good – 4 = Excellent Homework When applying this instrument it, to provide clear expectations toProject your students. After reading the rubric, students are clear on whatUse this instrument every time students do a project. Each student an acceptable homework assignment looks like.is evaluated along three dimensions, each having to do with thestudent’s contribution to the work, the final product and other The system can improve students’ homework skills becauseaspects the teacher considers important to assess: how effectively • the teacher gives each student attention about their homework;the student accomplished his / her responsibilities as a member of • students can see the opportunities to improve their work;the team or the quality of his / her interactions with the other team • the teacher has the data required to give a “pure” homeworkmembers. grade for homework completion.These dimensions are assigned a score of 1 through 7; these values You can also include a reward component: students who average arepresent increasing degrees of achievement in each dimension. grade of 3 or 4 for the month, can earn an extra mark on the nextThe last column is the actual score assigned the student, based on period.his / her performance, along the three dimensions. The overall total To work out the score of each student identify the maximum numberscore is assigned by adding together the scores corresponding to of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign athe three dimensions. number to the students’ performance according to this scale. Once youWriting Rubric have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chartYou can use it two or three times in a year. This instrument is a to express his/her results:simplified way to grade a writing assignment. It is important to 1= Unsatisfactory – 2 = Fair – 3 = Very Good – 4 = Excellent 153
  • 155. Oral Presentation demonstrate comprehension by responding to open-ended Use this instrument two or three times per student during the year. questions. Its aim is to give information to the teacher on students’ The students will be evaluated in: Non-verbal skills, Vocal Skills and placement in the Reading Skills English Progress Map. Content areas. Use the checklist to assess reading tasks, to provide feedback to The teacher can give each student a copy of the instrument and students and as a basis for feedback for each student. then read it with them. The students will improve their To work out the score of each student, identify his / her level of performance if they know what they are expected to produce and performance, according to the scale provided by this instrument. the areas they have to focus their attention on. Inference from a text To work out the score of each student identify the maximum Use this instrument two or three times in a semester. It provides number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and information on students’ capacity to make inferences from a assign a number to the students’ performance according to reading or listening text in order to generate strategies that may this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you improve their comprehension process. can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory – 2 = Fair – 3 = Very Good – 4 = Excellent To work out the score of each student, identify the level of his /her performance, according to the scale provided by this instrument. Class participation Use this instrument, at the end of each semester. It is a useful tool Questionnaire: Tasks Development for teachers to evaluate the way in which students take part in the The teacher can apply this instrument to know how students deal different activities and their level of engagement in class. It also with English in general and can also be applied for peer provides useful information to share with parents. The teacher can assessment. This questionnaire provides criteria for scoring combine the results of this rubric and those of the Behaviour rubric students performance in the five dimensions that are evaluated. It to get a global additional mark at the end of a period. allows teachers and students to identify strengths and weaknesses and set clear performance goals. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and Before applying it, read it with the students and listen to their assign a number to the students’ performance according to this comments. After applying it, talk about the results and get scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can feedback on students strengths and weaknesses. apply this chart to express his/her results: To work out the score of each student apply the scale and calculate 1= Unsatisfactory – 2 = Fair – 3 = Very Good – 4 = Excellent the gradation. Behaviour Feedback Use this instrument when you detect behaviour problems. This Here are some phrases that are useful for giving feedback and make rubric is meant to offer information on students’ attitude and comments to your students: behaviour in relation to their classmates and can be a useful source • You are developing a better attitude toward your classmates. of information for course council. It can be applied by teachers or • You can be very helpful and dependable in the classroom. used for peer assessment. • You have strengthened your skills in ___. After applying this instrument, make students identify the areas in • You are learning to be a better listener. which they got higher scores, and also the areas that need • You are learning to be careful, cooperative, and fair. improvement. • You are very enthusiastic about participating. • Your work habits are improving. