Technology for future music education journal of music teacher education-2000-walls-14-21

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  • 1. Journal of Music Teacher Education Technology for Future Music Educators Kimberly C. Walls Journal of Music Teacher Education 2000 9: 14 DOI: 10.1177/105708370000900204 The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: On behalf of: National Association for Music Education Additional services and information for Journal of Music Teacher Education can be found at: Email Alerts: Subscriptions: Reprints: Permissions: Citations: >> Version of Record - Jan 1, 2000 What is This? Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013
  • 2. TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE MUSIC EDUCATORS BY KIMBERLY C. WALLS College accreditation organizations such as the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) require that music education degree programs address issues of teaching with technology Also, in m~y states, teacher licensing implies that a teacher possesses skills in choosing and using electronic media, although the depth and range of teachers' technology competency vary among the states. Arts curricula, standards that stipulate what school children must learn about the role of technology in music, and the increasing number of music classrooms with computers have put additional pressure on college instructors to find ways to add technology competency to music education methods courses. This article lists some ideas for addressing technology competency within music education courses so that music education programs can meet Kimberly C. Walls is assistantprofessor of music education in the Departmentof Curriculum and Teaching at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama. accreditation requirements. These ideas were gleaned from ·published descriptions written by professors who not only designed and pilot-tested the ideas, but also summarized and dis-. seminated their experiences of integrating technology into courses. A com prehensivereview of literature yielded few articles of this type. Most of the articles published were-in the proceedings of one recurring conference. The majority of articles describing technology applications in collegelevel music instruction either (a) describe applications in courses that are not specifically for future music educators, (b) describe ideas that have not actually been tried in a real classroom setting, or (c) use obsolete technology. (It is a considerable task to pilot-test technology integration and publish a report when there are few publication outlets for articles on the topic.) Accreditation Requirements Regarding Technology Many schools of education desire NCATE accreditation because it makes the teaching licenses that they grant more likely to be valid in other states. (For information on national projects ]MTE 14 Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013
  • 3. dealing with teacher licensing and certification, see "New Developments in Program Accreditation" in the Spring 1999 ]MTE.) NASM accreditation makes NCATE accreditation easier to achieve. Generally, if a school of music is accredited by NASM, NCATE assumes that the music courses supporting music education degrees are of satisfactory quality. In 1995, NCATE began expecting schools of education to address the role of technology in teaching. NCATE's current accreditation standards evaluate technology in several differen t domains. The two domains most applicable to the courses taught by music education faculty are "Content Studies for Initial Teacher Preparation" and "Professional and Pedagogical Studies." In Content Studies, Standard I.C.1 states that students must "complete a sequence of courses and/or experiences to develop an understanding of the structure, skills, core concepts, ideas, values, facts, methods of inquiry, and uses of technology for the subjects they plan to teach." Standard I.D.2 in Professional and Pedagogical Studies states that students should have knowledge and experiences with "computer and related technologies in instruction, assessment, and professional productivity" (Task Force 1997a). NCATE's Task Force on Technology and Teacher Education developed a report titled Technology and the New Professional Teacher: Preparing for the 21st Century Classroom (1997b). The document recommends that technology should assume a central position in teacher preparation programs. The report also suggests that accreditation standards should be amended in 2000 to require schools of education to state a vision concerning the impact of technology on education and teacher preparation, a plan to implement the vision, and competencies expected of their graduates. NASM states in its accreditation handbook that "through study and laboratory experience, students should be made familiar with the capabilities of technology as they relate to composition; performance, analysis, teaching, and research" (cited in Deal and Taylor 1996). John Deal and Jack Taylor (1996) have recommended that schools of music have an established method for assuring technology competency and a five-year plan for curriculum, acquisition and maintenance of equipment, and funding. Strategies for Integrating Technology Competency into Courses Music education instructors have tried a variety of strategies to integrate technology competencies into their college courses. Typical music education curricula are already extremely compressed, so instructors must be careful to choose technology-based assignments that enrich the other course objectives instead of supplanting them. Careful consideration of desired outcomes, facilities, and allotted time can enhance courses and prevent overwhelming students and instructors with course demands. The following models feature current applications of digital technology that strengthen skills that will be useful in students' future teaching. According to Floyd Richmond (1995), West Chester University has defined computer literacy proficiencies for its music education majors. The 15 SPRING 2000 Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013
