Virtually every liquid refinery product is blended to spec prior to sale. More attention has been given to the “ProcessUnits”, but poor blending can eat away at margins as fast as anything. We have a solution to help you reduce reblending and giveaways.
Most blending is performed in-line today. It avoids the need for extra tankage and mixing and generally provides a more uniform product when dealing with large quantities characteristic of most refineries. In-line blending requires proper instrumentation and controls.
Our Digital Blending Package is an application solution which incorporates many potential products and services from Emerson/Fisher-Rosemount. This list of elements is explained in more detail in later slides. Not every project will require every element, we have can provide any and all of these and more if required.
Again, these are standard capabilities, not limits. Pacing is an important requirement for digital blending and keeps the blend components in ratio even if one of the component streams becomes flow limited or constrained. It allows the blend rate to be set by recipe or by component availability. We also keep track during the blend so if there is any discrepancy, it is blended out over the remainder of the blend. Naturally, we include the ability to ramp up and down for the beginning and end of a blend. It is also possible to stop and restart or resume blending if necessary.
The blend algorithms can be modified in virtually any way necessary to achieve the customer’s objectives. Basic customization is actually built into the cost of the product. Other functions can be provided as required.
This slide shows even more options. DeltaV allows essentially unlimited calculational and reporting capabilities. We can even add Batch software with S88 recipe management for complex applications like lube oils or high performance specialty/racing fuels.
This product should handle all but the most complex blending applications, but adding even more streams is easy. An example of the decoupling routine would be octane and RVP control. Components used to control octane (eg MTBE) and RVP (Butane) will affect both octane and RVP. The basic recipe will provide a coarse control, but analyzers can be used to trim octane and RVP. The decoupler overcomes the problem of interaction with the trim control using those components. The other features should be fairly obvious and are covered in more detail in the functional description. Note: I have updated this slide 3/27/00 to show 16 components and 8 additives as standard. Some of the other pieces including the functional description may not yet be updated.
This is the most visible part of the package from the oerator’s perspective. We have designed the OI for ease of use leveraging the features of DeltaV and our experience with blending.
In summary…. We can help identify potential savings and deliver a system to maximize those savings over time with a solution that offers the fastest payback and lowest risk possible. And after the new blender controls are up and running, our tools and services will ensure sustained performance over the lifetime of the system. We can easily adapt our solution to meet your special and unique requirements. With our resources and position as a global leader in this business, you can count on us to deliver results from start to finish!
Digital InlineDigital InlineBlending with DeltaVBlending with DeltaVbyEmerson Process Management@Copyrights
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialAgendaAgendaWhat is Blending?How do we do it? Blend Ratio Control Blend Quality Control & OptimizationConclusions
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialWhat is BlendingWhat is BlendingDefinition – Uniform mixing of 3 or more different streams to produce aproduct with specific propertiesProblems: Flow Constraints Inventory Constraints Accuracy & Precision Poor Mixing (Tank stratification)Approaches Sequential Blending Continuous Inline Blending
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialHistory of BlendingHistory of BlendingPrior to 1990 Most blending is sequential1990 – 2000 Most refinery (gasoline & diesel) blenders upgraded to inline blending Some chemical blending converted to inline2000+ Gasoline blenders forced to consider optimization Most remaining sequential blenders upgrade to inline
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialWho Uses BlendersWho Uses BlendersRefineries Gasoline Diesel Distillates, Solvents, Fuel Oils Lube Oils AsphaltChemical PlantsOther Baby FormulaThe blender is the cash register of the refinery
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialBlender’s Operating ProblemsBlender’s Operating ProblemsMake more grades with more specificationsusing many more componentsMake the grade on-spec with minimumgiveaway, but don’t use too much of any onecomponentDon’t contaminate any finished product tanksbecause of bad line-ups, line fill, leaks, etc.This is a manually intensive operation butdoing it right is key to the refinery’sprofitabilityIncrease capacityBlend Operator