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum • You have been consistently progressing. number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and • You are willing to take part in all classroom activities. assign a number to the students’ performance according to • Your attitude toward school is excellent. this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you • You are maintaining grade-level achievements. can apply this chart to express his/her results: • You work well in groups, planning and carrying out activities. 1= Unsatisfactory – 2 = Fair – 3 = Very Good – 4 = Excellent • Your work in the area(s) of ____ has been extremely good. Extended-response reading • You can do better in areas of ____. Use this instrument in any lesson that invites students to • You would improve if you developed a greater interest in ___.154 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
  • 156. PHOTOCOPIABLE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTSEVALUATING LISTENING COMPREHENSION Name: _______________________________ Lesson: ________________________ Date: _______ Skills Criteria Points 1 2 3 4Understanding key events or facts. Understands 1 Understands Understands Understands or 2 events or some of the many events or most events in key facts. events or key key facts, sequence or facts. mainly in understands sequence. most key facts.Understanding details. Gets few or no Gets some Gets many Gets most important important important important details details. details. details. and key language.Responding appropriately to features such as: Nearly never. Sometimes. Most of the Nearly always.laughter, silence, etc., and / or accentuation, time.intonation and rhythm.Answering questions. Answers Answers Answers Answers questions with questions with questions with questions with incorrect some literal interpretation information. misinterpretation. interpretation. showing higher level thinking.Doing tasks. Provides limited Provides some Provides Provides or no response response to adequate insightful and requires teacher and response to response to many requires 4 or 5 teacher 2 or 3 teacher 1 or no questions or questions and questions and questions or prompts. prompts. prompts. prompts.At the end of the session, the listener is able to: Answer factual Answer factual Summarise the Reveal the questions on questions on beginning, sequence of general general and middle, and end events, providing information. specific of the story. details on information. dialogue, and PHOTOCOPIABLE motivation of characters. Total points 155
  • 157. EVALUATING READING COMPREHENSION Name: _______________________________ Lesson: ________________________ Date: _______ Skills Criteria Points 1 2 3 4 Understanding key events or facts. Understands 1 Understands Understands Understands or 2 events or some of the many events or most events in key facts. events or key key facts, sequence or facts. mainly in understands sequence. most key facts. Understanding details. Gets few or no Gets some Gets many Gets most important important important important details details. details. details. and key language. Identifying characters or topics. Identifies 1 or 2 Identifies 1 or 2 Identifies many Identifies all characters or characters or topics or characters or topics using topics by characters by topics by specific pronouns (he, generic name name in text name (Old Ben she, it, they). (boy, girl, dog). (Ben, Giant). Bailey). Answering questions. Answers Answers Answers Answers questions with questions with questions with questions with incorrect some literal interpretation information. misinterpretation. interpretation. showing higher level thinking. Doing tasks. Provides limited Provides some Provides Provides or no response response to adequate insightful and requires teacher 4 or 5 response to response to many questions and teacher 2 or 3 teacher 1 or no questions or prompts. questions and questions or prompts. prompts. prompts. Total points Taken and adapted from: http://www.storyarts.org/classroom/usestories/listenrubric.htmlPHOTOCOPIABLE 156 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
  • 158. PROJECT Name(s): Date: Process Poor Satisfactory Excellent Points1. Has clear vision of final product. 1,2,3 4,5 6,72. Properly organised to complete project. 1,2,3 4,5 6,73. Managed time wisely. 1,2,3 4,5 6,74. Acquired needed knowledge base. 1,2,3 4,5 6,75. Communicated efforts with teacher. 1,2,3 4,5 6,7 Product (Project) Poor Satisfactory Excellent Points1. Format. 1,2,3 4,5 6,72. Mechanics of speaking / writing. 1,2,3 4,5 6,73. Organisation and structure. 1,2,3 4,5 6,74. Creativity. 1,2,3 4,5 6,75. Demonstrates knowledge. 1,2,3 4,5 6,7 Other:1. _____________________________ 1,2,3 4,5 6,72. _____________________________ 1,2,3 4,5 6,73. _____________________________ 1,2,3 4,5 6,74. ____________________________ 1,2,3 4,5 6,7 Total: Teacher comments: PHOTOCOPIABLESource: http://www.sdst.org/shs/library/resrub.html 157