  • 4. proficiencies are gained through projects and assignments in methods courses. Word processing and elementary-level computer assisted instruction (CAl) programs are covered in the Elementary Methods course. Secondary-level CAl, music printing, music sequencing, and multimedia authoring are introduced in Secondary Methods. Spreadsheet, database, and marching band software are covered in Instrumental Methods. A total of 9.5 hours of class time is spent in the 3 courses to introduce the technology: In Katherine Norman's (1997) Concert Band Literature course at the University of North Dakota, undergraduate and graduate students worked together to create a Concert Band Literature Web site. The undergraduates investigated state approved festival literature Iisredon the J.w. Pepper Web site. They selected a composition for each of several National Standards and described how each particular selection might be used to teach to the particular Standard. They also found Web sites related to the compositions and the composers. Graduate students assisted the undergraduates with compositional analysis and posted the projects on the Web. Peter McAllister's (1998) Secondary General Music Methods course at Ball State University included creating personal home pages with sound files, PowerPoint presentations, and an "Eighteen-Week Secondary General Music Curriculum," which was posted on the Internet. An introduction to music education course can be an excellent opportunity for freshmen to 'begin doing research on the Web to learn how to communicate via the Internet.. Fresh- men in Mitchell Robinson's (1998) class at Eastman com pieted several computer-related assignments including participating in a World Wide Web scavenger hunt, communicating with an e-mail pen-pal from another college, and sharing journal dialogues with other students, the teaching assistant, and the instructor. E-mail, bulletin boards, and listservs (an Internet communication tool) can encourage reflective practice. At the University of Texas at San Antonio, Rosemary Watkins and .Kimberly Walls required that student teaching interns post information on an Internet bulletin .board at .leasr once per week (Walls 1998; Walls & Watkins 1998). The student teachers also used e-mail to send reports to their supervisors ·and to' request suggestions. E~mail may be the most convenient way to communicate when interns teach the entire day. Jeffrey Bush (1998) at Arizona State University had all of his music education students submit an electronic journal once per week. In this manner, students were able to ask questions that arose after class and questions that they were uncomfortable mentioning among their peers. Bush also used e-mail to expand the sources of insights on teaching beyond the physical classroom. In a graduatelevel course, students became pen pals with music teachers (in other regions of the country) who had been recruited via a listserv. The course topics for the approaching week were submitted to the mentors for their responses. Mentors also submitted questions for class discussion. Each week, one of the submitted questions was discussed for fifteen minutes in class, and then students e-rnailed the results of the dis- 16 ]MTE Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013
  • 5. cussion to the mentor. Technology may also expand the boundaries of the university classroom into school music classrooms. Music education majors enrolled in a required course titled "Teaching Composition in the Schools" at Northwestern University participated in MICNetL Designed by Maud Hickey (1998a; 1998b), MICNet! is a project connecting school music students and their teachers with music education majors and a professional composer. School children's compositions are posted to the Internet as MIDI files. Participants may play the files and make comments or suggestions, or even edit the compositions. This' project gives music education majors greater insight into children's -musical creativity. The Vermont MIDI distance learning network is a similar Internet project. Glenda Consenza and Sandi MacLeod (1998) involve 4000 students, 50 music teachers, and music education majors in communicating through their Web site and participating in workshops and rmm-courses. Bill McCloud and Liz Rose (1995) have reported how music education methods instructors at Appalachian State University use an interactive video conferencing system in their general, choral, and instrumental methods courses. Through live video, music education majors may observe music classrooms and interact with children who are in other cities. It is also possible to do away with class attendance requirements in some cases. Students in Stephen Mayo's (1998) Music Education Foundations at SUNY Fredonia were allowed to complete three assignments posted on the Internet in lieu of attending des- ignated classes. Some students chose to complete the course entirely through the Internet, progressing through units, assignments, and tests without attending class meetings. Graduate courses in Psychological Research in Music and Psychology of Music have been offered on a 500/0 class and 50% Internet participation basis. The Web and hypermedia programs have been used to present information to students outside of class meeting time at their own convenience.. Richard Repp (1998) developed a set of Web pages at the University of Illinois that contained text and video clips describing the McClosky technique for vocal relaxation. He assigned instrumental majors who were enrolled in choral 'methods to view the pages and to incorporate the technique into their daily practice for a week or two. Although some students had technical problems and others were too embarrassed to execute the self-massage in the <:=omputer lab, twenty students reported using the techniques more than once during the two weeks. Several professors have developed multimedia programs to enhance class content but did not report the pilottest results. Rodney Mueller (1996) developed a hypermedia program to teach vibrato skills in strings methods. Katherine Norman and John Miller (1998) developed a SuperCard stack for Instrumental Methods containing photos of hand position, embouchure, instrument assembly, instrument position, and so forth. Lists of the characteristics of proper playing position and photos taken from different angles were presented on tutorial screens. Students evaluated whether or not the SPRING 2000 17 Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013