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialImproved Blending BenefitsImproved Blending BenefitsReduced “Giveaway” - Produce closer to specification, reduced cost ofproducing average blendReduced Off-spec and co-mingled materialReduced Reblending - increased capacity on blendersReduced Component and Product Inventory - reduced working capitalReduced Blend period – Blend is on-spec from start to finishEstimated benefits $0.05 to $0.10 per barrel ofgasoline blended
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialSequential Vs. Ratio BlendingSequential Vs. Ratio BlendingOne Component at a timeEconomical Method (LowerInstallation Cost)Line Flush required for properproduct qualityBlend Accuracy assured only forcompleted batchesLarge volume blends will requirelong periods of mixingIn-line or all at same timeRequires meter and valve for eachstreamPrecise control of blendingInstantaneous alarms on blendavailableBlend quality assured on abortedblends
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialModular DesignModular DesignContinuous or Batch (Tank) In-Line Digital BlendingRecipe Control 30 recipes with 80 configurable parameters each Start/Hold/Resume/Complete logic Blend ReportsComponent & Additive Ratio Control Pacing (Instantaneous ratio control) Memory (Total ratio control) Ramp up/downDual Analyzer Trim Control Decoupling
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialOptionsOptionsBasic Customization Add/Delete streams Custom graphics Customer Tags Define I/O Add/Delete recipes/parametersOptimization Low level optimization in Analyzer control strategies High level optimization integration (OPC)Master Blend Control Coordination of multiple blend headers Integration of header and pipeline control (OM&S)
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialOptionsOptionsSimulation Training TestingCustom Interfaces (analyzers, optimizers, etc)Special Calculations & Functions Special equipment scheduling and blend line-ups based on production rates,equipment availability, etc Derived Quality Calculations Blend grade transition and Tank heel accounting Tank Farm Management Component, additive & product compatibility checking Scheduling and Time-to-completion calculations
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialStandard DeltaV Blender AlgorithmsStandard DeltaV Blender AlgorithmsBlend Ratio Control Streams12 main component flows4 additive flows 2 Analyzer trim controllers with decoupling (Optional)Start/Stop Control Sequential blender pump and valve line-ups1 pump, 1 control valve, 1 flow transmitter per streamDelay Sequences, ramping up/down Analog & Discrete controls and monitoring of auxiliary equipmentFeed and Product tank level MonitoringHeader pressure & temperature control
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialBlend Start/Stop ControlBlend Start/Stop ControlStartup Sequencing Load Blend Order to on-line system Log starting conditions to Blend Order DB Flush lines Zero totalizers Select, Line-up, & Start pumps Ramp valves open and put FC’s into control Start ratio control, ramp to target rateShutdown Sequencing Ramp down blend rate to minimum Place FC’s in manual and close valves Shutdown pumps Log final blend results to Blend Order DB
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialUS Gasoline Regulatory Time LineUS Gasoline Regulatory Time Line20052004200320022001200019991998199719961995CARBCBGEPA RFGPhase llEPA LowSulfur GasolineEPA RFGComplex ModelCARB MTBEPhase OutEPA RFGSimple ModelEach New Regulation Means More Complicated Blending199419931992MandatedOxygenates
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialComplicated Gasoline SpecificationsComplicated Gasoline SpecificationsParameter Current CaliforniaSpecificationOctane Per GradeRVP 7.0 psi maxSulfur 80 ppm max30 ppm avT50 220 F max170 F min200 F avT90 330 F max290 F avOlefins 10 vol % max4 vol % avAromatics 30 vol % max22 vol % avOxygen 2.7 wt % max1.8 wt % minTo meet thesespecifications is acomplicatedmultivariable controlproblem
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialLonger termcoordinationProductionPlanningMedium termdefinition of activitiesProductionSchedulingBlendControlReal-time regulatorycontrol & optimizationInitial ConditionsPlanned production and/ormaterial and resource constraintsCurrent Status and PerformanceTargets and recipesInteractions between Planning,Interactions between Planning,Scheduling, and ControlScheduling, and Control
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialSo why isn’t recipe control enough forblending?Production PlanningProduction PlanningLinear Program (LP)Run monthly (weekly?) with average product demandSelects crudes, intermediates, and product purchases for future period(one to three months) to meet demand at maximum profitSets average blend recipes for period (assumed component quantities andqualities)
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialProblemsProblemsSimplified LP modelsCrude assay databaseComponent properties are different than that assumed by Planning LPCrudes are run individually or in blends different from average resulting fromthe Planning LPSpecific batches of gasoline have to be produced to a specific grade with thestocks on handHow can we help solve theseproblems?