  • 159. WRITING RUBRIC Name: Title of work: Date submitted: Criteria Points 1 2 3 4 Main Idea Sentence Unclear and Unclear and Either unclear or Clear, correctly incorrectly placed; incorrectly placed; incorrectly placed; placed, and is it is not restated in it is restated in the it is restated in the restated in the the closing closing sentence. closing sentence. closing sentence. sentence. Supporting Sentence(s) Paragraph(s) have Paragraph(s) has / Paragraph(s) has / Paragraph(s) has / no supporting have one have two have three or more detail sentences supporting detail supporting detail supporting detail that relate back to sentence that sentences that sentences that the main idea. relate(s) back to the relate back to the relate back to the main idea. main idea. main idea. Detail Sentence(s) Each supporting Each supporting Each supporting Each supporting sentence has no sentence has one sentence has at sentence has three detail sentence. detail sentence. least two detail or more detail sentences. sentences. Legibility Writing is not Writing is not Marginally legible Legible legible. legible in places. handwriting, handwriting, typing, or printing. typing, or printing. Mechanics & Grammar Six or more Three to five One or two No errors in punctuation, punctuation, punctuation, punctuation, capitalisation, and capitalisation, and capitalisation, and capitalisation, and spelling errors. spelling errors. spelling errors. spelling. Total: Teacher comments: Taken and adapted from:PHOTOCOPIABLE http://712educators.about.com/od/rubrics/Rubrics_Writing_and_Grading_Rubrics.htm 158 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
  • 160. WORKING WITH OTHERS Name: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________ Date: _________ Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Skills Criteria Points Working with others 1 2 3 4Help Never offers Some of the time Most of the time All of the time assistance to offers assistance to offers assistance to offers assistance to others. each other. each other. each other.Listen Never works from Some of the time Most of the time All of the time each others ideas. works from each works from each works from each others ideas. others ideas. others ideas.Participate Never contributes Some of the time Most of the time All of the time to the project. contributes to the contributes to the contributes to the project. project. project.Persuade Never exchanges, Some of the time Most of the time All of the time defends and exchanges, defends exchanges, exchanges, defends rethinks ideas. and rethinks ideas. defends and and rethinks ideas rethinks ideas.Question Never interacts, Some of the time Most of the time All of the time discusses and interacts, discusses interacts, discusses interacts, discusses poses questions to and poses questions and poses questions and poses questions all member of the to all member of to all member of to all member of class. the class. the class. the class.Respect Never encourages Some of the time Most of the time All of the time and supports the encourages and encourages and encourages and ideas and efforts supports the ideas supports the ideas supports the ideas of others. and efforts of and efforts of and efforts of others. others. others.Share Never offers ideas Some of the time Most of the time All of the time and reports offers ideas and offers ideas and offers ideas and findings to each reports findings to reports findings to reports findings to other. each other. each other. each other. Total points Teacher comments: PHOTOCOPIABLETaken and adapted from: http://rubistar.4teachers.org 159
  • 161. HOMEWORK Name: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________ Date: _________ Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Skills Criteria Points 1 2 3 4 Assignment Completeness Less than 1/2 of all At least 1/2 of the 9/10 of items All items items attempted. items attempted. attempted. attempted. Accuracy Less than 1/2 of all Between 1/2 and 9/10 of items are All items are items are correct. 9/10 of items are correct. correct. correct. Demonstrated Knowledge Response shows a Response shows Shows substantial Shows complete complete lack of some understanding of understanding of understanding of understanding of the problem, ideas, the questions, the problem. the problem. and processes. ideas, and processes. Requirements Does not attempt Does not meet the Meets the Goes beyond the to meet the requirements of requirements of requirements of the requirements of the the problem. the problem. problem. problem. Legibility Writing is not Writing is not Marginally legible Legible legible. legible in places. handwriting, handwriting, typing, or printing. typing, or printing. Total points Teacher comments:PHOTOCOPIABLE Taken and adapted from: www.teach-nology.com 160 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