  • 6. characteristics of diagnostic photographs displayed on quiz screens were correct. Their answers were analyzed and corrected by the program. The SCRIBE computer program, developed by Robert Duke at the University of Texas at Austin, has' been used to help music education students develop observational skills (Duke et al., 1997). Occurrence and duration of behaviors may be tallied without monitoring a clock. Pacing and intervals are tracked and. calculated by the program, which then prints reports and graphs. Observations may be done in real time within music classrooms or from recorded video. Glenn Richter (1997) has made extensive use of Encore, a music-printing. program, in his undergraduate conducting class at the University of Texas atAustin. Excerpts of concert band compositions with interpretation and conducting technique notes added to them were saved as Encore files in a concert score format. Students viewed and listened to the scores as they practiced lab ensemble conducting assignments. Any of the staves may be printed in any transposition, so that sparse lab ensemble instrumentation can cover all of the lines. ,At the end of the course, the conducting students entered a composition themselves and marked the score with their own rehearsal annotations. Adapting Strategies One may be encouraged to adopt and adapt the projects that other music education instructors have assigned for their courses. Technology projects have become more feasible now that computer technology and networking are more common and easier to use. Unfortunately, there are still implementation complications. File format incompatibility and undependable networking are two examples of technical problems that can greatly reduce the efficiency and effectiveness of computer projects. Methods instructors should feel encouraged, nonetheless, about integrating technology, because music education majors are entering college with increasing levels of computer skills, and many have computers at home. Music education faculty members at Auburn' University have used several strategies to integrate technology skills into courses. All students have access to the ..campus e-mail system either through home computers and private Internet providers or through campus computer labs, so it is not a burden to require students to .use e-mail. Freshmen in the Orientation to Music Education .course learn to e-mail questions to their instructor. E-mail enables students to ask advising questions without having to make office appointments. E-mail is also used to submit school observation and lab. reports.- Occasionally, there are problems such as incorrectly typed addresses or mail server malfunctions. Students are increasingly more sophisticated regarding technology, and they usually trouble-shoot problems themselves. Most home computers have integrated office programs that contain database, word processing, and graphics production capabilities, Computer labs on college' campuses also have those capabilities. Widely available software makes it possible for Secondary Methods students to prepare database files of choral and band concert literature. Their work is merged ]MTE 18 Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013
  • 7. into one large report that is printed and distributed to all class members. Word processing and graphics skills are used to develop resumes and concert programs. The majority of students are familiar with basic word processing, but a few minutes of class must be spent "playing" with painting and drawing tools and reviewing ways to import graphics. Most students need to have database concepts explained and demonstrated in class before they can be successful. Students who have already used databases often volunteer to assist less experienced class members. Students can use Internet, music printing, and hypermedia authoring software to prepare comprehensive musicianship presentations. This requirement is workable because the World Wide Web and Finale are already familiar from use in other courses, and students can learn basic Hyper Studio authoring in an hour. Course Web sites allow students to view class handouts or to take quizzes. Electronic versions of handouts work well if students view and print them before they are needed in class. Still, handouts that are critical to the success of a class meeting should be printed and distributed in class. Computerbased quizzes are not cheat-proof and must have a means of tracking responses in case of program glitches. Conclusion Music education instructors who have not already done so may wish to begin integrating technology into their courses with e-mail assignments and on-line course materials. E-mail communication with students is an easy way to start integrating technology into the music education curriculum. Instructors who have a large number of students or assignments should tell students that they can not respond to every individual message, but that they will respond to specific questions within 24 hours. Sending a blanket statement listing whose messages were read through a group address to the entire class will alleviate student worry about whether their work was received. It is relatively easy to convert class notes and outlines to Web pages using current word processing software or Adobe Acrobat. If instructors have access to a computer multimedia projector or ~ television interfaced to a computer, they can store the Web pages. on their computer and use them in place of transparencies. A- colleague or student may be able to demonstrate how to post the materials tq the 'World Wide Web. If there is an Internet connection to the projected computer, the Web pages on the Internet can be displayed during class, and students can view them later at home. There are few studies that report how music education instructors have integrated technology into their courses. Many of the reports listed in the references are proceedings from the Tech no logical Directions in Music conferences and may be ordered from the Institute for Music Research at the University of Texas-San Antonio. Other conferences, such as the annual College Music Society/Association for Music Technology Instruction meetings, present .demonstrations on how to use technology in college-level learning. The Technology Institute for Music Educators provides information about how to use technology in K-12 learning. A new annual conference, the SPRING 2000 19 Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013