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialMulti-Period Blend Planning LPMulti-Period Blend Planning LPMulti-period, multi-blend, executed daily or weeklyLinearized blend models (recursive LP)Determines optimum blends required to meet specific batches of product demandsIntegrated with refinery planning LPInputs: Product shipments, prices Starting inventories Projected component rates & qualities Target ending inventoriesOutputs: Finished product batches Target recipes for each batch Target ending inventories for each period(products and components)
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialTraditional Blend Control ArchitectureTraditional Blend Control ArchitectureBlend ModelsAIFC FC FC FC FCAIMPC DynamicModelsRatio Controls(Ramping & Pacing)Flow TargetsBlend PropertyControlRatio TargetsBlend SchedulingTarget Recipe & AvailabilityBlend ModelsBlend OptimizationProduct Quality TargetsComponent Flows
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialBlend Order Management SystemBlend Order ManagementBlend Order ManagementBlend Order DatabaseBlendStart/StopBlend OrderExecutionMMIBlendReportsBlend ReportingBlendOptimizer
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialBlend Order ManagementBlend Order ManagementUser Interface to Blend Order DatabaseSecurity functions User authority changes with order statusOrder Entry Load from past ordersOrder Management Tracks orders through phases Confirms required data input before changing phases Approvals Data validationBlend Reporting
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialBlend Order Data ObjectBlend Order Data ObjectBlend Order• Blend Order ID• Blended Product Name• Blender ID• Order Status• Planned start/end time• Target Quantity• Product Quality Targets & Limits (up to 25 qualities)• Components and target quantities (up to 15 components)• Additives and target quantities (up to 10 additives)• Special instructions• Actual time for each status change• Final blend results• Operator comments
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialBlend Order PhasesBlend Order PhasesPlannedApprovedSelectedStartingActiveStoppingCompleteHoldBlend Planner in ControlOperator in Control
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialOffline Blend OptimizationOffline Blend OptimizationFile basedLoad inputs from stored blend ordersAlternative objective functionsCorrect for heelUser can modify all inputsInputs: Target recipe Desired finished batch size Finished product quality specs Component qualities and availability Heel quantity and qualitiesOutputs: Optimal blend qualities Optimal recipe Final batch size
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialOnline Blend OptimizationOnline Blend OptimizationExecutes every 5-15 minutesRuns for blend orders that are “Active”Operator selects objective functionOutputs recommended results even in open-loopHandles reduced degrees of freedom (e.g. 1 or more controllers in Auto)Accommodates actual component qualities and blend model update fromanalyzers or labInputs: Automatically loaded from RT database and blend order systemOutputs: Optimal instantaneous quality targets Optimal recipe Target batch size
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialComponentsProductTankageTotalBlendOn-SpecHeelComponentsProductIn-LineEachPart ofBlendOn-SpecOnline AnalyzersBlend Property ControlOnline Blend OptimizationProduct CertificationTwo Basic Types of BlendingTwo Basic Types of Blending
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialAccelerated Heel CorrectionAccelerated Heel CorrectionFinalTargetPercent of BlendOctane0% 100%HeelCurrentTank QualityBlend headertarget adjustedto meetfinal targetCurrent BlendHeader Target
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialBlend Quality ControlBlend Quality ControlRTO+Real-TimeOptimization EngineBlend Models• Executes 1-2 minutes• Specifications can be:- Target- Range- Max or minReal-TimeDatabase• Current Blend Quality Targets & Specs• Current Component Ratios• Blend Quality Analyzers• Component Limits & Qualities• Component ratio targets• Predicted qualitiesObjective Function• Primary: Meet Quality Specs• Secondary: Minimize Deviation fromCurrent Recipe
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialSummarySummaryPre-engineered proven application Reduced riskLeading Technology hardware platform Non-proprietary Longest Life ExpectancyEasily customized and extended Integrate virtually any feature or function as requiredComplete Engineering support from start to finish Consultation Main Automation ContractorThe Global Industry Leader
Emerson Process Management ConfidentialTechnical AdvantagesTechnical AdvantagesIntegrated suite of applications on DeltaVScaleable, ModularAutomated Startup/ShutdownNo need for multivariable control layer Dynamics are trivial No step tests required Incorporates non-linearity Simplifies architectureIntegrated set of blend models used by all applications Non-linear Biased by lab or analyzer data Incorporate RFG simple and complex modelsIntegrated blend order management & reports