  • 162. ORAL PRESENTATION Name: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________ Date: _________ Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Skills & Content Criteria Points Non-verbal skills 1 2 3 4Eye Contact No attempt to look Attention to one Occasionally looks Constantly looks at at audience, reads particular part of at someone or someone or some notes all the time. the class; does not some groups during groups. scan audience. presentation.Facial Expression Shows a conflicting Occasionally displays Occasionally Gives clues about expression during conflicting demonstrates content of speech; entire presentation. expression during conflicting appropriate presentation. expression during expression. presentation.Enthusiasm Shows absolutely Shows some Occasionally shows Strong positive no interest in topic negativity toward positive feelings feelings on topic presented. topic presented. about topic. during entire presentation. Vocal SkillsVocalised Pauses (uh, ) 10 or more are 6-9 are noticed. 1-5 are noticed. No vocalised pauses. noticed. ContentTopic Announced Audience has no Vaguely tells Gives some Clearly explains idea what the audience what explanation of what what the report is report is about. report is about. report is covering. covering.Time frame Less than minimum More than Less/ More than Within required time. maximum time. required time but time frame. tries to solve it.Visual Aids Poor, distract Add nothing to Thoughts Enhance audience, hard to presentation. articulated clearly, presentation, read / see. but not engaging. thoughts articulated; keep interest.Completeness of Content One or more points Majority of points Most points All points PHOTOCOPIABLE left out. glossed over. covered in depth, thoroughly some glossed over. explained. Total pointsTaken and adapted from: http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/instruct/general/oral.htm 161
  • 163. CLASS PARTICIPATION Name: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________ Date: _________ Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Skills Criteria Points 1 2 3 4 Attendance / Promptness Student is late to Student is late to Student is late to Student is always class more than class more than class once every prompt and once a week and/or once a week and/or two weeks and regularly attends has poor has poor regularly attends classes. attendance of attendance of classes. classes. classes. Level Of Engagement In Class Student never Student rarely Student proactively Student always contributes to class contributes to class contributes to class contributes to class by offering ideas by offering ideas by offering ideas by offering ideas and asking and asking and asking and asking questions. questions. questions once per questions more class. than once per class. Listening Skills Student never Student rarely Student sometimes Student almost listens when others listens when others listens when others always listens talk, both in groups talk, both in groups talk, both in groups when others talk, and in class. and in class. and in class. both in groups and in class. Behaviour Student almost Student often Student rarely Student almost always displays displays disruptive displays disruptive never displays disruptive behaviour behaviour during behaviour during disruptive behaviour during class. class. class. during class. Preparation Student is almost Student is rarely Student is usually Student is almost never prepared for prepared for class prepared for class always prepared for class with with assignments with assignments class with assignments and and required class and required class assignments and required class materials. materials. required class materials. materials. Total points Teacher comments:PHOTOCOPIABLE Taken and adapted from: www.teach-nology.com 162 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
  • 164. BEHAVIOUR Name: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________ Date: _________ Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Skills Criteria Points 1 2 3 4 Distraction Distracts Distracts Distracts Does not distract instruction several instruction 2-3 instruction once instruction during a times during a times during a class during a class class period. class period. period. period. Leadership Never displays Rarely displays Generally displays Displays leadership leadership leadership leadership and is positive Participation Does not Participates in Participates in Participates in all participate at all in some class most class class activities. class activities. activities. activities. Cooperation Never listens, Rarely listens, Generally listens, Always listens, shares and shares and shares and shares, and supports the supports the efforts supports the supports the efforts efforts of others. of others. efforts of others. of others. Attitude to group work Often is publicly Occasionally is Rarely is publicly Never is publicly critical of the work publicly critical of critical of the critical of the of other members the work of other project or the work project or the work of the group. members of the of others. of others. group. Attitude about the task(s) Repeatedly has a Rarely has a Generally has a Always has a negative attitude positive attitude positive attitude positive attitude about the task(s). about the task(s). about the task(s). about the task(s). Total points Teacher comments: PHOTOCOPIABLETaken and adapted from: http://rubistar.4teachers.org 163