  • 8. National Symposium for Music Instructional Technology, presents research into how technology is applied in K-12 learning. If we as a profession are to address the benefits and disadvantages of technology in music teaching and learning, music education faculty must share their insights into how technology has affected their music teacher education programs. More research and sharing of results are required. Instructors who have experience integrating computers into their program can advance our practice if they publish what they have learned. TW9 potential oudets for such articles are the Journal for Music Teacher Education. and the Journal of Technology in Music Learning. References. Bush, ]. E. (1998). Promoting electronic reflective practice. In S. Lipscomb (Ed.), Proceedings ofthe Fifth International Technological Directions. in Music Learning Conference (pp. 118-120). San Antonio: IMR Press. Cosenza, G., & MacLeod, S. (1998). Vermont MIDI distance learning network: A model for technology in classroom- music. In S. Lipscomb (Ed.), Proceedings oftheFifthInterna- tional Technological Directions in Music Learning Conference (pp. 137-138). San Antonio: IMR Press. Deal, j. ]., & Taylor, J. A. (1996). Technology standards for music degrees: A model. In K. C. Walls (Ed.), Proceedings ofthe Third Inter- national Technological Directions in Music Education Conference (pp. 14-17). San Antonio: IMR Press. Duke, R. A., Buckner, J. J., Cavitt, M. E., & Colprit, E. (1997). Applications of SCRIBE: Systematic observation and analysis of teacher-student interactions in music. In K. C. Walls (Ed.), Pro- ceedings ofthe Fourth International Technological Directions in Music Education Conference (pp. 1-2). San Antonio: IMR Press. Hickey, M. (1998a). Connecting kids, computers, and composers over the Internet. Paper presented at 56th National Biennial In-Service Conference of the Music Educators National Conference, 15-18 April, Phoenix, Arizona. Hickey, M. (1998b). Exploring music collaboration over the Internet. In S. Lipscomb (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Technological Directions in Music Learning Conference (pp. 85....89). San Antonio: IMRPress. Mayo, W. S. (1998). Music 'courses over the Internet: Demonstration of webbased course management systemTopClass. In S. Lipscomb (Ed.), Pro- ceedings of the Fifth International Technological Directions in Music Learning Conference (pp. 130-132). San Antonio: IMR Press. McAllister, E A. (1998). Secondary general music methods courseware development: A collaboration. In S. Lipscomb (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Technological Directions in Music Learning Conference (pp. 42-44). San Antonio: IMR Press. McCloud, B., & Rose, E. (1995). Impact NC: Impact on education: Impact on life. In K. C. Walls (Ed.), Proceed- ings ofthe Second International Technological Directions in Music Education Conference (pp. 38-40). San Antonio: IMR Press. 20 JMTE Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013
  • 9. Mueller, R. A. (1996). Visualized Vibrato for violin and viola. In K. C. Walls (Ed.), Proceedings ofthe Fourth International Technological Directions in Music Education Conference (pp. 65-67). San Antonio: IMR Press. Norman, K. (1997). Exploring the pedagogical potential of the World Wide Web: An interactive, multimedia approach to instrumental literature. In K. C. Walls (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Technological Directions in Music Education Conference (pp. 3-8). San Antonio: IMR Press. Norman, K., & Miller, E. J. (1998). Bridging theory and practice with multimedia enhancements .to the college instrumental ~ethods class. In S. Lipscomb (Ed..), .P!,oceedings of the Fifth International Technological Directions in Music Learning Conference (pp. 31-33). San Antonio: IMR Press. Repp, R. S. (1998). Pre-service music teacher attitudes toward and Internet-based presentation of the McClosky technique for vocal relaxation. In S'. Lipscomb (Ed.), Proceedings ofthe Fifth International Technological Directions in Music Learning Conference (pp. 14-19). San Antonio: IMR Press. Richmond, C. F. (1995). Computer literacy for music educators. In K. C. Walls (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Technological Directions in Music Education Conference (pp. 20-23). San Antonio: IMR Press. Richter, G. (1997). A computer instructional module for the intermediate undergraduate instrumental conducting student. In K. C. Walls (Ed.), Proceedings ofthe Fourth Inter- national Technological Directions in Music Education Conference (pp. 9-12). San Antonio: IMR Press. Robinson, M. (1998). "Pen-pals, E-journals, and web sites, oh my!": Building a music education community through technology. In S. Lipscomb (Ed.), Proceedings ofthe Fifth International Technological Directions in Music Learning Conference (pp, 128-129). San Antonio: IMR Press. Task Force on Technology and Teacher Education. (1997a). NCATEs Current Standards for Technology and Teacher Education [On-line]. Reston: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education [cited 28 January 1999]. Available from . Task Force on Technology and .Teacher Education, (1997b). Technology and the New Professional Teacher: Preparingfor the 21st Century Classroom [On-line]. Reston: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education [cited 28 January 1999]. Available from the following Web site: Walls, K. C. (1998). Music teacher preparation in the not-too-distant future. In R. R. Rideout., & S. J. Paul (Eds.), Proceedings of Symposium 197: Innovations in Music Teacher Education (pp. 123-127). Norman: University of Oklahoma. Walls, K. C., & Watkins, R. C. (1998). A naturalistic descriptive study of music student teachers' electronic bulletin board postings. In S. Lipscomb (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Technological Directions in Music Learning Conference (pp. 102-106). SanAntonio: IMR Press. 21 SPRING 2000 Downloaded from at INST FED DO PARA on November 25, 2013