  • 165. EXTENDED-RESPONSE READING Name: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________ Date: _________ Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Indicator Level Yes/No Student uses information from the text to interpret significant concepts or make connections to other 5 situations or contexts logically through analysis, evaluation, inference, or comparison/contrast. Student partially integrates interpretation of the text with text-based support, also uses relevant and 4 accurate references; some are specific; some may be general and not fully supported. Student uses information from the text to make simplistic interpretations and demonstrates an 3 accurate but limited understanding of the text. Student does not address the task, makes little or no interpretation of the text and demonstrates brief Initial level or no understanding of the written work. Taken and adapted from: http://www.isbe.net/assessment/pdfs/reading_extended_rubric.pdf The aim of this Reading Progress Map is to place students in one of these levels according to their reading skills to generate future improvements. See English Progress Map on page 15 of the Introduction. INFERENCE FROM A TEXT Name: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________ Date: _________ Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Indicator Level Yes/No Includes a connection between the text and the readers background knowledge. 5 Includes details, predictions, or conclusions based on text information. 4 Attempts to make a prediction or draw a conclusion about the text, includes details that are not explicitly stated. 3 No evidence of inference (making a prediction, interpreting information or drawing a conclusion) about the Initial level text, conveys a minimum amount of information about the written work. Adapted from: the Hill Middle School Staff, Long Beach Unified School District, 1/2000PHOTOCOPIABLE The aim of this Inference Reading Progress Map is to place students in one of these levels according to their reading skills to generate future improvements. See English Progress Map on page 15 of the Introduction. 164 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
  • 166. QUESTIONNAIRE Development of Tasks Students Name: _______________________________ Date: _______________________ Questions Always Frequently Occasionally Hardly ever Never 1. Can the student share ideas in response to the class discussion? 5 4 3 2 1 2. Can the student participate actively in spontaneous conversations? 5 4 3 2 1 3. Can the student practise asking and answering question? 5 4 3 2 1 4. Can the student improve vocabulary by keeping a notebook 5 4 3 2 1 with definitions and examples? 5. Is the student able to learn about good online resources to improve 5 4 3 2 1 English vocabulary? Total Total Poor Fair Good Excellent 5 - 10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 Teacher comments: PHOTOCOPIABLETaken and adapted from: http://faculty.deanza.edu/ 165
  • 167. BIBLIOGRAPHY The following web pages and books have been selected as textual information to help them to draw conclusions and support and extra activities for teachers: interpret facts. When working with them, try to follow the usual steps of before, while and after reading, and Listening comprehension: dont forget to give students positive feedback on their work. • http://www.elyrics.net • http://www.isabelperez.com/songs.htm Speaking • http://www.musicalenglishlessons.org/popsongs/ • http://www.onestopenglish.com/section.asp?section index.htm Type=listsummary&catid=59406&docid=153770 • http://www.saberingles.com.ar/songs/57.html • http://www.eslflow.com/speakingandcommunica tiveicebreakeractivities.html • Book, Interchange Third Edition Class Audio, by Jack C. Richards • http://www.proteacher.com/070001.shtml (author), Cambridge University Press, 2004. • http://iteslj.org/c/games.html • Book, Edutainment: How to Teach Language With Fun & Games (Paperback) by I. E. Hewitt (author), Delta Systems Co Inc; Bk & • Book, Keep Talking: Communicative Fluency Activities for Language CD edition (December 1998) Teaching (Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers) by • Book, Classroom Teachers ESL Survival Kit No 1, by Elizabeth Claire Friederike Klippel, Cambridge University Press, 1984. and Judie Haynes (authors), paperback, Pearson ESL, 1994. • Book, Communication Games Intermediate by Jill Hadfield, • Book, Simple Listening Activities, Jill & Charles Hadfield Pearson, 2000. (authors), Oxford Basics series, Oxford University Press, 2002. • Book, Pronunciation Games, Mark Hancock, Cambridge University Press, 1995. Students learn better by listening to songs, videos or audio recordings. So, it is advisable to work in pairs or small groups For a successful English speaking lesson it is recommended to and do not forget the three stages (before, while and after show pictures to the class and elicit students ideas about them listening). As a consolidation activity and if the text is by asking and answering questions. Role playing dialogues and appropriate, ask them to sing together. drills may help them to pay attention to the pronunciation and intonation of words. Give students plenty and different ways of Reading comprehension: practicing and encourage them to speak as much as they can. • http://www.abcteach.com/directory/ reading_comprehension/grades_24/informational/ Writing • http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ • http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=152 bl_guided_writing.htm • http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/ • http://www.readingrockets.org/article/5608 0805/080506-cyclone.html • http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/ blwrite_informalletter.htm • Book, Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for • http://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/200004.htm K-12 Teachers (3rd Edition), by Suzanne F. Peregoy (Author), Owen • http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/ F. Boyle (Author).Allyn & Bacon, Pearson, 2005. bl_guided_writing.htm • Book, In the Middle: New Understanding about Writing, Reading, and Learning (Workshop Series) by Nancie Atwell, • Book, Simple Writing Activities, Jill & Charles Hadfield, Oxford Heinemann, 1998. Basics series, Oxford University Press, 2000. • Book, Reading Reminders: Tools, Tips, and Techniques by Jim • Book, Choices, (Writing Projects for Students of Esl), Cambridge Burke, Boynton/Cook, 2003. University Press, 1999. Students need to read in a wide variety of genres: narrative, Writing is one of the most difficult tasks for students of English informational, procedural, biographical, persuasive, poetic; the as a foreign language, so it is advisable to offer interesting topics texts will become part of their background knowledge, providing that make them want to write.166
  • 168. Ajuste curricular: un apoyo al mejoramiento continuo del aprendizajeLos textos escolares son una importante herramienta para la implementación del currículum en lasala de clases, constituyen un apoyo estratégico para el desarrollo del aprendizaje y son un recursopedagógico utilizado en diversos espacios educativos, tanto dentro del aula como fuera de ella.En conjunto con los Programas de Estudio y los Mapas de Progreso, buscan apoyar el trabajo docenteSDUD TXH DOXPQRV DOXPQDV ORJUHQ PDRUHV DSUHQGL]DMHV HQ EDVH D ODV GHÀQLFLRQHV TXH HVWDEOHFHel Currículum nacional.Como es de conocimiento del sistema escolar, a partir de marzo del año 2010, se comienza aimplementar el ajuste al Currículum nacional, que ha actualizado los Objetivos Fundamentales yContenidos Mínimos Obligatorios (OF-CMO) de los sectores de Lenguaje y Comunicación, Matemática,LHQFLDV 1DWXUDOHV +LVWRULD *HRJUDItD LHQFLDV 6RFLDOHV H ,QJOpV (Q HVWH ~OWLPR FDVR VH GHÀQLy XQnuevo sector curricular para el idioma inglés y los OF-CMO de Idioma Extranjero seguirán vigentespara las otras lenguas.Este proceso de Ajuste Curricular es parte de una política de desarrollo curricular, a través de la cualse busca mejorar cíclicamente el currículum, a la luz de lo observado en su implementación y de loscambios ocurridos tanto en la sociedad como en el conocimiento. En los 5 sectores de aprendizajeTXH VH KDQ PRGLÀFDGR HQ HVWD HWDSD VH KD EXVFDGR UHVSRQGHU D ODV GHPDQGDV SRU SUHFLVDU UHGXFLUla extensión del currículum, mejorar su secuencia y articulación entre ciclos (tanto entre básica ymedia como con la educación parvularia), visibilizar la presencia de las habilidades y fortalecer lapresencia transversal de las tecnologías de la información.Es importante destacar que este ajuste al Currículum nacional mantiene el enfoque que orienta lasGHÀQLFLRQHV FXUULFXODUHV QDFLRQDOHV FXDV SULQFLSDOHV FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV VRQ‡ Un currículum para la vida, orientado al desarrollo de competencias que son relevantes para el desenvolvimiento personal, social y laboral de los sujetos en la sociedad actual. En este sentido, el proceso de ajuste curricular ha buscado reforzar la orientación del currículum, enfocada en el aprendizaje de conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes que facilitan y son requeridas en el desenvolvimiento de los sujetos en diversos ámbitos personales, sociales, ciudadanos, laborales y de estudios.‡ Aprendizajes orientados hacia el desarrollo de competencias, entendidas como sistemas de acción complejos que interrelacionan habilidades, conocimientos, motivaciones, orientaciones valóricas, actitudes y emociones, que en conjunto se movilizan para una acción efectiva en determinados contextos.‡ Aprendizajes que buscan contribuir simultáneamente a los propósitos del desarrollo personal SOHQR OLEUH FUHDWLYR GHO GHVDUUROOR HTXLWDWLYR VXVWHQWDEOH HÀFLHQWH GHO SDtV‡ Aprendizajes que promueven la formación ciudadana de los alumnos y alumnas para que participen activamente de la sociedad democrática.‡ Aprendizajes que apoyan la inserción de los alumnos y alumnas en un mundo globalizado, de modo complementario al reforzamiento de la identidad nacional.
  • 169. La entrada en vigencia del Currículum ajustado se acompañará de Programas de Estudio, tambiénDMXVWDGRV FRQIRUPH D HVWDV PRGLÀFDFLRQHV D OD HYLGHQFLD GH XVR GH HVWH LQVWUXPHQWR FXUULFXODUpor parte de profesores y profesoras del país. Para apoyar la implementación curricular, en estosprogramas se orientará respecto a cómo monitorear y evaluar el crecimiento del aprendizaje con elapoyo de los Mapas de Progreso.A continuación se presenta un diagrama que representa la relación entre los diferentes instrumentosFXUULFXODUHV DOLQHDGRV FRQ HO XUUtFXOXP DMXVWDGR 0DRU LQIRUPDFLyQ www.curriculum-mineduc.cl y www.textosescolares.cl

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